Chapter 5 - Chapter 5 Macromolecules I. Biological...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 5 – Macromolecules I. Biological Macromolecules A. Carbohydrates B. Lipids C. Proteins D. Nucleic Acids II. Polymers A. Made from monomers B. Monomers covalently bind to one another by the loss of a water molecule. This is called a condensation or a dehydration reaction C. This reaction requires energy and enzymes D. Polymers are disassembled by hydrolysis or the addition of a water molecule to the bond E. Polymers can be extremely diverse according to which monomers are involved and how many are combined III. Carbs A. Sugars and polymers of sugars B. Monosaccharides are the basic sugars 1. Molecules are characterized by a carbonyl and multiple hydroxyl groups 2. Aldoses have a terminal carbonyl group 3. Ketoses have an internal carbonyl group 4. Monosaccharides range in size from 3 to 7 carbons in their molecular backbone, trioses to heptoses 5. Characteristics of sugars can change by switching hydroxyl groups from one side of the molecule to another. Glucose ((c6h12og) most common monosaccaride) and galactose are examples of this 6. Pentoses and hexoses form rings in aqueous solution 7. Glucose – a major energy molecule and serves as a building block for more complex carbohydrates and other molecules such as amino and fatty acids C. Disaccharides are two monosaccharides joined by a condensation reaction forming a glycosidic linkage. One hydroxyl group on each molecule are involved resulting in the loss of H2O and the remaining O forming the bond between the two sugars 1. Two glucose molecules thus bonded make a maltose molecule 2. Sucrose is composed of one glucose and one fructose molecule
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
3. Glucose plus galactose make lactose D. Carb macromolecules=Polysaccharides 1. Polymers compsed of many sugar building blocks 2. are long chains of monosaccharides joined by these glycosidic linkages 3. Storage molecules – mainly for energy storage a. Starch – plant storage molecule composed completely of glucose b. Amylose – a simple unbranched starch c. Amylopectin – a complex branched starch d. Glycogen – the animal storage polysaccharide 4. Structural polysaccharides a. Cellulose – polymer of glucose
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 5

Chapter 5 - Chapter 5 Macromolecules I. Biological...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online