Lecture 6 - Lecture 6 Many-electron atoms II p. 202 Cowboy...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 6 Many-electron atoms II p. 202 Cowboy Chemistry The Study of Vigorous Chemical Reactions Ψ(r,θ ,φ) = Rn,l(r)Y , (θ ,φ) lm radial angular P = | Ψ| r drdθ dφ Prob density Volume element Ψ(r,θ ,φ) = Rn,l(r)Yl,m(θ ,φ) radial angular P = | Ψ| r sinθ drdθ dφ Prob density Volume element Orbital Energies, Shielding, Zeff Orbital H (kJ/mol) 328 1312 1 2372 5248 ∞ 3 2 IE + 21 1 ∞ Many­e­ system One­e­ system ∞ ∞ ∞ He (1s ) 2p6 ) He (1s 36 He 4 4 2 3 3 2 2 1 1 En,l = Z2eff n2 R ∞ 11 Screened Coulomb Potential Veff = (-Zeffe )/rave 2 Effective Nuclear Charge Table 5-3, p. 189 Average Distance From The Nucleus rn,l = (n2a0)/Zeff {1 + 1/2[1 - l(l+1)/n2] } Penetration s>p>d>f Filled and Half-Filled Shells Have Extra Stability Order of Filling 1s>2s>2p>3s>3p>4s>3d>4p> 5s>4d>5p>6s>4f>5d>6p>7s>5f>6d Electron Spin, Magnetism Electron Spin Little Magnet N S Quantized Spin Q.M. Classical Q.M. ms=­1/2 ms=1/2 “Spin Down” “Spin Up” Electron 4 Q.N.s n, ℓ , mℓ , ms No two electrons can have have the same set of Quantum Numbers Pauli Exclusion Principle Pauli n, ℓ , mℓ , ms Degenerate Orbitals Parallel Spins Hund’s Rule: Order of Filling 1s>2s>2p>3s>3p>4s>3d>4p> 5s>4d>5p>6s>4f>5d>6p>7s>5f>6d Atom 1s 2s 2p 3s Config. Magnetism Electronic Configuration 1 H He Li Be B + 0 2 1 1s 1s 2 + 0 1 1s 22s 2 1s 2s 2 2 + Atom 1s 2s 2p 3s Electronic Configuration Electronic Config. Magnetism C N O F Ne Na 2 2 2 3 4 ++ +++ ++ + 0 + 22 1s 2s 2p 2 2 1s 2s 2p 1s22s22p5 1s 2s 2p 1s 2s 2p 1 2 2 6 The Periodic Table The s d p © Hayden-McNeil Specialty Products f ChemQuiz© 11.3 Which of the following Which of the following has the Lowest IE? e­ 1) Cl­ 2) Ar 3) K+ ChemQuiz© 11.3 Solution Ionization Energy 2 2 6 6 6 e­ Cl­ [Ne] 3s 3p 2 Ar [Ne] 3s 3p K+ [Ne] 3s 3p 1) Cl­ 2) Ar 1) 3) K+ ChemQuiz© 11.1 ChemQuiz What is the ionization energy of Cl­ (kJ/mol) ? Cl­ 1) ­1251 2) ­349 3) 349 Cl + e­ ChemQuiz© 11.1 Solution ChemQuiz X X + e­ X + e­ X ­ + IE EA IE EA (kJ) (kJ) X Cl 1251 ­349 Br 1140 ­325 I 1008 ­295 1) ­1251 2) ­349 3) 349 ChemQuiz 11.2 Which of the following Which of the following has the smallest radius? 1) Cl 2) Ar 3) K ChemQuiz© 11.2 Solution Atomic Radius 2 5 2 6 Cl [Ne] 3s 3p 1 Ar [Ne] 3s 3p K [Ar] 4s 1) Cl 1) 2) Ar 3) K Cowboy Chemistry The Study of Vigorous Chemical Reactions Alkali Metals in Water 2 M(s) + 2 H O H + 2 MOH Redox Reaction Redox Reaction 2 M 2 M + 2 e­ 2 H20 + 2 e­ H2 + 2 OH ­ + Energy Chemical Reactions Ea Reactants Kinetics Ea = Activation Energy 2H2 + ΔH 2 2H2O Thermodynamics O Exo Exo Products Reaction Coordinate I oniza tion Ene r gy, Ele c tr on Affinity X X Ele c tr one ga tivity Ζ ε φφ n + e- Summary Summary X - X + + e- IE e- EA − > 2 . 0 I o n ic N a +C l ­ M IE (kJ ) Na 496 - 53 K 4 19 - 48 Rb 403 - 47 X IE (kJ ) Ελ χτ ρονε γ ατ ιϖ τ ψ ε ι Π ρτ λ Ι ονιχ αψ δ ∼ 0 .4 −2 .0 H δ+Χλ − Χοϖ λ ντ αε Χλ− Χλ < 0 .4 Cl Br I 12 5 1 114 0 10 0 8 - 349 - 325 - 295 L12 ­ 3 + N a ~ 0 .9 H ~ 2 .2 C l ~ 3 .2 © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB EA (kJ ) EA (kJ ) © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB L12 ­ 10 At om C o n f i g I E EA ( k J ) A t o m 1s 1 1s 2 1s 2 2 s 1 1s 2 2 s 2 1s 2 2 s 2 2 p 1 13 12 ­73 C o n f i g I E EA ( k J ) 10 8 6 14 0 2 13 1 4 16 8 1 2081 496 ­ 12 2 ~ 0 H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na 1s 2 2 s 2 2 p 2 1s 2 2 s 2 2 p 3 1s 2 2 s 2 2 p 4 1s 2 2 s 2 2 p 5 1s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 [ N e ]3 s 1 2500 2000 1500 1s2 2 p6 2 p4 2 p5 2 p3 2 3 7 2 > 0 520 899 801 ­60 > 0 ­27 ­ 14 1 ­328 ~ 0 ­53 1000 500 1s 2 s2 2 p2 2 p1 Ionization Energy 2 s (kJ) 3s C N O F Ne Na L12 ­ 8 0 H H e L i Be B © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB L12 ­ 6 © A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB This lecture is Terminated!!! ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/29/2009 for the course CHEM 4a taught by Professor Gordon during the Fall '06 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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