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Unformatted text preview: 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:25 PM Page 139 4 COMPLETING THE ACCOUNTING CYCLE objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: PHOTO: © CORBIS 1 2 3 4 5 6 Review the seven basic steps of the accounting cycle. Prepare a work sheet. Prepare financial statements from a work sheet. Prepare the adjusting and closing entries from a work sheet. Explain what is meant by the fiscal year and the natural business year. Analyze and interpret the financial solvency of a business by computing working capital and the current ratio. 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:25 PM Page 140 M ost of us have had to file a personal tax return. At the beginning of the year, you estimate your upcoming income and decide whether you need to increase your payroll tax withholdings or perhaps pay estimated taxes. During the year, you earn income, make investments, and enter into other tax-related transactions, such as making charitable contributions. At the end of the year, your employer sends you a tax withholding information form (W-2 form), and you collect the tax records needed for completing your yearly tax forms. If any tax is owed, you pay it; if you overpaid your taxes, you file for a refund. As the next year begins, you start the cycle all over again. Businesses also go through a cycle of activities. At the beginning of the cycle, management plans where it wants the business to go and begins the necessary actions to achieve its operating goals. Throughout the cycle, which is normally one year, the accountant records the operating activities (transactions) of the business. At the end of the cycle, the accountant prepares financial statements that summarize the operating activities for the year. The accountant then prepares the accounts for recording the operating activities in the next cycle. As we saw in Chapter 1, the initial cycle for NetSolutions began with Chris Clark’s investment in the business on November 1, 2005. The cycle continued with recording NetSolutions’ transactions for November and December, as we discussed in Chapters 1 and 2. In Chapter 3, the cycle continued and we recorded the adjusting entries for the two months ending December 31, 2005. Now, in this chapter, we discuss the flow of the adjustment data into the accounts and into the financial statements. Accounting Cycle The accounting process that begins with analyzing and journalizing transactions and ends with summarizing and reporting these transactions is called the accounting cycle. The most important output of this cycle is the financial statements. Review the seven basic steps of the accounting cycle. The basic steps of the accounting cycle are shown, by number, in the flowchart in Exhibit 1. In earlier chapters, we described and illustrated the analysis and recording of transactions, posting to the ledger, preparing a trial balance, anaIn a computerized accounting system, the software automatically lyzing adjustment data, preparing adjusting entries, and preparing financial records and posts transactions. statements. In this chapter, we complete our discussion of the accounting The ledger and supporting records cycle by describing how work sheets may be used as an aid in preparing are maintained in computerized the financial statements. We also describe and illustrate how closing entries master files. In addition, a work and a post-closing trial balance are used in preparing the accounting records sheet is normally not prepared. for the next period. objective 1 Work Sheet objective 2 Prepare a work sheet. Common spreadsheet programs used in business include Microsoft Excel® and Lotus 1-2-3®. Accountants often use working papers for collecting and summarizing data they need for preparing various analyses and reports. Such working papers are useful tools, but they are not considered a part of the formal accounting records. This is in contrast to the chart of accounts, the journal, and the ledger, which are essential parts of the accounting system. Working papers are usually prepared by using a spreadsheet program on a computer. The work sheet is a working paper that accountants can use to summarize adjusting entries and the account balances for the financial statements. In small companies with few accounts and adjustments, a work sheet may not be necessary. For example, the financial statements for NetSolutions can be prepared directly from the adjusted trial balance illustrated in Chapter 3. In a computerized accounting system, 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:25 PM Page 141 141 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle •Exhibit 1 Accounting Cycle ② ① Accts. Rec. 112 ⑤ Cash 111 ⑥ Source Documents Journal Ledger ⑦ ③ XYZ Co. Work Sheet For the Period Ended December 31, 20–– XYZ Co. Post-Closing Trial Balance December 31, 20–– Trial Balance Post-Closing Trial Balance ⑤ Adjustments Adjusted Trial Balance Work Sheet (optional) Income Statement Balance Sheet ④ ⑥ Balance Sheet ① Transactions are analyzed and recorded in the journal. ② Transactions are posted to the ledger. ③ A trial balance is prepared, adjustment data are ④ ⑤ ⑥ ⑦ assembled, and an optional work sheet is completed. Financial statements are prepared. Adjusting entries are journalized and posted to the ledger. Closing entries are journalized and posted to the ledger. A post-closing trial balance is prepared. a work sheet may not be necessary because the software program automatically posts entries to the accounts and prepares financial statements. The work sheet (Exhibits 2 through 5 on pages 144B–144C) is a useful device for understanding the flow of the accounting data from the unadjusted trial balance to the financial statements (Exhibit 6). This flow of data is the same in either a manual or a computerized accounting system. Statement of Owner's Equity Income Statement Financial Statements The work sheet is a useful device for understanding the flow of the accounting data from the unadjusted trial balance to the financial statements. Unadjusted Trial Balance Columns To begin the work sheet, list at the top the name of the business, the type of working paper (work sheet), and the period of time, as shown in Exhibit 2. Next, enter the unadjusted trial balance directly on the work sheet. The work sheet in Exhibit 2 shows the unadjusted trial balance for NetSolutions at December 31, 2005. 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:25 PM Page 142 142 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle Adjustments Columns The adjustments that we explained and illustrated for NetSolutions in Chapter 3 are entered in the Adjustments columns, as shown in Exhibit 3. Cross-referencing (by letters) the debit and credit of each adjustment is useful in reviewing the work sheet. It is also helpful for identifying the adjusting entries that need to be recorded in the journal. The order in which the adjustments are entered on the work sheet is not important. Most accountants enter the adjustments in the order in which the data are assembled. If the titles of some of the accounts to be adjusted do not appear in the trial balance, they should be inserted in the Account Title column, below the trial balance totals, as needed. To review, the entries in the Adjustments columns of the work sheet are: (a) Supplies. The supplies account has a debit balance of $2,000. The cost of the supplies on hand at the end of the period is $760. Therefore, the supplies expense for December is the difference between the two amounts, or $1,240. Enter the adjustment by writing (1) $1,240 in the Adjustments Debit column on the same line as Supplies Expense and (2) $1,240 in the Adjustments Credit column on the same line as Supplies. (b) Prepaid Insurance. The prepaid insurance account has a debit balance of $2,400, which represents the prepayment of insurance for 24 months beginning December 1. Thus, the insurance expense for December is $100 ($2,400/24). Enter the adjustment by writing (1) $100 in the Adjustments Debit column on the same line as Insurance Expense and (2) $100 in the Adjustments Credit column on the same line as Prepaid Insurance. (c) Unearned Rent. The unearned rent account has a credit balance of $360, which represents the receipt of three months’ rent, beginning with December. Thus, the rent revenue for December is $120. Enter the adjustment by writing (1) $120 in the Adjustments Debit column on the same line as Unearned Rent and (2) $120 in the Adjustments Credit column on the same line as Rent Revenue. (d) Wages. Wages accrued but not paid at the end of December total $250. This amount is an increase in expenses and an increase in liabilities. Enter the adjustment by writing (1) $250 in the Adjustments Debit column on the same line as Wages Expense and (2) $250 in the Adjustments Credit column on the same line as Wages Payable. (e) Accrued Fees. Fees accrued at the end of December but not recorded total $500. This amount is an increase in an asset and an increase in revenue. Enter the adjustment by writing (1) $500 in the Adjustments Debit column on the same line as Accounts Receivable and (2) $500 in the Adjustments Credit column on the same line as Fees Earned. (f) Depreciation. Depreciation of the office equipment is $50 for December. Enter the adjustment by writing (1) $50 in the Adjustments Debit column on the same line as Depreciation Expense and (2) $50 in the Adjustments Credit column on the same line as Accumulated Depreciation. Total the Adjustments columns to verify the mathematical accuracy of the adjustment data. The total of the Debit column must equal the total of the Credit column. Adjusted Trial Balance Columns The adjustment data are added to or subtracted from the amounts in the unadjusted Trial Balance columns. The adjusted amounts are then extended to (placed in) the Adjusted Trial Balance columns, as shown in Exhibit 3. For example, the cash amount of $2,065 is extended to the Adjusted Trial Balance Debit column, since no adjustments affected Cash. Accounts Receivable has an initial balance of $2,220 and a debit adjustment (increase) of $500. The amount to write in the Adjusted Trial Balance Debit column is the debit balance of $2,720. The same procedure continues until all 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:25 PM Page 143 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle 143 account balances are extended to the Adjusted Trial Balance columns. Total the columns of the Adjusted Trial Balance to verify the equality of debits and credits. Income Statement and Balance Sheet Columns The work sheet is completed by extending the adjusted trial balance amounts to the Income Statement and Balance Sheet columns. The amounts for revenues and expenses are extended to the Income Statement columns. The amounts for assets, liabilities, owner’s capital, and drawing are extended to the Balance Sheet columns.1 In the NetSolutions work sheet, the first account listed is Cash, and the balance appearing in the Adjusted Trial Balance Debit column is $2,065. Cash is an asset, is listed on the balance sheet, and has a debit balance. Therefore, $2,065 is extended to the Balance Sheet Debit column. The Fees Earned balance of $16,840 is extended to the Income Statement Credit column. The same procedure continues until all account balances have been extended to the proper columns, as shown in Exhibit 4. After all of the balances have been extended to the four statement columns, total each of these columns, as shown in Exhibit 5. The difference between the two Income Statement column totals is the amount of the net income or the net loss for the period. Likewise, the difference between the two Balance Sheet column totals is also the amount of the net income or net loss for the period. If the Income Statement Credit column total (representing total revenue) is greater than the Income Statement Debit column total (representing total expenses), the difference is the net income. If the Income Statement Debit column total is greater than the Income Statement Credit column total, the difference is a net loss. For NetSolutions, the computation of net income is as follows: Total of Credit column (revenues) Total of Debit column (expenses) Net income (excess of revenues over expenses) If the total of the Balance Sheet Debit column of the work sheet is $350,000 and the total of the Balance Sheet Credit column is $400,000, what is the net income or net loss? $50,000 net loss ($350,000 Ϫ $400,000) $16,960 9,755 $ 7,205 As shown in Exhibit 5, write the amount of the net income, $7,205, in the Income Statement Debit column and the Balance Sheet Credit column. Write the term Net income in the Account Title column. If there was a net loss instead of net income, you would write the amount in the Income Statement Credit column and the Balance Sheet Debit column and the term Net loss in the Account Title column. Inserting the net income or net loss in the statement columns on the work sheet shows the effect of transferring the net balance of the revenue and expense accounts to the owner’s capital account. Later in this chapter, we explain how to journalize this transfer. After the net income or net loss has been entered on the work sheet, again total each of the four statement columns. The totals of the two Income Statement columns must now be equal. The totals of the two Balance Sheet columns must also be equal. Financial Statements objective 3 Prepare financial statements from a work sheet. The work sheet is an aid in preparing the income statement, the statement of owner’s equity, and the balance sheet, which are presented in Exhibit 6. In the following paragraphs, we discuss these financial statements for NetSolutions, prepared from the completed work sheet in Exhibit 5. The statements are similar in form to those presented in Chapter 1. 