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Ent%201%20Lect%20Forensics - Introduction to Forensic...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Forensic Entomology RB Kimsey I. Forensics- presenting an argument to be judged A. Definitions: 1. The Oxford Concise: of, used in, courts of law 2. Webster’s: of, relating to, or used in legal Webster’ proceedings or formal debate 3. American Encyclopedic: of, or in connection with courts of law, especially in relation to the detection of crime I. Forensics- telling a story judged in court B. Any form of science or human knowledge appear in forensics 1. Many categories of forensic specialists 2. Examples: a. Avionics b. Pathology c. Engineering d. Biology 3. Forensic specialists become expert witnesses 1 II. Historical Forensic Entomology A. First account of forensic entomologyentomologySung Tz'u, 1235 AD Tz'u, 1. Solved slashing murder using flies 2. Villagers lay out sickles, flies on one II. Some history of Forensic Entomology B. Frenchman, named Bergeret (1855) 1. First case using insects to determine Postmortem Interval or PMI 2. Dead infant, found behind plaster mantle 3. Previous not current tenants responsible based on insects present III. Civil vs. Criminal Law Action Joe vs. John People vs John Lawyer Trial, Defence Prosecutor, Defense No police. Others Plaintiff Police et al.! Investigation Wronged Decision Basis Preponderance of evidence Consequences Loss of Money The People Proof beyond a reasonable doubt Loss of money, status, freedom, life 2 IV. Entomology in Civil Vs Criminal Actions A. Civil case examples 1. Alleged Spider bites Day 3 Brown recluse Day 6 Day 10 A. Civil case examples 2. Maggot infestations of patients a. Impossible to exclude from health care facilities b. Maggot age and standards of care A. Civil case examples 3. Infestations of food stuffs 3 A. Civil case examples 4. Infestations of residences IV. Entomology in Civil Vs Criminal Actions B. Criminal Cases 1. Murder- People of Sacramento County Murdervs. D. Puentes B. Criminal Cases 2. Felony abuse, neglect- People of Contra neglectCosta County vs. Carrigan a. Children b. Elderly c. Animals 4 V. The questions most frequently asked: A. When did an event occur- Timing occur1. PMI - post mortem interval 2. Responsibility for infestation?? B. Who was present during an event C. Origins or location of an event D. Significance of a particular arthropod 1. Presence 2. Effects VI. Entomological principles employed A. Life history patterns and developmental biology 1. Voltanism 2. Life cycle 3. Duration of stages 4. Life span 5. Development as a function of temperature 5. Developmental as a function of temperature - Lucilia sericata a. Table of average minimum durations of developmental stages Grassgerger M & C Reiter. 2001. Forensic Sci Internat 120:32-36 120:32- 5 5. Development as a function of temperature Lucilia sericata b. Common growth curves (many kinds) depicting growth- temperature relations 1) Over all- development more rapid as alltemperature increases 2) At higher temps rate of increase diminishes Grassgerger M & C Reiter. 2001. Forensic Sci Internat 120:32-36 120:32- B. Faunal successions- pattern of change in successionscommunity structure in time 1. Conceptual approaches to community ecology a. Operational- association of organisms Operationalspatially delimited, dominated by prominent species or physical characteristic b. Functional- an association of Functionalinteracting populations 6 2. Structure- (Trophic levels) of a carrion Structurecommunity 1 = Carrion resource 2 = Necrophagous species 3 = Omnivores 4 = Predators (After Reed, 1986) 3. Succession of arthropod taxa on carrion a. Above ground taxa in or on remains 1. Communities not necessarily discrete 2. Gradual gain and loss of taxa 3. Succession of arthropod taxa on carrion b. Below ground taxa under remains Loss of taxa during decomp process A B C 7 C. Basic biology- how and where an biologyorganism lives its life and why it does what it does 1. Provides ecological associations linking persons and places 2. Provides record of the source or travel history of evidence 3. Suggests conditions B. Entomological principles employed 4. Species name and accurate identificationidentificationthe connecting link to biology and life history facts VII. Blow flies and flesh flies A. Calliphoridae- Blow flies, Bottle flies Calliphoridae1. Numerous important genera and species 2. Some common genera Phormia Phaenicia = Lucilia Calliphora 8 B. Sarcophagidae- flesh flies 1. Large 4-16 mm, silvery gray, striped thorax 42. Viviparous, deposit active first instar larvae C. House flies and relatives 1. Fanniidae (treated as subfamily of Muscidae) 2. Muscidae: The house flies a. Some small insignificant genera carrion feeders b. Ophyra leucostoma, leucostoma, shining blueblueblack speciesspeciesHolarctic distribution 9 ...
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