adc - Project Report On THE DESIGN OF A 3-BIT FLASH...

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Project Report On THE DESIGN OF A 3-BIT FLASH ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTER EE 5316 CMOS Mixed Signal IC Design Fall 2006 Instructor Dr. Enjun Xiao Submitted By ANKUR SHAH BALVEEN KAUR KARTHIK NEELAKANTAN
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ABSTRACT This report presents a design of a 3-bit Flash Analog-to-digital converter. The design utilizes a resistor ladder for generating reference voltages, comparator array and an encoder. The comparator was implemented by designing a high gain amplifier. One way to perform the code conversion from Thermometer code to Binary code is using a Priority Encoder. An alternate method was selected which requires very less area and thus drawing very less power from supply. This encoder is a ROM based encoder. The design is aimed to achieve a speed of 40 mega-samples per second. The hand calculations for transistor sizes used are discussed in the report. Simulations were done on CADENCE. Layouts are drawn using 0.25um CMOS technology. Finally, the layout versus simulation (LVS) is performed and post layout simulations are carried out for verification. The total area of the layout is 333.6um × 617.75um. 1
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TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 3 2. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f A D C 3 2.1 Quantization Error 4 2.2 Dynamic Range 4 2.3 Differential Nonlinearity 4 2.4 Integral Nonlinearity 4 2.5 Signal-to-Noise ratio 4 2.6 Offset and Gain 5 3. Flash Analog to Digital Converter 3.1 ADC Architecture 5 3.2 Principle of Operation 5 4. Designing the ADC 4.1 Design Specification 6 4 . 2 R e s i s t o r S t r i n g 6 4.3 Comparator Design 7 4.4 Inverter Design 9 4.5 NAND gate Design 12 4.6 Complete Comparator circuit 13 4.7 Decoder 4.7.1 Logic Block 21 4.7.2 Encoder Circuit 22 4 . 8 C o m p l e t e A D C 2 5 4.9 DNL and INL 31 4.10 ADC Transfer Characteristics 35 5. Applications 35 6 . R e s u l t s 3 6 7 . R e f e r e n c e s 3 7 8. Appendix 38 2
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1. INTRODUCTION As predicted by Moore’s Law in 1865, digital computing power has exponentially increased at ever smaller, incremental costs. With this powerful abundance, many applications formerly performed with analog circuitry have found a new lease-on-life in the digital realm. The hot application areas include compact disc players, camcorders, cellular phones, modems, computer sound cards, computer graphics adapters and HDTV. However the real world still is and will always continue to be a fundamentally analog place. To bring digital processing and its benefits to bear on the real-world applications, the analog signal must be translated into a format a digital computer can utilize. This is function of an Analog-to-Digital converter (ADC) (Fig1). A/D converter N-Bit digital word A v Fig1.1 A/D converter circuit block [1] 2. CHARACTERISTICS OF ADC 2.1 Quantization Error If the analog input signal is quantized using an ideal ADC and then converted back to an analog signal using an ideal DAC the output will look like a staircase as in fig.2.1 Quantization error ( ) is the difference between the original signal and the quantized signal. This error can be denoted as loss of signal which cannot be recovered.
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2009 for the course EE 5322 taught by Professor Chin during the Spring '09 term at 東京大学.

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adc - Project Report On THE DESIGN OF A 3-BIT FLASH...

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