1The balances of the capital and drawing accounts are also extended to the Balance Sheet columns because this work sheet does not provide for separate Statement of Owner’s Equity columns. 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:25 PM Page 144 144 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle Income Statement The income statement is normally prepared directly from the work sheet. However, the order of the expenses may be changed. As we did in Chapter 1, we list the expenses in the income statement in Exhibit 6 in order of size, beginning with the larger items. Miscellaneous expense is the last item, regardless of its amount. INTEGRITY IN BUSINESS THE ROUND TRIP A common type of fraud involves artificially inflating revenue. One fraudulent method of inflating revenue is called “round tripping.” Under this scheme, a selling company (S) “lends” money to a customer company (C). The money is then used by C to purchase a product from S. Thus, S sells I’m one of the world’s largest hotel operating companies, with names such as these under my roof: Sheraton, Westin, St. Regis, W, Ciga, Luxury Collection and Four Points. Some of my better known units include the St. Regis in New York; the Phoenician in Scottsdale, Ariz.; the Hotel Danieli in Venice; and the Palace Hotel in Madrid. My Westin division recently bought nine legendary luxury hotels in Europe. I own, lease, manage or franchise more than 700 hotels with more than 217,000 rooms in some 80 countries. I aim to increase earnings per share by 15 percent annually. Who am I? (Go to page 163 for answer.) product to C and is paid with the money just loaned to C! This looks like a sale in the accounting records, but in reality, S is shipping free product. The fraud is exposed when it is determined that there was no intent to repay the original loan. Statement of Owner’s Equity The first item normally presented on the statement of owner’s equity is the balance of the proprietor’s capital account at the beginning of the period. On the work sheet, however, the amount listed as capital is not always the account balance at the beginning of the period. The proprietor may have invested additional assets in the business during the period. Hence, for the beginning balance and any additional investments, it is necessary to refer to the capital account in the ledger. These amounts, along with the net income (or net loss) and the drawing amount shown in the work sheet, are used to determine the ending capital account balance. The basic form of the statement of owner’s equity is shown in Exhibit 6. For NetSolutions, the amount of drawings by the owner was less than the net income. If the owner’s withdrawals had exceeded the net income, the order of the net income and the withdrawals would have been reversed. The difference between the two items would then be deducted from the beginning capital account balance. Other factors, such as additional investments or a net loss, also require some change in the form, as shown in the following example: Allan Johnson, capital, January 1, 2005 Additional investment during the year Total Net loss for the year Withdrawals Decrease in owner’s equity Allan Johnson, capital, December 31, 2005 $39,000 6,000 $45,000 $ 5,600 9,500 15,100 $29,900 Balance Sheet The balance sheet in Exhibit 6 was expanded by adding subsections for current assets; property, plant, and equipment; and current liabilities. Such a balance sheet is a classified balance sheet. In the following paragraphs, we describe some of the sections and subsections that may be used in a balance sheet. We will introduce additional sections in later chapters. 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:25 PM Page 145 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle •Exhibit 8 145 T H E C LO S I N G P R O C E S S 2 I NCO ME SU M M A R EXPENSES are transferred to Income Summary 1 REVENUES are transferred to Income Summary 3 4 DRAWINGS are transferred to Owner's Capital Y Owner’s Capital NET INCOME or NET LOSS is transferred to Owner's Capital You should note that Income Summary is used only at the end of the period. At the beginning of the closing process, Income Summary The income summary account has no balance. During the closing process, Income Summary will be debited and credited for various amounts. At the end of the closing does not appear on the process, Income Summary will again have no balance. Because Infinancial statements. come Summary has the effect of clearing the revenue and expense accounts of their balances, it is sometimes called a clearing account. Other titles used for this account include Revenue and Expense Summary, Profit and Loss Summary, and Income and Expense Summary. It is possible to close the temporary revenue and expense accounts without using a clearing account such as Income Summary. In this case, the balances of the revenue and expense accounts are closed directly to the owner’s capital account. This process is automatic in a computerized accounting system. In a manual system, the use of an income summary account aids in detecting and correcting errors. Journalizing and Posting Closing Entries If total revenues are $600,000, total expenses are $525,000, and drawing is $50,000, what is the balance of the income summary account that is closed to the owner’s capital? $75,000 ($600,000 Ϫ $525,000). The drawing account balance is closed directly to the owner’s capital, rather than to Income Summary. Four closing entries are required at the end of an accounting period, as outlined in Exhibit 8. The account titles and balances needed in preparing these entries may be obtained from the work sheet, the income statement and the statement of owner’s equity, or the ledger. If a work sheet is used, the data for the first two entries appear in the Income Statement columns. The amount for the third entry is the net income or net loss appearing at the bottom of the work sheet. The amount for the fourth entry is the drawing account balance that appears in the Balance Sheet Debit column of the work sheet. A flowchart of the closing entries for NetSolutions is shown in Exhibit 9. The balances in the accounts are those shown in the Adjusted Trial Balance columns of the work sheet in Exhibit 3. The closing entries for NetSolutions are shown in Exhibit 10. After the closing entries have been posted to the ledger, as shown in Exhibit 11 (on pages 147–151), the balance in the capital account will agree with the amount reported on the statement of owner’s equity and the balance sheet. In addition, the revenue, expense, and drawing accounts will have zero balances. After the entry to close an account has been posted, a line should be inserted in both balance columns opposite the final entry. The next period’s transactions for the revenue, expense, and drawing accounts will be posted directly below the closing entry. 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:26 PM Page 146 146 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle •Exhibit 9 Flowchart of Closing Entries for NetSolutions Owner’s Equity Wages Expense Bal. 4,525 Income Summary ② 4,525 9,755 7,205 Rent Expense Bal. 1,600 ① 16,960 Fees Earned 16,840 Bal. 16,840 Rent Revenue 120 1,600 Bal. 120 Depreciation Expense Bal. 50 50 Chris Clark, Capital Utilities Expense Bal. 985 4,000 985 Bal. 25,000 7,205 ③ Supplies Expense Bal. 2,040 2,040 Insurance Expense Bal. 100 100 Miscellaneous Expense Bal. 455 455 Chris Clark, Drawing Bal. 4,000 4,000 •Exhibit 10 ④ 1. Debit each revenue account for the amount of its balance, and credit Income Summary for the total revenue. 2. Debit Income Summary for the total expenses, and credit each expense account for the amount of its balance. 3. Debit Income Summary for the amount of its balance (net income), and credit the capital account for the same amount. (The accounts debited and credited are reversed if there is a net loss.) 4. Debit the capital account for the balance of the drawing account, and credit the drawing account for the same amount. Closing Entries for NetSolutions JOURNAL Date Post. Ref. Debit Credit Closing Entries 1 2 Description Page 6 2005 Dec. 31 3 4 1 Fees Earned Rent Revenue Income Summary 41 42 33 16 8 4 0 00 1 2 0 00 Income Summary Wages Expense Rent Expense Depreciation Expense Utilities Expense Supplies Expense Insurance Expense Miscellaneous Expense 33 51 52 53 54 55 56 59 9 7 5 5 00 Income Summary Chris Clark, Capital 33 31 7 2 0 5 00 Chris Clark, Capital Chris Clark, Drawing 31 32 4 0 0 0 00 2 3 16 9 6 0 00 4 5 6 5 31 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 7 2 0 5 00 16 17 19 7 14 31 16 18 6 4 5 2 5 00 1 6 0 0 00 5 0 00 9 8 5 00 2 0 4 0 00 1 0 0 00 4 5 5 00 17 31 18 4 0 0 0 00 19 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:26 PM Page 147 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle •Exhibit 11 Ledger for NetSolutions LEDGER ACCOUNT Cash Date Item 2005 ACCOUNT NO. 11 Post. Ref. 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 Nov. 1 5 18 30 30 30 Dec. 1 1 1 6 11 13 16 20 21 23 27 31 31 31 31 Balance Credit Debit 20 0 0 0 00 Debit 25 0 0 0 00 5 0 0 0 00 25 0 0 0 00 7 5 0 0 00 3 6 5 0 00 9 5 0 00 2 0 0 0 00 2 4 0 0 00 8 0 0 00 3 6 0 00 1 8 0 00 4 0 0 00 9 5 0 00 3 1 0 0 00 9 0 0 00 6 5 0 00 1 4 5 0 00 1 2 0 0 00 3 1 0 00 2 2 5 00 2 8 7 0 00 2 0 0 0 00 ACCOUNT Accounts Receivable Date Item 2005 Dec. 16 21 31 31 Adjusting Post. Ref. 3 3 4 5 Date Item Nov. 10 30 23 Dec. 31 Adjusting 12 5 0 0 00 8 8 5 0 00 7 9 0 0 00 5 9 0 0 00 3 5 0 0 00 2 7 0 0 00 3 0 6 0 00 2 8 8 0 00 2 4 8 0 00 1 5 3 0 00 4 6 3 0 00 3 7 3 0 00 4 3 8 0 00 2 9 3 0 00 1 7 3 0 00 1 4 2 0 00 1 1 9 5 00 4 0 6 5 00 2 0 6 5 00 ACCOUNT NO. 12 Balance Debit Credit 1 7 5 0 00 6 5 0 00 1 1 2 0 00 5 0 0 00 ACCOUNT Supplies 2005 Credit Debit Credit 1 7 5 0 00 1 1 0 0 00 2 2 2 0 00 2 7 2 0 00 ACCOUNT NO. 14 Post. Ref. 1 1 3 5 Balance Debit Credit 1 3 5 0 00 8 0 0 00 1 4 5 0 00 1 2 4 0 00 Debit 1 3 5 0 00 5 5 0 00 2 0 0 0 00 7 6 0 00 Credit 147 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:26 PM Page 148 148 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle •Exhibit 11 (continued) ACCOUNT Prepaid Insurance Date Item 2005 Dec. 1 31 Adjusting Post. Ref. ACCOUNT NO. 15 Balance Debit 2 5 Credit 2 4 0 0 00 1 0 0 00 ACCOUNT Land Date Item 2005 Date Item Post. Ref. 2 Dec. 4 Debit Credit 20 0 0 0 00 Date Item Dec. 31 Adjusting Post. Ref. Debit Balance Debit Credit 1 8 0 0 00 Debit 1 8 0 0 00 — Nov. 10 30 Dec. 4 11 20 Item 1 1 2 2 3 — Balance Debit Credit Debit 5 0 00 ACCOUNT Accounts Payable Date Credit ACCOUNT NO. 19 — 2005 — ACCOUNT NO. 18 5 Post. Ref. Credit 20 0 0 0 00 — ACCOUNT Accumulated Depreciation 2005 2 4 0 0 00 2 3 0 0 00 Balance Post. Ref. ACCOUNT Office Equipment 2005 Credit ACCOUNT NO. 17 1 Nov. 5 Debit Credit 5 0 00 — ACCOUNT NO. 21 Balance Debit Credit 1 3 5 0 00 9 5 0 00 1 8 0 0 00 4 0 0 00 9 0 0 00 Debit Credit 1 3 5 0 00 4 0 0 00 2 2 0 0 00 1 8 0 0 00 9 0 0 00 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:27 PM Page 149 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle •Exhibit 11 (continued) ACCOUNT Wages Payable Date Item 2005 Dec. 31 Adjusting Post. Ref. ACCOUNT NO. 22 Balance Debit 5 Credit Debit Credit 2 5 0 00 2 5 0 00 — — ACCOUNT Unearned Rent Date Item 2005 Dec. 1 31 Adjusting Post. Ref. ACCOUNT NO. 23 Balance Debit Credit Date Item Closing Closing 1 6 6 2005 Nov. 1 Dec. 31 31 Date Item Closing 2 4 6 2005 Nov. 30 Dec. 31 31 Balance Debit Credit Date 2005 Dec. 31 31 31 Item Closing Closing Closing 6 6 6 Debit 25 0 0 0 00 7 2 0 5 00 Credit 25 0 0 0 00 32 2 0 5 00 28 2 0 5 00 4 0 0 0 00 ACCOUNT NO. 32 Balance Debit Credit Debit Credit 2 0 0 0 00 4 0 0 0 00 2 0 0 0 00 2 0 0 0 00 4 0 0 0 00 ACCOUNT Income Summary Post. Ref. 3 6 0 00 2 4 0 00 ACCOUNT NO. 31 ACCOUNT Chris Clark, Drawing Post. Ref. Credit 1 2 0 00 ACCOUNT Chris Clark, Capital Post. Ref. Debit 3 6 0 00 2 5 — — ACCOUNT NO. 33 Balance Debit Credit Debit 16 9 6 0 00 9 7 5 5 00 7 2 0 5 00 Credit 16 9 6 0 00 7 2 0 5 00 — — 149 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:27 PM Page 150 150 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle •Exhibit 11 (continued) ACCOUNT Fees Earned Date Item 2005 Nov. 18 Dec. 16 16 31 31 31 Adjusting 31 Closing Post. Ref. 1 3 3 4 4 5 6 ACCOUNT NO. 41 Balance Debit Credit 7 5 0 0 00 3 1 0 0 00 1 7 5 0 00 2 8 7 0 00 1 1 2 0 00 5 0 0 00 — 16 8 4 0 00 ACCOUNT Rent Revenue Date Item 2005 Dec. 31 Adjusting 31 Closing Post. Ref. 5 6 Date Item 2005 Nov. 30 Dec. 13 27 31 Adjusting 31 Closing 1 3 3 5 6 Date Item Closing 1 2 6 2005 Nov. 30 Dec. 1 31 7 5 0 0 00 10 6 0 0 00 12 3 5 0 00 15 2 2 0 00 16 3 4 0 00 16 8 4 0 00 — Balance Debit Credit Debit 1 2 0 00 — 1 2 0 00 Credit 1 2 0 00 — ACCOUNT NO. 51 Balance Debit Credit 2 1 2 5 00 9 5 0 