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ENT1_Taxonomy_Biodiversity - Discovering Insects Insect...

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1 Discovering Insects : Discovering Insects : Insect Taxonomy, Insect Taxonomy, Biodiversity and Illustration Biodiversity and Illustration Dr. Penny Gullan Department of Entomology Room 1282 Academic Surge Taxonomic names and ranks A species name has 2 parts: the genus name and the specific (species) name, e.g. Apis mellifera May shorten as A. mellifera , but NOT as mellifera Genus and species names are always italicized (or underlined ) Species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, etc. are different ranks in life's taxonomic hierarchy A group, at any rank, is a taxon (plural = taxa ) Taxonomy = the theory and practice of classifying organisms, and includes: surveying fauna / flora and literature recognition of taxa (= taxonomic groups) description of species, genera, etc. developing classifications & ID keys analysis of variation synthesis of biological information publication of all of the above Descriptive taxonomy occupies the working time of most taxonomists and proceeds as follows: species in nature --> collect --> name & describe --> classify --> illustrated descriptions & keys with associated biological data
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2 SYSTEMATICS The scientific study of the kinds and diversity of organisms and the relationships among them = taxonomy + estimates of phylogenetic histories of taxa (taxonomic groups) A phylogenetic tree for the insect orders (from Gullan & Cranston 2005) FOUR THINGS THAT SYSTEMATISTS DO: 1. descriptive taxonomy -- describe new taxa, redescribe known taxa, make new classifications 2. estimate phylogenetic relationships of taxa 3. study biogeography -- the distributions of taxa and explanations for those distributions 4. identify organisms
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