3_Bio_Informatics

3_Bio_Informatics - Selected Topics of Parallel Computing...

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____________ © A. Tchernykh. Selected Topics. Multiple Sequence Alignment. TU Clausthal, IFI, Germany, 2003 1 Selected Topics of Parallel Computing May –July 2003 Dr. Andrei Tchernykh
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____________ © A. Tchernykh. Selected Topics. Multiple Sequence Alignment. TU Clausthal, IFI, Germany, 2003 2 Bioinformatics Parallel Multiple DNA Sequences Alignment
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____________ © A. Tchernykh. Selected Topics. Multiple Sequence Alignment. TU Clausthal, IFI, Germany, 2003 3 In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick present the model of DNA structure The molecular biology have emerged as a new research field. It provides a common conceptual framework for several, previously unrelated disciplines. The knowledge of the complete genomes and genetic codes has a great impact on such areas like Biology medicine, agriculture, population studies and evolution
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____________ © A. Tchernykh. Selected Topics. Multiple Sequence Alignment. TU Clausthal, IFI, Germany, 2003 4
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____________ © A. Tchernykh. Selected Topics. Multiple Sequence Alignment. TU Clausthal, IFI, Germany, 2003 5 1. DNA is made up of subunits which scientists called nucleotides . 2. Each nucleotide is made up of a sugar , a phosphate and a base . 3. There are 4 different bases in a DNA molecule: adenine (a purine) ( A ) cytosine (a pyrimidine) ( C ) guanine (a purine) ( G ) thymine (a pyrimidine) ( T ) 4. The number of purine bases equals the number of pyrimidine bases 5. The number of adenine bases equals the number of thymine bases 6. The number of guanine bases equals the number of cytosine bases
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____________ © A. Tchernykh. Selected Topics. Multiple Sequence Alignment. TU Clausthal, IFI, Germany, 2003 6 “DNA structure has two helical chains each coiled round the same axis. (much like a ladder that is twisted into a spiral shape) Both chains follow right handed helices. Two chains run in opposite directions. The bases are on the inside of the helix and the phosphates on the outside. The novel feature of the structure is the manner in which the two chains are held together by the purine and pyrimidine bases. The bases are joined together in pairs
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____________ © A. Tchernykh. Selected Topics. Multiple Sequence Alignment. TU Clausthal, IFI, Germany, 2003 7 One of the pair must be a purine and the other a pyrimidine for bonding to occur. Only specific pairs of bases can bond together . These pairs are: o adenine (purine) with thymine (pyrimidine), ( A-T ) o guanine (purine) with cytosine (pyrimidine)." ( G-C ) "...in other words, if an adenine forms one member of a pair, on either chain, then on these assumptions the other member must be thymine; similarly for guanine and cytosine. The sequence of bases on a single chain does not appear to be restricted in any way.
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____________ © A. Tchernykh. Selected Topics. Multiple Sequence Alignment. TU Clausthal, IFI, Germany, 2003 8 The DNA replicates its information in a process that involves many enzymes (ferments) The DNA codes for the production of messenger RNA (mRNA) during transcription In eucaryotic cells, the mRNA is processed (essentially by splicing) and migrates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm Messenger RNA carries coded information to ribosomes. The ribosomes "read" this information and use it for protein synthesis. This process is called translation .
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2009 for the course CS BCB/Co taught by Professor Olivereulenstein during the Fall '06 term at Iowa State.

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3_Bio_Informatics - Selected Topics of Parallel Computing...

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