00 1 2 0 0 00 2 5 0 00 4 5 2 5 00 ACCOUNT Rent Expense Post. Ref. Credit ACCOUNT NO. 42 ACCOUNT Wages Expense Post. Ref. Debit Debit 2 1 2 5 00 3 0 7 5 00 4 2 7 5 00 4 5 2 5 00 — Credit — ACCOUNT NO. 52 Balance Debit Credit Debit Credit 8 0 0 00 1 6 0 0 00 8 0 0 00 8 0 0 00 1 6 0 0 00 — — 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:28 PM Page 151 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle •Exhibit 11 (concluded) ACCOUNT Depreciation Expense Date Item 2005 Dec. 31 Adjusting 31 Closing Post. Ref. ACCOUNT NO. 53 Balance Debit 5 6 Credit 5 0 00 5 0 00 ACCOUNT Utilities Expense Date Item Post. Ref. Nov. 30 Dec. 31 31 31 Closing Date Item 2005 Nov. 30 Dec. 31 Adjusting 31 Closing Debit Credit 4 5 0 00 3 1 0 00 2 2 5 00 9 8 5 00 Date Item Dec. 31 Adjusting 31 Closing 5 6 Debit Credit Date 2005 Item Nov. 30 Dec. 6 31 Closing 1 2 6 Credit 4 5 0 00 7 6 0 00 9 8 5 00 — –– Debit Credit 8 0 0 00 2 0 4 0 00 8 0 0 00 1 2 4 0 00 2 0 4 0 00 — — ACCOUNT NO. 56 Balance Debit Credit 1 0 0 00 1 0 0 00 ACCOUNT Miscellaneous Expense Post. Ref. Debit Balance ACCOUNT Insurance Expense 2005 — ACCOUNT NO. 55 1 5 6 Post. Ref. 5 0 00 — Balance ACCOUNT Supplies Expense Post. Ref. Credit ACCOUNT NO. 54 1 3 4 6 2005 Debit Debit 1 0 0 00 — Credit — ACCOUNT NO. 59 Balance Debit Credit Debit Credit 2 7 5 00 4 5 5 00 2 7 5 00 1 8 0 00 4 5 5 00 — — 151 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:28 PM Page 152 152 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle Post-Closing Trial Balance The last accounting procedure for a period is to prepare a trial balance after the closing entries have been posted. The purpose of the post-closing (after closing) trial balance is to make sure that the ledger is in balance at the beginning of the next period. The accounts and amounts should agree exactly with the accounts and amounts listed on the balance sheet at the end of the period. The post-closing trial balance for NetSolutions is shown in Exhibit 12. •Exhibit 12 Post-Closing Trial Balance NetSolutions Post-Closing Trial Balance December 31, 2005 Cash Accounts Receivable Supplies Prepaid Insurance Land Office Equipment Accumulated Depreciation Accounts Payable Wages Payable Unearned Rent Chris Clark, Capital 2 0 6 5 00 2 7 2 0 00 7 6 0 00 2 3 0 0 00 20 0 0 0 00 1 8 0 0 00 29 6 4 5 00 5 0 00 9 0 0 00 2 5 0 00 2 4 0 00 28 2 0 5 00 29 6 4 5 00 Instead of preparing a formal post-closing trial balance, it is possible to list the accounts directly from the ledger, using a computer. The computer printout, in effect, becomes the post-closing trial balance. Without such a printout, there is no efficient means of determining the cause of unequal trial balance totals. FINANCIAL REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE INTERNATIONAL DIFFERENCES F inancial statements prepared under accounting prac- tices in other countries often differ from those prepared under generally accepted accounting principles found in the United States. This is to be expected, since cultures and market structures differ from country to country. To illustrate, BMW Group prepares its financial statements under German law and German accounting principles. In doing so, BMW’s balance sheet reports fixed assets first, followed by current assets. It also reports owner’s equity before the liabilities. In contrast, balance sheets prepared under U.S. accounting principles report current assets followed by fixed assets and current liabilities followed by long-term liabilities and owner’s equity. The U.S. form of balance sheet is organized to emphasize creditor interpretation and analysis. For example, current assets and current liabilities are presented first, so that working capital (current assets Ϫ current liabilities) and the current ratio (current assets Ϭ current liabilities) can be easily computed. Likewise, to emphasize their importance, liabilities are reported before owner’s equity. Regardless of these differences, the basic principles underlying the accounting equation and the double-entry accounting system are the same in Germany and the United States. Even though differences in recording and reporting exist, the accounting equation holds true: the total assets still equal the total liabilities and owner’s equity. 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:28 PM Page 153 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle 153 Fiscal Year objective 5 Explain what is meant by the fiscal year and the natural business year. In the NetSolutions illustration, operations began on November 1 and the accounting period was for two months, November and December. A proprietorship is required by the federal income tax law, except in rare cases, to maintain the same accounting period as its owner. Since Chris Clark maintains a calendar-year accounting period for tax purposes, NetSolutions must also close its accounts on December 31, 2005. In future years, the financial statements for NetSolutions will be prepared for twelve months ending on December 31 each year. The annual accounting period adopted by a business is known as its fiscal year. Fiscal years begin with the first day of the month selected and end on the last day of the following twelfth month. The period most commonly used is the calendar year. Other periods are not unusual, especially for businesses organized as corporations. For example, a corporation may adopt a fiscal year that ends when business activities have reached the lowest point in its annual operating cycle. Such a fiscal year is called the natural business year. At the low point in its operating cycle, a business has more time to analyze the results of operations and to prepare financial statements. Because companies with fiscal years often have highly seasonal operations, investors and others should be careful in interpreting partial-year reports for such companies. That is, you should expect the results of operations for these companies to vary significantly throughout the fiscal year. The financial history of a business may be shown by a series of balance sheets and income statements for several fiscal years. If the life of a business is expressed by a line moving from left to right, the series of balance sheets and income statements may be graphed as follows: F I NAN C IAL H I STO RY 1 DE C . 3 2004 Income statement for the year ended Dec.31, 2004 Income statement for the year ended Dec.31, 2005 Percentage of Companies with Fiscal Years Ending in: 5% 2 3 1 3 8 July August September October November December BUSINESS 1 DE C . 3 2005 Balance sheet Dec.31, 2005 Balance sheet Dec.31, 2004 January February March April May June OF A 1% 3 6 3 3 62 Source: Accounting Trends & Techniques, 56th edition, 2002 (New York: American Institute of Certified Public Accountants). Income statement for the year ended Dec.31, 2006 1 DE C . 3 2006 Balance sheet Dec.31, 2006 You may think of the income statements, balance sheets, and financial history of a business as similar to the record of a college football team. The final score of each football game is similar to the net income reported on the income statement of a business. The team’s season record after each game is similar to the balance sheet. At the end of the season, the final record of the team measures its success or failure. Likewise, at the end of a life of a business, its final balance sheet is a measure of its financial success or failure. 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 12/2/03 11:38 AM Page 154 154 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle Financial Analysis and Interpretation objective 6 Analyze and interpret the financial solvency of a business by computing working capital and the current ratio. The ability of a business to pay its debts is called solvency. Two financial measures for evaluating a business’s short-term solvency are working capital and the current ratio. Working capital is the excess of the current assets of a business over its current liabilities, as shown below. Working capital ϭ Current assets Ϫ Current liabilities An excess of the current assets over the current liabilities implies that the business is able to pay its current liabilities. If the current liabilities are greater than the current assets, the business may not be able to pay its debts and continue in business. To illustrate, NetSolutions’ working capital at the end of 2005 is $6,455, as computed below. This amount of working capital implies that NetSolutions can pay its current liabilities. Working capital ϭ Current assets Ϫ Current liabilities Working capital ϭ $7,845 Ϫ $1,390 Working capital ϭ $6,455 The current ratio is another means of expressing the relationship between current assets and current liabilities. The current ratio is computed by dividing current assets by current liabilities, as shown below. Current ratio ϭ Current assets/Current liabilities To illustrate, the current ratio for NetSolutions at the end of 2005 is 5.6, computed as follows: Current ratio ϭ Current assets/Current liabilities Current ratio ϭ $7,845/$1,390 ϭ 5.6 The current ratio is useful in making comparisons across companies and with industry averages. To illustrate, assume that as of December 31, 2005, the working capital of a company that competes with NetSolutions is much greater than $6,455, but its current ratio is only 1.3. Considering these facts alone, NetSolutions is in a more favorable position to obtain short-term credit, even though the competing company has a greater amount of working capital. SPOTLIGHT ON STRATEGY WHAT’S NEXT FOR AMAZON? A mazon.com built its online business strategy on of- fering books at significant discounts that traditional chains couldn’t match. Over the years, Amazon has expanded its online offerings to include DVDs, toys, electronics, and even kitchen appliances. But can its low-cost, discount strategy continue to work across a variety of products? Some have their doubts. The electronics business has lower margins and more competition than books. For example, Dell Computers is already an established low-cost provider of personal computers and software. In addition, some electronic manufacturers such as Sony are protec- tive of their prices and have refused to make Amazon.com an authorized dealer. As Lauren Levitan, a noted financial analyst, recently said, “It’s hard to be the low-cost retailer. You have to execute flawlessly on a very consistent basis. Most people who try a low-price strategy fail.” This risk of failing at the low-cost strategy was validated by Kmart’s filing for bankruptcy protection in 2002 because of its inability to compete with Wal-Mart’s low prices. Source: Saul Hansell, “A Profitable Amazon Looks to Do an Encore,” The New York Times, January 26, 2002. 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:28 PM Page 155 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle A ppendix 155 Reversing Entries Some of the adjusting entries recorded at the end of an accounting period have an important effect on otherwise routine transactions that occur in the following period. A typical example is accrued wages owed to employees at the end of a period. If there has been an adjusting entry for accrued wages expense, the first payment of wages in the following period will include the accrual. In the absence of some special provision, Wages Payable must be debited for the amount owed for the earlier period, and Wages Expense must be debited for the portion of the payroll that represents expense for the later period. However, an optional entry—the reversing entry—may be used to simplify the analysis and recording of this first payroll entry in a period. As the term implies, a reversing entry is the exact opposite of the adjusting entry to which it relates. The amounts and accounts are the same as the adjusting entry; the debits and credits are reversed. We will illustrate the use of reversing entries by using the data for NetSolutions’ accrued wages, which were presented in Chapter 3. These data are summarized in Exhibit 13. •Exhibit 13 Accrued Wages 1. Wages are paid on the second and fourth Fridays for the two-week periods ending on those Fridays. 2. The wages accrued for Monday and Tuesday, December 30 and 31, are $250. 