BIOL 215 Final Exam Review Slides 2007

BIOL 215 Final Exam - KaiserImam [email protected] 1 2 DiffusionandOsmosis Diffusion involves the passive transport of a solute molecule from an area of

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Kaiser Imam [email protected] 1
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Diffusion and Osmosis Diffusion  involves  the  passive  transport  of  a  solute  molecule  from  an  area  of  high  concentration to low concentration.   Osmosis  can  be  considered  the  passive  diffusion of water.   Osmosis  involves  the  movement  of  water  through  a  semipermeable  membrane  from  an  area  of  low  solute  concentration  to  an  area  of  high solute content. 3
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Carrier and Channel Proteins Carrier proteins have to physically bind to  a solute on one side of a membrane and  change conformation to release the solute  on the other side.   Channel  proteins  are  different  because  they  form  a  hydrophilic  channel  through  which solutes can pass without having to  change  the  conformation  of  the  transporter. 5
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Figure 8-8 The Alternating Conformation  Model for Facilitated Diffusion of Glucose by  the Glucose Transporter GLUT1 8
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Figure 8-13 A Model Mechanism for the  Na + /Glucose Symporter 9
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Figure 8-12 A Model Mechanism for the  Na + /K Pump 10
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Direct and Indirect Active Transport In direct active transport the movement of  a solute molecule or ion is directly coupled  to an exergonic chemical reaction such as  the hydrolysis of ATP.   Indirect active transport depends on the  simultaneous transport of two solutes, with  the movement of one solute down its  gradient driving the movement of the other  up its gradient. 11
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Kinetics of Transport Proteins Transport  proteins  can  be  considered  similar to enzymes since they too have to  bind to their substrates (in this case solute  molecules to be moved).   Therefore,  we  can  write  this  mechanism  as follows: E + S out    ES out    E + S in 16
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Metabolism Metabolism is the sum of all the chemical  reactions  that  occur  within  a  cell  and  is  divided  into  anabolic  and  catabolic  reactions.   Anabolic  reactions  are  those  that  synthesize cellular components. Catabolic  pathways  are  involved  in  breaking down compounds. 19
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Biological Oxidation and  Reduction Oxidation - Remove electrons - Remove hydrogen - Attach oxygen (or increase # bonds to oxygen) Reduction - Add electrons - Add hydrogen - Remove oxygen ( or decrease # bonds to  oxygen) 21
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Aerobes and Anaerobes Obligate aerobes: require oxygen to survive. Obligate  anaerobes:  cannot  use  oxygen  as  an electron acceptor under any conditions.  Oxygen can be toxic to these organisms.
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This note was uploaded on 09/29/2009 for the course BIO 215 taught by Professor Diiulio during the Spring '09 term at Case Western.

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BIOL 215 Final Exam - KaiserImam [email protected] 1 2 DiffusionandOsmosis Diffusion involves the passive transport of a solute molecule from an area of

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