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wilsonjobless 9-11

wilsonjobless 9-11 - SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS WORK AND ECONOMY...

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Unformatted text preview: SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS: WORK AND ECONOMY Reading 25 JOBLESS GHETTOS The Social Implications of the Disappearance of Work in Segregated Neighborhoods WILLIAM J. WILSON working. Urban poverty was quite extensive, but people held jobs. However, in many inner-city ghetto neighborhoods in 1990, most adults were not work- ing in a typical week. For example, in 1950, 69 percent of all males 14 and over held jobs in a typical week in the three neighborhoods that represent the historic core of the Black Belt in Chicago—Douglas, Grand Boulevard, and Washington Park. But by 1990, only four in ten in Douglas worked in a typical week, one in three in Washington Park, and one in four in Grand Boulevard. In all, only 37 per- cent of all males 16 and over held jobs in a typical week in these neighborhoods. The disappearance of work has had devastating effects not only on indi- viduals and families but also on the social life of neighborhoods as well. Inner—city joblessness is a severe problem that is often overlooked or ob- scured when the focus is mainly on poverty and its consequences. Despite increases in the concentration of poverty since 1970, inner cities have always featured high levels of poverty, but the levels of inner-city joblessness reached in 1990 were unprecedented.1 It should be noted that when I refer to "joblessness" I am not solely re- ferring to official unemployment. The unemployment rate represents only the ofl‘icial labor force—that is, those who are actively looking for work. It does not include those who are outside of or have dropped out of the labor market, including the nearly 6 million males age 25—60 who appear in the census statistics but do not show up in the labor statistics.2 These uncounted males in the labor market are disproportionately rep- resented in the inner-city ghettos. A more appropriate measure of joblessness that takes into account both official unemployment and non—labor force par- ticipation is the employment-to-population ratio, which corresponds to the In 1950, a substantial portion of the urban black population was poor but From: Marshall, Ra (ed). 2000. Back to Shared Prosperity: The Growing Inequality of Wealth and Income in America. Armonk: New York, M. W. Sharpe. 329 mwo mmmHmH $132103? :8; 23m mazes: Humammammm 0H mmszm Ho .85 oHaHmH SE0 mam EOHHAEM. H5 H8? mow mxmBHvHP 03% 05m 5 Enmm mQCHHm WMmm Ho Ea 05mm Ema m How 3 Em mEmfio H00<m:% mammm 0m 038m? anuHmmmDHHbm HocmEH% KHmmboo 3m? 20:5? mam EHHEmS. >dnH H: Em mEmHHo HammHm 0H Em :mHHODJ Hoe HmHMmmH nEmP HOH m<ma% Hm: mmczm 2E0 E9 :0.“ E05 9 How 3 w H%H0HmmH Smmr E Hoop EmHm 2mm 02% mmx mBH0H0%mnH Humwmobm. 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