3. Wages paid on Friday, January 10, total $1,275. December S T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1 Wages expense (accrued), $250 M 2 3 4 8 9 10 11 January Wages expense (paid), $1,275 5 6 7 Wages expense (paid), $950 Wages expense (paid), $1,200 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:28 PM Page 156 156 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle The adjusting entry for the accrued wages of December 30 and 31 is as follows: Dec. 31 Wages Expense Wages Payable 51 22 2 5 0 00 2 5 0 00 After the adjusting entry has been posted, Wages Expense will have a debit balance of $4,525 ($4,275 ϩ $250), and Wages Payable will have a credit balance of $250. After the closing process is completed, Wages Expense will have a zero balance and will be ready for entries in the next period. Wages Payable, on the other hand, has a balance of $250. Without a reversing entry, it is necessary to record the $1,275 payroll on January 10 as follows: 2006 Jan. 10 Wages Payable Wages Expense Cash 22 51 11 2 5 0 00 1 0 2 5 00 1 2 7 5 00 The employee who records the January 10th entry must refer to the prior period’s adjusting entry to determine the amount of the debits to Wages Payable and Wages Expense. Because the January 10th payroll is not recorded in the usual manner, there is a greater chance that an error may occur. This chance of error is reduced by recording a reversing entry as of the first day of the fiscal period. For example, the reversing entry for the accrued wages expense is as follows: 2006 Jan. 1 Wages Payable Wages Expense 22 51 2 5 0 00 2 5 0 00 The reversing entry transfers the $250 liability from Wages Payable to the credit side of Wages Expense. The nature of the $250 is unchanged—it is still a liability. When the payroll is paid on January 10, the following entry is recorded: Jan. 10 Wages Expense Cash 51 11 1 2 7 5 00 1 2 7 5 00 After this entry is posted, Wages Expense has a debit balance of $1,025. This amount is the wages expense for the period January 1–10. The sequence of entries, including adjusting, closing, and reversing entries, is illustrated in the following accounts: ACCOUNT Wages Payable Date 2005 Item Dec. 31 Adjusting 2006 Jan. 1 Reversing Post. Ref. 5 7 ACCOUNT NO. 22 Balance Debit Credit Debit 2 5 0 00 2 5 0 00 Credit 2 5 0 00 — — 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:28 PM Page 157 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle ACCOUNT Wages Expense Date 2005 Item Nov. 30 Dec. 13 27 31 Adjusting 31 Closing 2006 Jan. 1 Reversing 10 Post. Ref. 1 3 3 5 6 7 7 157 ACCOUNT NO. 51 Balance Debit Debit Credit Credit 2 1 2 5 00 3 0 7 5 00 4 2 7 5 00 4 5 2 5 00 2 1 2 5 00 9 5 0 00 1 2 0 0 00 2 5 0 00 4 5 2 5 00 2 5 0 00 — — 2 5 0 00 1 0 2 5 00 1 2 7 5 00 In addition to accrued expenses (accrued liabilities), reversing entries may be journalized for accrued revenues (accrued assets). For example, the following reversing entry could be recorded for NetSolutions’ accrued fees earned: Jan. 1 Fees Earned Accounts Receivable 41 12 5 0 0 00 5 0 0 00 Reversing entries may also be journalized for prepaid expenses that are initially recorded as expenses and unearned revenues that are initially recorded as revenues. These situations are described and illustrated in Appendix C. As we mentioned, the use of reversing entries is optional. However, with the increased use of computerized accounting systems, data entry personnel may be inputting routine accounting entries. In such an environment, reversing entries may be useful, since these individuals may not recognize the impact of adjusting entries on the related transactions in the following period. Key Points 1 Review the seven basic steps of the accounting cycle. The basic steps of the accounting cycle are: 1. Transactions are analyzed and recorded in a journal. 2. Transactions are posted to the ledger. 3. A trial balance is prepared, adjustment data are assembled, and an optional work sheet is completed. 4. Financial statements are prepared. 5. Adjusting entries are journalized and posted to the ledger. 6. Closing entries are journalized and posted to the ledger. 7. A post-closing trial balance is prepared. 2 Prepare a work sheet. The work sheet is prepared by first entering a trial balance in the Trial Balance columns. The adjustments are then entered in the Adjustments Debit and Credit columns. The Trial Balance amounts plus or minus the adjustments are extended to the Adjusted Trial Balance columns. The work sheet is completed by extending the Adjusted Trial Balance amounts of assets, liabilities, owner’s capital, and drawing to the Balance Sheet columns. The Adjusted Trial Balance amounts of revenues and expenses are extended to the Income Statement columns. The net income (or net loss) for the period is entered on the work sheet in the Income Statement Debit (or Credit) column and the Balance Sheet Credit (or Debit) column. Each of the four statement columns is then totaled. 3 Prepare financial statements from a work sheet. The income statement is normally prepared directly from the work sheet. On the income statement, the expenses are normally presented in 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:28 PM Page 158 158 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle the order of size, from largest to smallest. The basic form of the statement of owner’s equity is prepared by listing the beginning balance of owner’s equity, adding investments in the business and net income during the period, and deducting the owner’s withdrawals. The amount listed on the work sheet as capital does not always represent the account balance at the beginning of the accounting period. The proprietor may have invested additional assets in the business during the period. Hence, for the beginning balance and any additional investments, it is necessary to refer to the capital account. Various sections and subsections are often used in preparing a balance sheet. Two common classes of assets are current assets and fixed assets. Cash and other assets that are normally expected to be converted to cash or sold or used up within one year or less are called current assets. Property, plant, and equipment may also be called fixed assets or plant assets. The cost, accumulated depreciation, and book value of each major type of fixed asset are normally reported on the balance sheet. Two common classes of liabilities are current liabilities and long-term liabilities. Liabilities that will be due within a short time (usually one year or less) and that are to be paid out of current assets are called current liabilities. Liabilities that will not be due for a long time (usually more than one year) are called long-term liabilities. The owner’s claim against the assets is presented below the liabilities section and added to the total liabilities. The total liabilities and total owner’s equity must equal the total assets. 4 Prepare the adjusting and closing entries from a work sheet. The data for journalizing the adjusting entries are in the Adjustments columns of the work sheet. The four entries required in closing the temporary accounts are: 1. Debit each revenue account for the amount of its balance, and credit Income Summary for the total revenue. 2. Debit Income Summary for the total expenses, and credit each expense account for the amount of its balance. 3. Debit Income Summary for the amount of its balance (net income), and credit the capital account for the same amount. (Debit and credit are reversed if there is a net loss.) 4. Debit the capital account for the balance of the drawing account, and credit the drawing account for the same amount. After the closing entries have been posted to the ledger, the balance in the capital account will agree with the amount reported on the statement of owner’s equity and balance sheet. In addition, the revenue, expense, and drawing accounts will have zero balances. The last step of the accounting cycle is to prepare a post-closing trial balance. The purpose of the post-closing trial balance is to make sure that the ledger is in balance at the beginning of the next period. 5 Explain what is meant by the fiscal year and the natural business year. The annual accounting period adopted by a business is known as its fiscal year. A corporation may adopt a fiscal year that ends when business activities have reached the lowest point in its annual operating cycle. Such a fiscal year is called the natural business year. 6 Analyze and interpret the financial solvency of a business by computing working capital and the current ratio. The ability of a business to pay its debts is called solvency. Two financial measures for evaluating a business’s short-term solvency are working capital and the current ratio. Working capital is the excess of the current assets of a business over its current liabilities. The current ratio is computed by dividing current assets by current liabilities. Key Terms accounting cycle (140) clearing account (145) closing entries (144D) closing process (144D) current assets (144A) current liabilities (144A) current ratio (154) fiscal year (153) fixed (plant) assets (144A) Income Summary (144D) long-term liabilities (144A) natural business year (153) note receivable (144A) post-closing trial balance (152) property, plant, and equipment (144A) real accounts (144D) reversing entry (155) solvency (154) temporary (nominal) accounts (144D) work sheet (140) working capital (154) 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:28 PM Page 159 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle 159 Illustrative Problem Three years ago, T. Roderick organized Harbor Realty. At July 31, 2006, the end of the current fiscal year, the trial balance of Harbor Realty is as follows: Harbor Realty Trial Balance July 31, 2006 Cash Accounts Receivable Supplies Prepaid Insurance Office Equipment Accumulated Depreciation Accounts Payable Unearned Fees T. Roderick, Capital T. Roderick, Drawing Fees Earned Wages Expense Rent Expense Utilities Expense Miscellaneous Expense 3 4 2 5 00 7 0 0 0 00 1 2 7 0 00 6 2 0 00 51 6 5 0 00 9 7 0 0 00 9 2 5 00 1 2 5 0 00 29 0 0 0 00 5 2 0 0 00 59 1 2 5 00 22 4 1 5 00 4 2 0 0 00 2 7 1 5 00 1 5 0 5 00 100 0 0 0 00 100 0 0 0 00 The data needed to determine year-end adjustments are as follows: a. b. c. d. e. f. Supplies on hand at July 31, 2006, are $380. Insurance premiums expired during the year are $315. Depreciation of equipment during the year is $4,950. Wages accrued but not paid at July 31, 2006, are $440. Accrued fees earned but not recorded at July 31, 2006, are $1,000. Unearned fees on July 31, 2006, are $750. Instructions 1. Enter the trial balance on a ten-column work sheet and complete the work sheet. 2. Prepare an income statement, a statement of owner’s equity (no additional investments were made during the year), and a balance sheet. 3. On the basis of the data in the work sheet, journalize the closing entries. 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:28 PM Page 160 160 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle Solution 1. Harbor Realty Work Sheet For the Year Ended July 31, 2006 Trial Balance Account Title Adjustments Dr. Dr. 1 Cash 7000 3 Supplies 4 Prepaid Insurance 1270 620 5 Office Equipment Dr. Cr. 3425 2 Accounts Receivable Cr. 51 6 5 0 6 Accum. Depreciation 8 Unearned Fees (a) 8 9 0 (b) 3 1 5 14 Rent Expense 15 Utilities Expense 16 Miscellaneous Expense 17 22 4 1 5 2 380 305 3 305 51 6 5 0 925 7 750 8 29 0 0 0 9 5200 60 6 2 5 60 6 2 5 10 11 12 22 8 5 5 22 8 5 5 4200 2715 13 1505 4200 2715 1505 1505 100 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 5 14 6 5 0 6 14 6 5 0 925 29 0 0 0 (d) 4 4 0 4 51 6 5 0 750 4200 2715 16 14 15 17 18 Supplies Expense (a) 8 9 0 19 Insurance Expense (b) 3 1 5 (c)4 9 5 0 20 Depreciation Expense Cr. 380 (e)1 0 0 0 (f) 5 0 0 59 1 2 5 Dr. 1 5200 12 13 Wages Expense Cr. 8000 (c)4 9 5 0 5200 11 Fees Earned Dr. Balance Sheet 3425 1 2 5 0 (f) 5 0 0 29 0 0 0 9 T. Roderick, Capital 10 T. Roderick, Drawing Cr. Income Statement 3425 8000 (e)1 0 0 0 9700 925 7 Accounts Payable Adjusted Trial Balance 890 315 18 315 4950 4950 (d) 4 4 0 21 Wages Payable 890 19 20 37 4 3 0 23 1 9 5 60 6 2 5 68 9 6 0 23 Net Income 4 4 0 21 45 7 6 5 22 23 1 9 5 23 24 60 6 2 5 60 6 2 5 68 9 6 0 68 9 6 0 24 8095 22 440 8 0 9 5 106 3 9 0 106 3 9 0 2. Harbor Realty Inc. Income Statement For the Year Ended July 31, 2006 Fees earned Operating expenses: Wages expense Depreciation expense Rent expense Utilities expense Supplies expense Insurance expense Miscellaneous expense Total operating expenses Net income $60 6 2 5 00 $22 8 5 5 00 4 9 5 0 00 4 2 0 0 00 2 7 1 5 00 8 9 0 00 3 1 5 00 1 5 0 5 00 37 4 3 0 00 $23 1 9 5 00 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:29 PM Page 161 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle 161 Harbor Realty Statement of Owner’s Equity For the Year Ended July 31, 2006 T. Roderick, capital, August 1, 2005 Net income for the year Less withdrawals Increase in owner’s equity T. Roderick, capital, July 31, 2006 $29 0 0 0 00 $23 1 9 5 00 5 2 0 0 00 17 9 9 5 00 $46 9 9 5 00 Harbor Realty Balance Sheet July 31, 2006 Assets Liabilities Current assets: Cash Accounts receivable Supplies Prepaid insurance Total current assets Property, plant, and equipment: Office equipment Less accumulated depr. Total assets Current liabilities: Accounts payable Unearned fees $ 3 4 2 5 00 8 0 0 0 00 3 8 0 00 3 0 5 00 $ 9 2 5 00 7 5 0 00 4 4 0 00 Wages payable Total liabilities $ 2 1 1 5 00 $12 1 1 0 00 Owner’s Equity $51 6 5 0 00 14 6 5 0 00 37 0 0 0 00 $49 1 1 0 00 46 9 9 5 00 T. Roderick, capital Total liabilities and owner’s equity $49 1 1 0 00 3. JOURNAL Date Post. Ref. Debit Closing Entries 1 2 Description Page 2006 July 31 3 1 Fees Earned Income Summary 60 6 2 5 00 Income Summary Wages Expense Rent Expense Utilities Expense Miscellaneous Expense Supplies Expense Insurance Expense Depreciation Expense 37 4 3 0 00 Income Summary T. Roderick, Capital 23 1 9 5 00 4 31 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 31 15 18 14 23 1 9 5 00 15 16 17 5 22 8 5 5 00 6 4 2 0 0 00 7 2 7 1 5 00 8 1 5 0 5 00 9 8 9 0 00 10 3 1 5 00 11 4 9 5 0 00 12 13 14 2 60 6 2 5 00 3 4 5 Credit 16 31 T. Roderick, Capital T. Roderick, Drawing 5 2 0 0 00 17 5 2 0 0 00 18 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:29 PM Page 162 162 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle Self-Examination Questions 1. Which of the following accounts in the Adjusted Trial Balance columns of the work sheet would be extended to the Balance Sheet columns? A. Utilities Expense C. M. E. Jones, Drawing B. Rent Revenue D. Miscellaneous Expense (Answers at End of Chapter) C. Debit the income summary account, credit the drawing account. D. Debit the drawing account, credit the owner’s capital account. 