geovocab - Chapter1 eology:,structure,and G 06:04...

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Chapter 1 06:04 Geology:      The science of process related to the composition, structure, and  history of Earth and its life Environmental geology:      Applied geology—the use of geologic information to help  solve conflicts in land use, minimize environmental degradation, and maximize  the beneficial results of using our natural and modified environments. Earth Minerals (rocks, minerals, soils, etc.) Natural Hazards (floods, landslides, earthquakes, volcanic activity) Land for site selection, land-use planning, enviro impact analysis Hydrologic process of ground/surface water Geologic process (deposition of sediment on the ocean floor, formation of  mountains, movement of water, etc) Human population growth     Exponential growth     : The number of people added to the population each year  isn’t constant—a constant % if the current population is added each year o Growth rate     : measure as a % o Doubling time     : time it takes for whatever is growing to double Roughly = to 70 divided by the growth rate  D=70/G Sustainability     -Development that ensures future generations will have equal access to the  resources our planet offers -Types of development that are economically viable, don’t harm the environment,  and are socially just. Earth as a System     *System: any defined part of the universe we select for study (i.e. a planet,  volcano, ocean basin, or river) Input-output analysis     : method of analyzing change in open systems Average resistance time     : Time it takes for the total stock or supply of the  material to be cycled through a system
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o Time=Stock/Rate of transfer o T=S/F Uniformitarianism     : “present is the key to the past” (popularized by James  Hutton; 1785) Holds that the processes we observe today also operated in the  past Environmental utility     : One action causes others in a chain of actions Earth systems science     : Study of the entire planet as a system in terms of its  components o Gia Hypothesis     : (James Hutton) Earth is a living thing; ocreans are the  heart, forests are the lungs.
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