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BIOL 215 Exam 2 Review Slides 2007

BIOL 215 Exam 2 Review Slides 2007 - Kaiser Imam...

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Kaiser Imam [email protected] 1
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Locations of Processes Glycolysis : cytosol Acetyl CoA formation : mitochondrial matrix TCA cycle : mitochondrial matrix Electron transport chain : inner mitochondrial membrane ATP synthesis : mitochondrial matrix Fermentation : cytosol Accumulation of a high proton concentration: intermembrane space 5
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Aerobic Respiration in Prokaryotes The cytoplasm and the plasma membrane of a prokaryotic cell perform the same functions of the mitochondrial matrix and the inner membrane respectively. The enzymes of glycolysis and the TCA cycle are found in the cytoplasm. The electron transport chain is located in the plasma membrane. In this case the F O complex is embedded in the plasma membrane and the F 1 complex protrudes into the cell and releases ATP into the cytoplasm. 6
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8 Formation of Acetyl CoA 2 pyruvate 2 acetyl CoA + 2 CO 2 + 2 NADH + 2H +
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Goals of the TCA Cycle Completely oxidizes glucose to CO 2 Conserves energy in the form of electron carriers (FADH 2 and NADH) Produces a small amount of energy (2 GTP per glucose) 10
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Oxaloacetate Oxaloacetate is a four-carbon electron acceptor and is involved in the first step of the TCA cycle. Acetyl CoA entering the TCA cycle transfers its acetate group to oxaloacetate to form the six- carbon citric acid. This intermediate is modified through the following steps of the TCA cycle until oxaloacetate is eventually regenerated. 12
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GTP Production in the TCA Cycle GTP can be considered energetically equivalent to ATP. The hydrolysis of GTP releases the same amount of energy as that of ATP. Many cells have enzymes that convert GTP to ATP, so that is why GTP is included in accounts of total ATP production. 13
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Summary of TCA Cycle Per acetyl CoA: acetyl CoA + 3 NAD + + FAD + ADP + P i 2 CO 2 + 3 NADH + FADH 2 + CoA—SH + ATP 15
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Question 11 A deficiency of riboflavin causes a decrease in the amount of FADH 2 production in the TCA cycle. If FAD is not available to be reduced the TCA cycle cannot continue. Thus, acetyl CoA cannot be broken down, causing it to accumulate. 17
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Glycolysis and the TCA Cycle Per molecule of glucose: glucose + 10 NAD + + 2 FAD + 4 ADP + 4 P i 6 CO 2 + 10 NADH + 2 FADH 2 + 4 ATP 18
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Standard Reduction Potentials The standard reduction potential is a measure of the affinity a compound has for electrons, measured in volts.
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