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Lecture 2 - Lecture 2Atomic Structure Atomic structure...

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Lecture 2—Atomic Structure Atomic structure: Rutherford: atoms are mostly empty space (from alpha particle scattering experiments). The occupied space is positively charged. The negative charge is somehow distributed in the empty space. Bohr: the negative charges (electrons) are held by electrostatic forces in orbits around the positive nuclei by a q 1 q 2 /r 2 force. Spectroscopy: matter can absorb energy and then give it back as light, but only of certain specific wavelengths. This is the first evidence that atom energies are quantized . The energies are related to wavelengths λ and frequencies υ as E = hc/λ = hυ where h is Planck’s constant and c is the speed of light (other evidence: atoms have specific ionization energies). A related equation is λ = h/mv = h/momentum. Note that this makes the values of r quantized also. Quantum mechanics We can’t confine the electrons specifically to orbits or to any fixed positions
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  • Spring '09
  • KATZ
  • Uncertainty Principle, Schroedinger equation, specific ionization energies, certain specific wavelengths, certain allowed possibilities

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