2. Which of the following accounts would be classified as a current asset on the balance sheet? A. Office Equipment B. Land C. Accumulated Depreciation D. Accounts Receivable 4. Which of the following accounts would not be closed to the income summary account at the end of a period? A. Fees Earned B. Wages Expense C. Rent Expense D. Accumulated Depreciation 3. Which of the following entries closes the owner’s drawing account at the end of the period? A. Debit the drawing account, credit the income summary account. B. Debit the owner’s capital account, credit the drawing account. 5. Which of the following accounts would not be included in a post-closing trial balance? A. Cash B. Fees Earned C. Accumulated Depreciation D. J. C. Smith, Capital C lass Discussion Questions 1. (a) What is the most important output of the accounting cycle? (b) Do all companies have an accounting cycle? Explain. 2. Is the work sheet a substitute for the financial statements? Discuss. 3. In the Income Statement columns of the work sheet, the Debit column total is greater than the Credit column total before the amount for the net income or net loss has been included. Would the income statement report a net income or a net loss? Explain. 4. In the Balance Sheet columns of the work sheet for Teton Co. for the current year, the Debit column total is $68,500 greater than the Credit column total before the amount for net income or net loss has been included. Would the income statement report a net income or a net loss? Explain. 5. Describe the nature of the assets that compose the following sections of a balance sheet: (a) current assets, (b) property, plant, and equipment. 6. What is the difference between a current liability and a long-term liability? 7. What types of accounts are referred to as temporary accounts? 8. Why are closing entries required at the end of an accounting period? 9. What is the difference between adjusting entries and closing entries? 10. Describe the four entries that close the temporary accounts. 11. What is the purpose of the post-closing trial balance? 12. What is the natural business year? 13. Why might a department store select a fiscal year ending January 31, rather than a fiscal year ending December 31? 14. The fiscal years for several well-known companies were as follows: Company Fiscal Year Ending Company Fiscal Year Ending Kmart JCPenney Zayre Corp. January 30 January 26 January 26 Toys “R” Us, Inc. Federated Department Stores The Limited, Inc. February 3 February 3 February 2 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:29 PM Page 163 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle 163 What general characteristic shared by these companies explains why they do not have fiscal years ending December 31? 15. If a company has positive working capital, will its current ratio always be greater than 1? Explain. Remember! If you need additional help, visit South-Western’s Web site. See page 28 for a description of the online and printed materials that are available. http://warren.swlearning.com Answer: Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, Inc. E xercises EXERCISE 4-1 Steps in the accounting cycle Objective 1 EXERCISE 4-2 Place account balances in a work sheet Objective 2 EXERCISE 4-3 Classify accounts Objective 2 EXERCISE 4-4 Steps in completing a work sheet Objective 2 Rearrange the following steps in the accounting cycle in proper sequence: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Closing entries are journalized and posted to the ledger. Adjusting entries are journalized and posted to the ledger. Transactions are posted to the ledger. A post-closing trial balance is prepared. Transactions are analyzed and recorded in the journal. Financial statements are prepared. A trial balance is prepared, adjustment data are assembled, and an optional work sheet is completed. The balances for the accounts listed below appear in the Adjusted Trial Balance columns of the work sheet. Indicate whether each balance should be extended to (a) an Income Statement column or (b) a Balance Sheet column. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Accounts Payable Accounts Receivable Fees Earned Kathy Chang, Drawing Kathy Chang, Capital 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Supplies Unearned Fees Utilities Expense Wages Expense Wages Payable Balances for each of the following accounts appear in an adjusted trial balance. Identify each as (a) asset, (b) liability, (c) revenue, or (d) expense. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Accounts Receivable Fees Earned Insurance Expense Land Prepaid Advertising Prepaid Insurance 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Rent Revenue Salary Expense Salary Payable Supplies Supplies Expense Unearned Rent The steps performed in completing a work sheet are listed below in random order. a. Extend the adjusted trial balance amounts to the Income Statement columns and the Balance Sheet columns. (continued) 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:29 PM Page 164 164 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle b. Enter the adjusting entries into the work sheet, based upon the adjustment data. c. Add the Debit and Credit columns of the unadjusted Trial Balance columns of the work sheet to verify that the totals are equal. d. Enter the amount of net income or net loss for the period in the proper Income Statement column and Balance Sheet column. e. Add the Debit and Credit columns of the Balance Sheet and Income Statement columns of the work sheet to verify that the totals are equal. f. Enter the unadjusted account balances from the general ledger into the unadjusted Trial Balance columns of the work sheet. g. Add or deduct adjusting entry data to trial balance amounts and extend amounts to the Adjusted Trial Balance columns. h. Add the Debit and Credit columns of the Adjustments columns of the work sheet to verify that the totals are equal. i. Add the Debit and Credit columns of the Balance Sheet and Income Statement columns of the work sheet to determine the amount of net income or net loss for the period. j. Add the Debit and Credit columns of the Adjusted Trial Balance columns of the work sheet to verify that the totals are equal. Indicate the order in which the preceding steps would be performed in preparing and completing a work sheet. EXERCISE 4-5 Adjustment data on work sheet Ithaca Services Co. offers cleaning services to business clients. The trial balance for Ithaca Services Co. has been prepared on the work sheet for the year ended January 31, 2006, shown below. Objective 2 Ithaca Services Co. Work Sheet For the Year Ended January 31, 2006 Trial Balance Total debits of Adjustments column: $24 Account Title Dr. Cash Accounts Receivable Supplies Prepaid Insurance Land Equipment Accumulated Depr.—Equip. Accounts Payable Wages Payable Terry Dagley, Capital Terry Dagley, Drawing Fees Earned Wages Expense Rent Expense Insurance Expense Utilities Expense Depreciation Expense Supplies Expense Miscellaneous Expense Totals Cr. Adjustments Dr. 8 50 8 12 50 32 2 26 0 112 8 60 16 8 0 6 0 0 2 200 200 The data for year-end adjustments are as follows: a. b. c. d. e. Fees earned, but not yet billed, $7. Supplies on hand, $3. Insurance premiums expired, $6. Depreciation expense, $5. Wages accrued, but not paid, $1. Cr. Adjusted Trial Balance Dr. Cr. 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:29 PM Page 165 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle 165 Enter the adjustment data, and place the balances in the Adjusted Trial Balance columns. EXERCISE 4-6 Complete a work sheet Ithaca Services Co. offers cleaning services to business clients. Complete the following work sheet for Ithaca Services Co. Objective 2 Ithaca Services Co. Work Sheet For the Year Ended January 31, 2006 Adjusted Trial Balance Net income: $18 Account Title Dr. Cash Accounts Receivable Supplies Prepaid Insurance Land Equipment Accumulated Depr.—Equip. Accounts Payable Wages Payable Terry Dagley, Capital Terry Dagley, Drawing Fees Earned Wages Expense Rent Expense Insurance Expense Utilities Expense Depreciation Expense Supplies Expense Miscellaneous Expense Totals Cr. Income Statement Dr. Cr. Balance Sheet Dr. Cr. 8 57 3 6 50 32 7 26 1 112 8 67 17 8 6 6 5 5 2 213 213 Net income (loss) EXERCISE 4-7 Financial statements Based upon the data in Exercise 4-6, prepare an income statement, statement of owner’s equity, and balance sheet for Ithaca Services Co. Objective 3 Terry Dagley, capital, Jan. 31, 2006: $122 EXERCISE 4-8 Adjusting entries Based upon the data in Exercise 4-5, prepare the adjusting entries for Ithaca Services Co. Objective 4 EXERCISE 4-9 Closing entries Based upon the data in Exercise 4-6, prepare the closing entries for Ithaca Services Co. Objective 4 EXERCISE 4-10 Income statement Objective 3 The following account balances were taken from the Adjusted Trial Balance columns of the work sheet for Larynx Messenger Service, a delivery service firm, for the current fiscal year ended June 30, 2006: 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:29 PM Page 166 166 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle Fees Earned Salaries Expense Rent Expense Utilities Expense $273,700 77,100 22,500 6,500 Supplies Expense Miscellaneous Expense Insurance Expense Depreciation Expense $2,750 1,350 1,500 5,200 Prepare an income statement. EXERCISE 4-11 Income statement; net loss Objective 3 The following revenue and expense account balances were taken from the ledger of Sirocco Services Co. after the accounts had been adjusted on March 31, 2006, the end of the current fiscal year: Depreciation Expense Insurance Expense Miscellaneous Expense Rent Expense $ 8,000 4,100 2,250 21,270 Service Revenue Supplies Expense Utilities Expense Wages Expense $103,850 3,100 11,500 56,800 Prepare an income statement. EXERCISE 4-12 Income statement Objective 3 FedEx Corporation had the following revenue and expense account balances (in millions) at its fiscal year-end of May 31, 2002: Rentals and Landing Fees Maintenance and Repairs Purchased Transportation Fuel Salaries and Employee Benefits Other Operating Expenses $1,524 980 562 1,009 6,467 3,168 Depreciation and Amortization Interest Expense Revenues Provision for Income Taxes Other Expenses $ 806 56 15,327 260 52 a. Prepare an income statement. b. Compare your income statement with the 2002 income statement that is available at the FedEx Corporation Web site, which is linked to the text’s Web site at http:/ /warren.swlearning.com. What similarities and differences do you see? a. Net income: $443 EXERCISE 4-13 Statement of owner’s equity Synthesis Systems Co. offers its services to residents in the Dillon City area. Selected accounts from the ledger of Synthesis Systems Co. for the current fiscal year ended October 31, 2006, are as follows: Objective 3 Suzanne Jacob, Capital Oct. 31 12,000 Suzanne Jacob, Drawing Nov. 1 (2005) 173,750 Oct. 31 44,250 Suzanne Jacob, capital, Oct. 31, 2006: $206,000 Jan. 31 Apr. 30 July 31 Oct. 31 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 Oct. 31 12,000 Income Summary Oct. 31 31 277,150 44,250 Oct. 31 321,400 Prepare a statement of owner’s equity for the year. EXERCISE 4-14 Statement of owner’s equity; net loss Selected accounts from the ledger of Bobcat Sports for the current fiscal year ended August 31, 2006, are as follows: John Kramer, Capital Objective 3 Aug. 31 31 16,000 49,650 Sep. 1 (2005) 210,300 John Kramer, Drawing Nov. 30 Feb. 28 May 31 Aug. 31 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 Aug. 31 16,000 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:29 PM Page 167 167 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle John Kramer, capital, Aug. 31, 2006: $144,650 Income Summary Aug. 31 224,900 Aug. 31 31 175,250 49,650 Prepare a statement of owner’s equity for the year. EXERCISE 4-15 Classify assets Objective 3 EXERCISE 4-16 Balance sheet classification Objective 3 EXERCISE 4-17 Balance sheet Objective 3 Total assets: $126,650 Identify each of the following as (a) a current asset or (b) property, plant, and equipment: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Cash Equipment Accounts receivable Building Prepaid insurance Supplies At the balance sheet date, a business owes a mortgage note payable of $500,000, the terms of which provide for monthly payments of $13,750. Explain how the liability should be classified on the balance sheet. Tudor Co. offers personal weight reduction consulting services to individuals. After all the accounts have been closed on April 30, 2006, the end of the current fiscal year, the balances of selected accounts from the ledger of Tudor Co. are as follows: Accounts Payable Accounts Receivable Accumulated Depreciation— Equipment Cash Equipment $ 9,500 21,850 21,100 ? 