Lecture Note 1

Lecture Note 1 - Chapter 1 Introduction 1 Introduction to...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–7. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 Chapter 1 – Introduction
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
2 Introduction to Biochemical Engineering Biochemical Engineering - application of chemical engineering principles to biological systems. • "A process that uses living cells or biomolecules to carry out a chemical transformation leading to the production and ultimate recovery of valuable products".
Background image of page 2
3 Short History of Biochemical Engineering/Processes Ancient Uses of Microorganisms (Before 1800 A.D.) Caveman to Earliest Recorded History --- aging of meats, cheeses, and alcoholic beverages. Ancient Chinese and Japanese -- soy sauce from fermented beans. Ancient Egyptians (2500 B.C.) -- malting of barley and beer fermentation. Mesopotamian tablet records brewing of wine and beer are established professions in 2000 B.C. Native peoples in North America made beer from corn. Chinese use moldy soy bean curd to clear up skin infections (1000 B.C.) Central American native peoples use fungi to treat infected wounds. Middle Ages experimenters learn how to improve the taste of wine, bread, beer, and cheese. Mankind did not know that these fermentation processes were being carried out by microscopic forms of life.
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
4 Old Science (1800-1940) From the discovery of the role of microscopic life in fermentations to the use of non-sterile fermentations in organic molecule synthesis. 1803 -- A French scientist, L.J. Thenard, announces that yeast used in wine making were alive and that they were responsible for the formation of alcohol. His findings were rejected by supporters of the conventional notion that fermentations were chemical processes only. 1857 -- Louis Pasteur, another French Scientist, proves Thenard is correct. Showed that certain diseases are caused by microorganisms. Birth of modern Microbiology. Concludes that certain microorganisms are destroyed by other microorganisms and suggests that human disease could be cured by pitting microbe against microbe. 1901 -- Rudolf Emmerich and Oscar Low, University of Munich, isolate a primitive antibiotic, pyocyanase, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa , a bacterium. Several hundred patients were successfully treated, but quality control was poor and pyocyanase was abandoned as too hazardous.
Background image of page 4
5 Old Science (1800-1940) (Cont’d) • 1900 – 1940 Production of bakers yeast in deep, aerated tanks. World War I -- Chaim Weismann solves a serious British ammunition problem by converting corn maize mash into acetone, which is used in the manufacture of the explosive cordite. 1923 -- Pfizer opens the first commercial successful plant for citric acid production from sugar. 1928 -- Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin. Simple organic molecules such as glycerol, lactic acid, and butanol are fermented on an industrial scale by fermentations
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
6 New Science (1940- late 1970s) Fermentations of complex organic molecules requiring sterile conditions which protect the non-robust, highly selected microbial strains from competition by other microorganisms • 1940 -- Drs. Howard Flory and Ernst Chain (England) and three American pharmaceutical companies (Merck, Pfizer, and Squibb) mass produce penicillin for WW II effort.
Background image of page 6
Image of page 7
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 10/01/2009 for the course CHEM 334 taught by Professor Lei during the Spring '09 term at UConn.

Page1 / 53

Lecture Note 1 - Chapter 1 Introduction 1 Introduction to...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 7. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online