HEA242_Week1_Fall 2009

HEA242_Week1_Fall 2009 - HEA242: Introduction to Community...

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HEA242: Introduction to Community and Public Health Stacie Metz, PhD, MPH, MSW, MA West Chester University of PA Week 1
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Objectives for Week 1 Define community health and public health Identify the major historical achievements in public health Identify the governmental, quasi-governmental, and non-governmental organizations that help to shape public health
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What is Public/Community Health? Health (WHO, 1946) Dynamic state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being Not just the absence of illness Public Health (IOM, Future of PH , 1988) “What we as a society do collectively to assure the conditions in which people can be healthy” Community Health (IOM, Future of PH , 1988) Health status of defined group of people and the actions/ conditions to promote and protect their health Community defined by: membership or shared values, norms, symbols, rituals, needs, emotional connection
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What factors affect the health of a community?
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The Public Health Approach Response Surveillance: What is the problem? Risk Factor Identification: What is the cause? Intervention Selection: What works? Implement- ation: How do you do it? Problem Evaluation: Did it work? Effectiveness of
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WHO Health Promotion Principles Health promotion initiatives should be planned and implemented in accordance with the following principles: Empowering enable individuals/communities to assume more power over personal, socioeconomic, and environmental factors that affect their health Participatory involve those concerned in all stages of planning, implementation and evaluation Holistic foster physical, mental, social, and spiritual health
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WHO Health Promotion Principles Intersectoral • involve the collaboration of agencies from relevant sectors Equitable be guided by a concern for equity and social justice Sustainable bring about changes that can be maintained once initial funding has ended Multi-strategy • use a variety of approaches, including policy development, organizational change, community development, legislation, advocacy, education and communication, in combination with one another
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History of Public Health
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History of Public Health (Up to 1700 A.D.) Earliest Civilization (< A.D. 500) – Ruins of bathrooms and sewers – Written medical prescriptions Code of Hammurabi Greeks and Romans Middle Ages (A.D. 500-1500) – Spiritual era of PH – Dark Ages – demons or sins cause disease – Plagues Renaissance and Exploration (A.D. 1500-1700) – Disease caused by environment and exploration
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History of Public Health (1700-1900) Industrial Age (18th century) – Crowded unsanitary cities and unsafe workplaces – 1790: G. Washington ordered first US Census – 1793: Yellow Fever in Philadelphia 1796: Dr. Ed Jenner – smallpox vaccination 1798: Marine Hospital Service (forerunner to US PH Service) – 1799: Boards of Health created in major cities
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2009 for the course HEA 242 taught by Professor Kellar during the Spring '09 term at West Chester.

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HEA242_Week1_Fall 2009 - HEA242: Introduction to Community...

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