Composite 13, 16-18 - L ECTURE 13 - - Institutions and...

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LECTURE 13 - - Institutions and Research - Germany: Scientific Research in Universities - Bildung: Wisenschaft (Humboldt; Gymansium) - Research Seminars, Laboratories - Scientific Research as a career - US universities and the German Model - France: centralization and stagnation - Britain - Scientific societies (Linnaean ETC) - (Darwin, Joule, Maxwell) - British Association (1831) - Royal Institution (Davy, Faraday) - Universities, teaching, industry: - Maxwell and the Cavendish Laboratory Darwin The Man - Speculating the issue of transmutation of species. This included the consideration of human evolution through transmutation. These were issues that were very controversial. - Darwin was an ambitious person and wanted to make his mark in the scientific work. Natural Selection from Idea (1838) to publication (1859) - Darwin doesn’t want to spring this idea on his colleuges unless she has the best evidence to try and convince them the best that he can. They thought that species did not change over many generations. He is being very careful but he does get married. - He still doesn’t know what to do about transmutation of species. - “sketch” (1842) and “essay” (1844) – joseph hooker - he writes a 35 page manuscript called the sketch that layed out the argument for his theory. He then produces a much longer document, 230 pages, which he calls his essay. This had a structure to the argument not very different to what shows up in the origin of species. He shows the essay to the prominent botanist Joseph Hooker. He finds it interesting but is not at the time convinced by Darwin’s argument. What hooker advises Darwin to do is get more credentials in zoological classification. - In 1847 Darwin embarks on an 8 yr project on classification. This eight-year project was one of classifying barnacles. In the 1850’s Darwin starts messing around with breeding pigeons and the inheritance of features. He keeps pigeons. - Wallace (1858) - Wallace wrote a transmutation theory and sent it to Darwin to see whether it was worthy of being published. It basically outline what Darwin had thought. This rushed Darwin into print because he wanted the credit.
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Adaptation - Cuvier - Perfect adaptiveness. - Natural Theology: William Paley; Bridgewater Treatises - The natural world bears the direct evidence of the existence of God. Paley’s book was a required text while Darwin was in school. This was a very successful work. Paley’s argument focuses on the argument from design. His favorite example of this has to do with drawing an analogy between a watch and the eye. Paley says imagine you are walking and you find a watch. You are not going to imagine this watch came into creation by chance; it must have had a maker. Clearly it is designed to serve a certain purpose. Then he says imagine the eye. The eye serves a purpose and therefore must have an intelligent maker. He makes this argument for a whole range of design adaptations. -
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This note was uploaded on 09/30/2009 for the course STS 2821 taught by Professor Dear during the Spring '09 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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Composite 13, 16-18 - L ECTURE 13 - - Institutions and...

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