80,600 Vernon Posey, Capital Prepaid Insurance Prepaid Rent Salaries Payable Supplies Unearned Fees $114,200 7,200 4,800 1,750 1,800 1,200 Prepare a classified balance sheet that includes the correct balance for Cash. EXERCISE 4-18 Balance sheet Objective 3 Corrected balance sheet, total assets: $140,500 EXERCISE 4-19 Adjusting entries from work sheet Objective 4 List the errors you find in the following balance sheet. Prepare a corrected balance sheet. Warburg Services Co. Balance Sheet For the Year Ended May 31, 2006 Assets Current assets: Cash $ 4,170 Accounts payable 7,250 Supplies 1,650 Prepaid insurance 2,400 Land 75,000 Total current assets Property, plant, and equipment: Building Equipment Total property, plant, and equipment Total assets Liabilities Current liabilities: Accounts receivable Accum. depr.—building Accum. depr.—equipment Net loss Total liabilities $ 12,500 23,000 16,000 10,000 $ 61,500 $ 90,470 $ 55,500 28,280 $104,280 $194,750 Owner’s Equity Wages payable Erin Gentry, capital Total owner’s equity Total liabilities and owner’s equity $ 1,500 131,750 $133,250 $194,750 Green Earth Co. is a consulting firm specializing in pollution control. The entries in the Adjustments columns of the work sheet for Green Earth Co. are as follows. 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:29 PM Page 168 168 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle Adjustments Dr. Accounts Receivable Supplies Prepaid Insurance Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment Wages Payable Unearned Rent Fees Earned Wages Expense Supplies Expense Rent Revenue Insurance Expense Depreciation Expense Cr. 4,100 1,300 2,000 2,800 1,000 2,500 4,100 1,000 1,300 2,500 2,000 2,800 Prepare the adjusting journal entries. EXERCISE 4-20 Identify accounts to be closed From the following list, identify the accounts that should be closed to Income Summary at the end of the fiscal year: Objective 4 a. Accounts Payable b. Accumulated Depreciation— Equipment c. Depreciation Expense—Equipment d. Doyle Bradford, Capital e. Doyle Bradford, Drawing f. Equipment EXERCISE 4-21 Prior to its closing, Income Summary had total debits of $450,750 and total credits of $712,500. Briefly explain the purpose served by the income summary account and the nature of the entries that resulted in the $450,750 and the $712,500. Closing entries Objective 4 EXERCISE 4-22 Closing entries with net income Objective 4 b. $284,900 EXERCISE 4-23 Closing entries with net loss Objective 4 g. h. i. j. k. l. Fees Earned Land Salaries Expense Salaries Payable Supplies Supplies Expense After all revenue and expense accounts have been closed at the end of the fiscal year, Income Summary has a debit of $312,600 and a credit of $480,150. At the same date, Sue Alewine, Capital has a credit balance of $142,350, and Sue Alewine, Drawing has a balance of $25,000. (a) Journalize the entries required to complete the closing of the accounts. (b) Determine the amount of Sue Alewine, Capital at the end of the period. Edessa Services Co. offers its services to individuals desiring to improve their personal images. After the accounts have been adjusted at March 31, the end of the fiscal year, the following balances were taken from the ledger of Edessa Services Co. Emil Carr, Capital Emil Carr, Drawing Fees Earned Wages Expense Rent Expense Supplies Expense Miscellaneous Expense $225,750 50,000 180,700 180,000 75,000 24,000 6,200 Journalize the four entries required to close the accounts. EXERCISE 4-24 Identify permanent accounts Objective 4 Which of the following accounts will usually appear in the post-closing trial balance? a. b. c. d. e. f. Accounts Receivable Accumulated Depreciation Cash Depreciation Expense Equipment Estella Hall, Capital g. h. i. j. k. Estella Hall, Drawing Fees Earned Supplies Wages Expense Wages Payable 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:29 PM Page 169 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle EXERCISE 4-25 169 An accountant prepared the following post-closing trial balance: Post-closing trial balance Objective 4 Correct column totals, $107,505 Rhombic Repairs Co. Post-Closing Trial Balance March 31, 2006 Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accounts Receivable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment Accounts Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Salaries Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unearned Rent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Angie Hammill, Capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9,225 33,300 1,980 63,000 19,980 11,250 2,700 5,400 68,175 147,330 67,680 Prepare a corrected post-closing trial balance. Assume that all accounts have normal balances and that the amounts shown are correct. EXERCISE 4-26 Working capital and current ratio The financial statements for The Home Depot are presented in Appendix E at the end of the text. Objective 6 a. Determine the working capital (in millions) and the current ratio for Home Depot as of February 2, 2003 and February 3, 2002. b. What conclusions concerning the company’s ability to meets its financial obligations can you draw from these data? EXERCISE 4-27 The following data (in thousands) were taken from recent financial statements of 7 Eleven, Inc., a convenience store chain: Working capital and current ratio December 31 Objective 6 2002 Current assets Current liabilities 2001 $624,176 767,210 $632,247 791,700 a. Compute the working capital and the current ratio as of December 31, 2002 and 2001. Round to two decimal places. b. What conclusions concerning the company’s ability to meet its financial obligations can you draw from (a)? APPENDIX EXERCISE 4-28 Adjusting and reversing entries On the basis of the following data, (a) journalize the adjusting entries at December 31, the end of the current fiscal year, and (b) journalize the reversing entries on January 1, the first day of the following year. 1. Sales salaries are uniformly $16,200 for a five-day workweek, ending on Friday. The last payday of the year was Friday, December 27. 2. Accrued fees earned but not recorded at December 31, $10,250. APPENDIX EXERCISE 4-29 Entries posted to the wages expense account Portions of the wages expense account of a business are shown at the top of the following page. a. Indicate the nature of the entry (payment, adjusting, closing, reversing) from which each numbered posting was made. b. Journalize the complete entry from which each numbered posting was made. 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:29 PM Page 170 170 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle ACCOUNT Date 2006 Dec. 26 31 31 2007 Jan. 1 2 Wages Expense ACCOUNT NO. 53 Item (1) (2) (3) 91 92 93 (4) (5) Balance Post. Ref. 94 95 Dr. Cr. Dr. 1,120,800 1,102,800 1,120,800 — 45,000 18,000 18,000 Cr. — 18,000 43,000 25,000 Problems Series A PROBLEM 4-1A Work sheet and related items The trial balance of Dynamite Laundry at July 31, 2006, the end of the current fiscal year, and the data needed to determine year-end adjustments are as follows: Dynamite Laundry Trial Balance July 31, 2006 Objectives 2, 3, 4 2. Net income: $25,100 Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laundry Supplies . . . . . . . Prepaid Insurance . . . . . . . Laundry Equipment . . . . . Accumulated Depreciation Accounts Payable . . . . . . . David Duffy, Capital . . . . . David Duffy, Drawing . . . . Laundry Revenue . . . . . . . Wages Expense . . . . . . . . . Rent Expense . . . . . . . . . . Utilities Expense . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous Expense . . . a. b. c. d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,900 7,500 4,800 109,050 41,100 6,100 37,800 2,000 165,000 71,400 36,000 13,650 2,700 250,000 250,000 Wages accrued but not paid at July 31 are $1,200. Depreciation of equipment during the year is $6,800. Laundry supplies on hand at July 31 are $1,750. Insurance premiums expired during the year are $2,400. Instructions 1. Enter the trial balance on a ten-column work sheet and complete the work sheet. Add accounts as needed. 2. Prepare an income statement, a statement of owner’s equity (no additional investments were made during the year), and a balance sheet. 3. On the basis of the adjustment data in the work sheet, journalize the adjusting entries. 4. On the basis of the data in the work sheet, journalize the closing entries. PROBLEM 4-2A Adjusting and closing entries; statement of owner’s equity Objectives 3, 4 The Xavier Company is a financial planning services firm owned and operated by Kim Bosworth. As of August 31, 2006, the end of the current fiscal year, the accountant for The Xavier Company prepared a work sheet, part of which is shown on the following page. 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:29 PM Page 171 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle 171 The Xavier Company Work Sheet (Partial) August 31, 2006 Income Statement 2. Kim Bosworth, capital, Aug. 31: $164,000 Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accounts Receivable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepaid Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Land . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accumulated Depreciation—Buildings . Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment Accounts Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Salaries Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Taxes Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unearned Rent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kim Bosworth, Capital . . . . . . . . . . . . Kim Bosworth, Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . Service Fees Earned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rent Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Salary Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depreciation Expense—Equipment . . . Rent Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supplies Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Utilities Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depreciation Expense—Buildings . . . . . Taxes Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Balance Sheet 4,650 13,960 2,800 2,500 60,000 120,000 72,400 86,090 40,900 7,100 1,100 4,000 500 113,500 10,000 175,000 1,500 73,000 9,500 8,500 7,650 5,300 5,200 4,150 1,000 1,700 116,000 60,500 176,500 176,500 300,000 176,500 300,000 239,500 60,500 300,000 Instructions 1. Journalize the entries that were required to close the accounts at August 31. 2. Prepare a statement of owner’s equity for the fiscal year ended August 31. There were no additional investments during the year. 3. If the balance of Kim Bosworth, Capital decreased $15,000 after the closing entries were posted, and the withdrawals remained the same, what was the amount of net income or net loss? If the working papers correlating with this textbook are not used, omit Problem 4-3A. PROBLEM 4-3A Ledger accounts and work sheet, and related items Objectives 2, 3, 4 2. Net income: $18,017 The ledger and trial balance of Lithium Services Co. as of March 31, 2006, the end of the first month of its current fiscal year, are presented in the working papers. Instructions 1. Complete the ten-column work sheet. Data needed to determine the necessary adjusting entries are as follows: a. Service revenue accrued at March 31 is $1,500. b. Supplies on hand at March 31 are $300. c. Insurance premiums expired during March are $150. d. Depreciation of the building during March is $625. e. Depreciation of equipment during March is $200. f. Unearned rent at March 31 is $2,100. g. Wages accrued but not paid at March 31 are $501. 2. Prepare an income statement, a statement of owner’s equity, and a balance sheet. (Note: The owner made an additional investment during the period.) 3. Journalize and post the adjusting entries, inserting balances in the accounts affected. (continued) 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:29 PM Page 172 172 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle 4. Journalize and post the closing entries. Indicate closed accounts by inserting a line in both Balance columns opposite the closing entry. Insert the new balance of the capital account. 5. Prepare a post-closing trial balance. PROBLEM 4-4A Optional work sheet and financial statements Heritage Company offers legal consulting advice to death-row inmates. Heritage Company prepared the following trial balance at April 30, 2006, the end of the current fiscal year: Objectives 2, 3, 4 Heritage Company Trial Balance April 30, 2006 4. Net loss: $6,720 Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accounts Receivable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepaid Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Land . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accumulated Depreciation—Building . . Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment Accounts Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unearned Rent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shelby Powers, Capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shelby Powers, Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . Fees Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Salaries and Wages Expense . . . . . . . . . Advertising Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Utilities Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Repairs Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,200 10,500 1,800 1,350 50,000 136,500 50,700 92,700 36,300 6,500 3,000 212,500 10,000 191,000 96,200 63,200 18,000 12,500 4,050 500,000 500,000 The data needed to determine year-end adjustments are as follows: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Accrued fees revenue at April 30 are $2,800. Insurance expired during the year is $450. Supplies on hand at April 30 are $650. Depreciation of building for the year is $1,620. Depreciation of equipment for the year is $3,500. Accrued salaries and wages at April 30 are $1,800. Unearned rent at April 30 is $1,500. Instructions 1. Optional: Enter the trial balance on a ten-column work sheet and complete the work sheet. Add accounts as needed. 2. Journalize the adjusting entires, adding accounts as needed. 3. Prepare an adjusted trial balance of April 30, 2006. 4. Prepare an income statement for the year ended April 30. 5. Prepare a statement of owner’s equity for the year ended April 30. No additional investments were made during the year. 6. Prepare a balance sheet as of April 30. 7. Compute the percent of total revenue to total assets for the year. PROBLEM 4-5A Ledger accounts, optional work sheet, and related items Objectives 2, 3, 4 The trial balance of Pablo Repairs at December 31, 2006, the end of the current year, is shown at the top of the following page. 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:29 PM Page 173 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle 173 Pablo Repairs Trial Balance December 31, 2006 2. Net income: $16,245 11 13 14 16 17 18 19 21 31 32 41 51 53 55 59 Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepaid Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment Trucks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accumulated Depreciation—Trucks . . . . Accounts Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jason Hoyt, Capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jason Hoyt, Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wages Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rent Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Truck Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,825 5,820 2,500 44,200 12,050 45,000 27,100 2,015 32,885 5,000 75,950 28,010 8,100 6,350 2,195 150,000 150,000 The data needed to determine year-end adjustments are as follows: a. b. c. d. e. Supplies on hand at December 31 are $1,250. Insurance premiums expired during year are $1,000. Depreciation of equipment during year is $5,080. Depreciation of trucks during year is $3,500. Wages accrued but not paid at December 31 are $900. Instructions 1. For each account listed in the trial balance, enter the balance in the appropriate Balance column of a four-column account and place a check mark () in the Posting Reference column. 2. Optional: Enter the trial balance on a ten-column work sheet and complete the work sheet. Add accounts as needed. 3. Journalize and post the adjusting entries, inserting balances in the accounts affected. The following additional accounts from Pablo’s chart of accounts should be used: Wages Payable, 22; Supplies Expense, 52; Depreciation Expense—Equipment, 54; Depreciation Expense—Trucks, 56; Insurance Expense, 57. 4. Prepare an adjusted trial balance. 5. Prepare an income statement, a statement of owner’s equity (no additional investments were made during the year), and a balance sheet. 6. Journalize and post the closing entries. (Income Summary is account #33 in the chart of accounts.) Indicate closed accounts by inserting a line in both Balance columns opposite the closing entry. 7. Prepare a post-closing trial balance. Problems Series B PROBLEM 4-1B Work sheet and related items Objectives 2, 3, 4 The trial balance of The Utopia Laundromat at October 31, 2006, the end of the current fiscal year, is shown at the top of the next page. The data needed to determine year-end adjustments are as follows: a. b. c. d. Laundry supplies on hand at October 31 are $1,250. Insurance premiums expired during the year are $1,800. Depreciation of equipment during the year is $5,500. Wages accrued but not paid at October 31 are $2,160. 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:29 PM Page 174 174 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle The Utopia Laundromat Trial Balance October 31, 2006 2. Net income: $10,240 Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laundry Supplies . . . . . . . Prepaid Insurance . . . . . . . Laundry Equipment . . . . . Accumulated Depreciation Accounts Payable . . . . . . . Cecily Farner, Capital . . . . Cecily Farner, Drawing . . . Laundry Revenue . . . . . . . Wages Expense . . . . . . . . . Rent Expense . . . . . . . . . . Utilities Expense . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,600 7,850 3,600 120,000 62,700 4,100 46,450 3,500 96,750 43,400 16,400 8,500 2,150 210,000 210,000 Instructions 1. Enter the trial balance on a ten-column work sheet and complete the work sheet. Add accounts as needed. 2. Prepare an income statement, a statement of owner’s equity (no additional investments were made during the year), and a balance sheet. 3. On the basis of the adjustment data in the work sheet, journalize the adjusting entries. 4. On the basis of the data in the work sheet, journalize the closing entries. PROBLEM 4-2B Adjusting and closing entries; statement of owner’s equity Objectives 3, 4 The Alligator Company is an investigative services firm that is owned and operated by Bruce Driskell. On June 30, 2006, the end of the current fiscal year, the accountant for The Alligator Company prepared a work sheet, a part of which is shown here. The Alligator Company Work Sheet (Partial) June 30, 2006 Income Statement 2. Bruce Driskell, capital, June 30: $76,910 Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accounts Receivable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepaid Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment Accounts Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Salaries Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Taxes Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unearned Rent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bruce Driskell, Capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bruce Driskell, Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . Service Fees Earned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rent Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Salary Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rent Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supplies Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depreciation Expense—Equipment . . . Utilities Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Taxes Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Net income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Balance Sheet 4,500 18,600 1,750 2,400 84,750 26,100 5,230 1,260 1,500 1,000 71,410 8,000 180,000 3,000 133,500 18,000 4,000 3,500 3,200 3,100 2,400 1,800 169,500 13,500 183,000 183,000 120,000 183,000 120,000 106,500 13,500 120,000 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:29 PM Page 175 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle 175 Instructions 1. Journalize the entries that were required to close the accounts at June 30. 2. Prepare a statement of owner’s equity for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2006. There were no additional investments during the year. 3. If Bruce Driskell, Capital decreased $30,000 after the closing entries were posted, and the withdrawals remained the same, what was the amount of net income or net loss? If the working papers correlating with this textbook are not used, omit Problem 4-3B. PROBLEM 4-3B Ledger accounts, work sheet, and related items Objectives 2, 3, 4 2. Net income: $18,042 PROBLEM 4-4B Optional worksheet and financial statements The ledger and trial balance of Lithium Services Co. as of March 31, 2006, the end of the first month of its current fiscal year, are presented in the working papers. Instructions 1. Complete the ten-column work sheet. Data needed to determine the necessary adjusting entries are as follows: a. Service revenue accrued at March 31 is $1,250. b. Supplies on hand at March 31 are $400. c. Insurance premiums expired during March are $150. d. Depreciation of the building during March is $500. e. Depreciation of equipment during March is $150. f. Unearned rent at March 31 is $2,000. g. Wages accrued at March 31 are $601. 2. Prepare an income statement, a statement of owner’s equity, and a balance sheet. (Note: The owner made an additional investment during the period.) 3. Journalize and post the adjusting entries, inserting balances in the accounts affected. 4. Journalize and post the closing entries. Indicate closed accounts by inserting a line in both Balance columns opposite the closing entry. 5. Prepare a post-closing trial balance. Flamingo Company maintains and repairs warning lights, such as those found on radio towers and lighthouses. Flamingo Company prepared the following trial balance at July 31, 2006, the end of the current fiscal year: Objectives 2, 3, 4 Flamingo Company Trial Balance July 31, 2006 4. Net income: $69,470 Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accounts Receivable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepaid Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Land . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accumulated Depreciation—Building . . Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment Accounts Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unearned Rent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mac Copas, Capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mac Copas, Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fees Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Salaries and Wages Expense . . . . . . . . . Advertising Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Utilities Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Repairs Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,500 13,500 3,000 1,950 70,000 100,500 71,700 71,400 60,800 4,100 1,500 55,700 4,000 181,200 73,200 15,500 8,100 6,300 3,050 375,000 375,000 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:29 PM Page 176 176 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle The data needed to determine year-end adjustments are as follows: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Fees revenue accrued at July 31 is $3,500. Insurance expired during the year is $2,000. Supplies on hand at July 31 are $350. Depreciation of building for the year is $1,520. Depreciation of equipment for the year is $2,160. Accrued salaries and wages at July 31 are $2,800. Unearned rent at July 31 is $500. Instructions 1. Optional: Enter the trial balance on a ten-column work sheet and complete the work sheet. Add accounts as needed. 2. Journalize the adjusting entries, adding accounts as needed. 3. Prepare an adjusted trial balance as of July 31, 2006. 4. Prepare an income statement for the year ended July 31. 5. Prepare a statement of owner’s equity for the year ended July 31. No additional investments were made during the year. 6. Prepare a balance sheet as of July 31. 7. Compute the percent of net income to total revenue for the year. PROBLEM 4-5B Ledger accounts, optional work sheet, and related items The trial balance of Gesundheit Repairs at October 31, 2006, the end of the current year, is shown below. Gesundheit Repairs Trial Balance October 31, 2006 Objectives 2, 3, 4 5. Net income: $30,080 11 13 14 16 17 18 19 21 31 32 41 51 53 55 59 Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepaid Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accumulated Depreciation—Equipment Trucks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accumulated Depreciation—Trucks . . . . Accounts Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ernie Richt, Capital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ernie Richt, Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wages Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rent Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Truck Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous Expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,950 6,295 2,735 50,650 11,209 36,300 7,400 4,015 37,426 6,000 89,950 26,925 9,600 5,350 2,195 150,000 150,000 The data needed to determine year-end adjustments are as follows: a. b. c. d. e. Supplies on hand at October 31 are $1,150. Insurance premiums expired during year are $1,800. Depreciation of equipment during year is $3,380. Depreciation of trucks during year is $4,400. Wages accrued but not paid at October 31 are $1,075. Instructions 1. For each account listed in the trial balance, enter the balance in the appropriate Balance column of a four-column account and place a check mark () in the Posting Reference column. 2. Optional: Enter the trial balance on a ten-column work sheet and complete the work sheet. Add accounts as needed. 3. Journalize and post the adjusting entries, inserting balances in the accounts affected. The following additional accounts from Gesundheit’s chart of accounts should be used: Wages Payable, 22; Supplies Expense, 52; Depreciation Expense— Equipment, 54; Depreciation Expense—Trucks, 56; Insurance Expense, 57. 