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Exam 2 Review - Aerobic Respiration answers

Exam 2 Review - Aerobic Respiration answers - Kaiser Imam...

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Kaiser Imam October 24, 2007 BIOL 215 Exam 2 Review Chapter 10 Chapter 10: Aerobic Respiration 1. Name the parts of the mitochondrion. 2. Where in the cell does each of the following processes occur? a) Glycolysis: cytosol b) Acetyl CoA formation: mitochondrial matrix c) TCA cycle: mitochondrial matrix d) Electron transport chain: inner mitochondrial membrane e) ATP synthesis: mitochondrial matrix f) Fermentation: cytosol g) Accumulation of a high proton concentration: intermembrane space 3. Prokaryotes do not have mitochondria, and yet they are still capable of aerobic respiration. Where in the prokaryotic cell are the various components of the respiratory pathway located? The cytoplasm and the plasma membrane of a prokaryotic cell can be thought to perform the same functions of the mitochondrial matrix and the inner membrane respectively. The enzymes of glycolysis and the TCA cycle are found in the cytoplasm, while the electron transport chain is located in the plasma membrane. In this case the F O complex is embedded in the plasma membrane and the F 1 complex protrudes into the cell and releases ATP into the cytoplasm. 1
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4. What is the step that links glycolysis to the TCA cycle and what is the name of the enzyme involved? What are the products of this step? The two molecules of pyruvate produced from each glucose molecule in glycolysis are converted to two molecules of acetyl CoA along with 2 molecules of CO 2 and 2 NADH + 2H + . This process catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase and is an example of oxidative decarboxylation. This step is also known as the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). 5. What are the goals of the TCA cycle? The TCA cycle completely oxidizes glucose to CO 2 , conserves energy in the form of electron carriers (FADH 2 and NADH), and produces a small amount of energy (2 GTP per glucose). 6. What are some other names for the TCA cycle? The TCA cycle has also been called the Krebs cycle (for Hans Krebs, the discoverer of the process) and the citric acid cycle (for the first intermediate). 7. What is the purpose of oxaloacetate? What happens to it during the TCA cycle? Oxaloacetate is a four-carbon electron acceptor and is involved in the first step of the TCA cycle. Acetyl CoA entering the TCA cycle transfers its acetate group to oxaloacetate to form the six-carbon citric acid. This intermediate is modified through the following steps of the TCA cycle until oxaloacetate is eventually regenerated (see Figure 10-8). 8. A small amount of GTP is produced in the TCA cycle. Why is this GTP included in the total amount of ATP made in aerobic respiration? GTP can be considered energetically equivalent to ATP since the hydrolysis of GTP releases the same amount of energy as that of ATP. In fact, many cells have enzymes that convert GTP to ATP, so that is why GTP is included in accounts of total ATP production.
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