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:29 PM Page 177 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle 177 4. Prepare an adjusted trial balance. 5. Prepare an income statement, a statement of owner’s equity (no additional investments were made during the year), and a balance sheet. 6. Journalize and post the closing entries. (Income Summary is account #33 in the chart of accounts.) Indicate closed accounts by inserting a line in both Balance columns opposite the closing entry. 7. Prepare a post-closing trial balance. C ontinuing Problem The unadjusted trial balance of Dancin Music as of May 31, 2006, along with the adjustment data for the two months ended May 31, 2006, are shown in Chapter 3. 2. Net income: $2,550 Instructions 1. Prepare a ten-column work sheet. 2. Prepare an income statement, a statement of owner’s equity, and a balance sheet. (Note: Shannon Burns made investments in Dancin Music on April 1 and May 1, 2006.) 3. Journalize and post the closing entries. The income summary account is #33 in the ledger of Dancin Music. Indicate closed accounts by inserting a line in both Balance columns opposite the closing entry. 4. Prepare a post-closing trial balance. C omprehensive Problem 1 4. Net income: $17,930 For the past several years, Kelly Pitney has operated a part-time consulting business from her home. As of April 1, 2006, Kelly decided to move to rented quarters and to operate the business, which was to be known as Hippocrates Consulting, on a full-time basis. Hippocrates Consulting entered into the following transactions during April: April 1. The following assets were received from Kelly Pitney: cash, $13,100; accounts receivable, $3,000; supplies, $1,400; and office equipment, $12,500. There were no liabilities received. 1. Paid three months’ rent on a lease rental contract, $4,800. 2. Paid the premiums on property and casualty insurance policies, $1,800. 4. Received cash from clients as an advance payment for services to be provided and recorded it as unearned fees, $5,000. 5. Purchased additional office equipment on account from Office Station Co., $2,000. 6. Received cash from clients on account, $1,800. 10. Paid cash for a newspaper advertisement, $120. 12. Paid Office Station Co. for part of the debt incurred on April 5, $1,200. 12. Recorded services provided on account for the period April 1–12, $4,200. 14. Paid part-time receptionist for two weeks’ salary, $750. 17. Recorded cash from cash clients for fees earned during the period April 1–16, $6,250. 18. Paid cash for supplies, $800. 20. Recorded services provided on account for the period April 13–20, $2,100. 24. Recorded cash from cash clients for fees earned for the period April 17–24, $3,850. 26. Received cash from clients on account, $5,600. 27. Paid part-time receptionist for two weeks’ salary, $750. 29. Paid telephone bill for April, $130. 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:29 PM Page 178 178 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle April 30. Paid electricity bill for April, $200. 30. Recorded cash from cash clients for fees earned for the period April 25–30, $3,050. 30. Recorded services provided on account for the remainder of April, $1,500. 30. Kelly withdrew $6,000 for personal use. Instructions 1. Journalize each transaction in a two-column journal, referring to the following chart of accounts in selecting the accounts to be debited and credited. (Do not insert the account numbers in the journal at this time.) 11 12 14 15 16 18 19 21 22 23 Cash Accounts Receivable Supplies Prepaid Rent Prepaid Insurance Office Equipment Accumulated Depreciation Accounts Payable Salaries Payable Unearned Fees 31 32 41 51 52 53 54 55 59 Kelly Pitney, Capital Kelly Pitney, Drawing Fees Earned Salary Expense Rent Expense Supplies Expense Depreciation Expense Insurance Expense Miscellaneous Expense 2. Post the journal to a ledger of four-column accounts. 3. Prepare a trial balance as of April 30, 2006, on a ten-column work sheet, listing all the accounts in the order given in the ledger. Complete the work sheet, using the following adjustment data: a. Insurance expired during April is $300. b. Supplies on hand on April 30 are $1,350. c. Depreciation of office equipment for April is $700. d. Accrued receptionist salary on April 30 is $120. e. Rent expired during April is $1,600. f. Unearned fees on April 30 are $2,500. 4. Prepare an income statement, a statement of owner’s equity, and a balance sheet. 5. Journalize and post the adjusting entries. 6. Journalize and post the closing entries. (Income Summary is account #33 in the chart of accounts.) Indicate closed accounts by inserting a line in both Balance columns opposite the closing entry. 7. Prepare a post-closing trial balance. Alternative Instructions for P.A.S.S. Complete the above instructions in the following order: 1, 2, 5 (using the adjustment data in 3), and 4. Special Activities ACTIVITY 4-1 Ethics and professional conduct in business Lighthouse Co. is a graphics arts design consulting firm. Robin Dover, its treasurer and vice president of finance, has prepared a classified balance sheet as of July 31, 2006, the end of its fiscal year. This balance sheet will be submitted with Lighthouse’s loan application to Central Trust & Savings Bank. In the Current Assets section of the balance sheet, Robin reported an $80,000 receivable from Ron Knoll, the president of Lighthouse, as a trade account receivable. Ron borrowed the money from Lighthouse in February 2005 for a down payment on a new home. He has orally assured Robin that he will pay off the account receivable within the next year. Robin reported the $80,000 in the same manner on the preceding year’s balance sheet. Evaluate whether it is acceptable for Robin Dover to prepare the July 31, 2006 balance sheet in the manner indicated above. 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:29 PM Page 179 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle ACTIVITY 4-2 Financial statements 179 The following is an excerpt from a telephone conversation between Pedro Mendoza, president of Goliath Supplies Co., and Natalie Welch, owner of Flint Employment Co. Pedro: Natalie, you’re going to have to do a better job of finding me a new computer programmer. That last guy was great at programming, but he didn’t have any common sense. Natalie: What do you mean? The guy had a master’s degree with straight A’s. Pedro: Yes, well, last month he developed a new financial reporting system. He said we could do away with manually preparing a work sheet and financial statements. The computer would automatically generate our financial statements with “a push of a button.” Natalie: So what’s the big deal? Sounds to me like it would save you time and effort. Pedro: Right! The balance sheet showed a minus for supplies! Natalie: Minus supplies? How can that be? Pedro: That’s what I asked. Natalie: So, what did he say? Pedro: Well, after he checked the program, he said that it must be right. The minuses were greater than the pluses . . . Natalie: Didn’t he know that supplies can’t have a credit balance—it must have a debit balance? Pedro: He asked me what a debit and credit were. Natalie: I see your point. 1. Comment on (a) the desirability of computerizing Goliath Supplies Co.’s financial reporting system, (b) the elimination of the work sheet in a computerized accounting system, and (c) the computer programmer’s lack of accounting knowledge. 2. Explain to the programmer why supplies could not have a credit balance. ACTIVITY 4-3 Financial statements Assume that you recently accepted a position with the Bozeman National Bank as an assistant loan officer. As one of your first duties, you have been assigned the responsibility of evaluating a loan request for $150,000 from Sasquatch.com, a small proprietorship. In support of the loan application, Samantha Joyner, owner, submitted a “Statement of Accounts” (trial balance) for the first year of operations ended December 31, 2006. 1. Explain to Samantha Joyner why a set of financial statements (income statement, statement of owner’s equity, and balance sheet) would be useful to you in evaluating the loan request. 2. In discussing the “Statement of Accounts” with Samantha Joyner, you discovered that the accounts had not been adjusted at December 31. Analyze the “Statement of Accounts” (shown below) and indicate possible adjusting entries that might be necessary before an accurate set of financial statements could be prepared. Sasquatch.com Statement of Accounts December 31, 2006 Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Billings Due from Others . Supplies (chemicals, etc.) . Trucks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . Amounts Owed to Others Investment in Business . . . Service Revenue . . . . . . . . Wages Expense . . . . . . . . Utilities Expense . . . . . . . Rent Expense . . . . . . . . . . Insurance Expense . . . . . . Other Expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,100 30,150 14,950 52,750 16,150 5,700 47,000 147,300 60,100 14,660 4,800 1,400 940 200,000 200,000 (continued) 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:29 PM Page 180 180 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle 3. ACTIVITY 4-4 Compare balance sheets Assuming that an accurate set of financial statements will be submitted by Samantha Joyner in a few days, what other considerations or information would you require before making a decision on the loan request? In groups of three or four, compare the balance sheets of two different companies, and present to the class a summary of the similarities and differences of the two companies. You may obtain the balance sheets you need from one of the following sources: 1. 2. 3. 4. Your school or local library. The investor relations department of each company. The company’s Web site on the Internet. EDGAR (Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval), the electronic archives of financial statements filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. SEC documents can be retrieved using the EdgarScan™ service from PricewaterhouseCoopers at http:/ /edgarscan.pwcglobal.com. To obtain annual report information, key in a company name in the appropriate space. EdgarScan will list the reports available to you for the company you’ve selected. Select the most recent annual report filing, identified as a 10-K or 10-K405. EdgarScan provides an outline of the report, including the separate financial statements, which can also be selected in an Excel® spreadsheet. ACTIVITY 4-5 Business strategy Mohawk Industries is a leading distributor of carpets and rugs in the United States. The company sells its carpets and rugs to locally-owned, independent carpet retailers, home centers such as Home Depot and Lowe’s, and department stores such as Sears. Mohawk’s carpets are marked under the brand names that include “Aladdin, Mohawk Home, Bigelow, Custom Weave, Durkan, Karastan, and Townhouse.” 1. 2. List some factors that increase the demand for carpet. From a strategic viewpoint, do you think Mohawk should view itself as a carpet or floorcovering manufacturer? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of Mohawk viewing itself as a floorcovering manufacturer rather than just a carpet manufacturer. 3. Read Mohawk’s latest 10-K filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission by using EdgarScan (http://edgarscan.pwcglobal.com). Does Mohawk view itself as a carpet manufacturer or as a floorcovering manufacturer? Explain. A nswers to Self-Examination Questions 1. C The drawing account, M. E. Jones, Drawing (answer C), would be extended to the Balance Sheet columns of the work sheet. Utilities Expense (answer A), Rent Revenue (answer B), and Miscellaneous Expense (answer D) would all be extended to the Income Statement columns of the work sheet. 2. D Cash or other assets that are expected to be converted to cash or sold or used up within one year or less, through the normal operations of the business, are classified as current assets on the balance sheet. Accounts Receivable (answer D) is a current asset, since it will normally be converted to cash within one year. Office Equipment (answer A), Land (answer B), and Accumulated Depreciation (answer C) are all reported in the property, plant, and equipment section of the balance sheet. 3. B The entry to close the owner’s drawing account is to debit the owner’s capital account and credit the drawing account (answer B). 4. D Since all revenue and expense accounts are closed at the end of the period, Fees Earned (answer A), Wages Expense (answer B), and Rent Expense (answer C) would all be closed to Income Summary. Accumulated Depreciation (answer D) is a contra asset account that is not closed. 66124_c04_139-181.qxd 11/10/03 8:29 PM Page 181 Chapter 4 • Completing the Accounting Cycle 5. B Since the post-closing trial balance includes only balance sheet accounts (all of the revenue, expense, and drawing accounts are closed), Cash (answer A), Accumulated Depreciation (answer C), and J. C. 181 Smith, Capital (answer D) would appear on the post-closing trial balance. Fees Earned (answer B) is a temporary account that is closed prior to preparing the post-closing trial balance. ...
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