UllmanEnt1Lectharm%20and%20benefit2008

UllmanEnt1Lectharm%20and%20benefit2008 - Insects in Our...

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Unformatted text preview: Insects in Our World: An Overview of How Insects Benefit and Harm Humans Lecture Goals How Do Insects Benefit Humans? Aesthetics Pollination Food, Medicine and Fiber Ecological roles (food chain keeping other chain, organisms in check, detrivores) How do insects harm humans? Eating food crops Damaging structures Biting, stinging Transmitting pathogens How Do Insects Benefit Humans? Aesthetics 1 How Do Insects Benefit Humans? Pollination 1/3 of our diet comes from plants that rely on pollination by insects-insects-predominantly honey bees Evolution of flowering plants relied upon the association and cocoevolution between flowers and pollinating insects. How Do Insects Benefit Humans? Pollination Bee Keeping is a $10 million/year Business How Do Insects Benefit Humans? Food Honey from Bees--a Bees--a valued product for thousands of years Insects are an important source of protein and fat in many cultures--the cultures--the dish shown is a delicacy in Mexico City restaurants 2 How Do Insects Benefit Humans? Medicine Products from Honey Bees Biting Ants As Suturing Materials How Do Insects Benefit Humans? Fiber--Silk Fiber--Silk •Silk moth has a strong association with mulberry •Caterpillars reach their final immature stage and spin a cocoon--moths in captivity have lost the ability to fly. How Do Insects Benefit Humans? Fiber Silk transportation to market. •An important product in developing nations •Also produced using highly technological methods in Japan •Left: unwinding cocoons •Upper: weaving finished fiber 3 How Do Insects Benefit Humans? Ecological Roles by Mary Foley Benson Parasitoids Predators Natural Enemies of Other Insects: In Nature and/or in Crops (Against Pests) How Do Insects Benefit Humans? Ecological Roles Sphinx moth larva with cocoons of a parasitic wasp Parasitoids Natural Enemies of Other Insects: In Nature and/or in Crops (Against Pests) How Do Insects Benefit Humans? Ecological Roles Formosan termites Fly maggots (immatures) Detrivores 4 How Do Insects Harm Humans? Eating food crops and transmitting plant viruses Mediterranean Fruit Fly: Lay eggs in fruit, feeding and development of immatures destroys crops. How Do Insects Harm Humans? Eating food crops and transmitting plant viruses Potato crop following an infestation of Colorado Potato Beetles How Do Insects Harm Humans? Eating food crops and transmitting plant viruses 5 How Do Insects Harm Humans? Eating food crops and transmitting plant viruses Photo by J. K. Clark Photo by M. Daughtrey Photo by J. K. Clark Photos by J. Cho o Photos by J. Sherwood d Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Transmitted by Thrips How Do Insects Harm Humans? Damaging Structures Formosan Termite Damage: Tree Dwellers, will Attack from Top Down How Do Insects Harm Humans? Biting: Blood feeders that are transient on their hosts, nuisance biting. Biting Flies Sandflies Reaction to Biting Flies Mosquito 6 How Do Insects and Other Arthropods Harm Humans by Biting? Venomous Bites Black widow These spiders are not aggressive, but bites can be serious. Brown recluse Spiders are not insects, but problems associated with spider infestations and venonmous bites are usually studied in Entomology departments. How Do Insects and Other Arthropods Harm Humans by Biting? Consequences of Brown Recluse Bites Very small, often infest clothing left hanging in barns, garages and shops. Can be avoided with good sanitation and shaking out clothing, wearing gloves and long sleeves when working with piled wood. How Do Insects and Other Arthropods Harm Humans by Biting? Venomous Bites Only a few species have seriously venomous bites, although because of their size, any bite is size painful Very shy creatures, avoid contact with large mammals. Sometimes jump into shelters and houses while hunting or seeking shelter. Very useful predators. 7 How Do Insects Harm Humans? Biting: Blood Feeders: Micropredators Fleas Bedbugs Body Lice How Do Insects Harm Humans? Biting: Blood Feeders: Micropredators Ticks (** these are not insects) Rhodnius (kissing bug) nymph Many of these insects live on their hosts during part of their life cycle, engorging with blood. They then drop from their hosts and have a free-living stage-freestage-important to their roles as transmitters of pathogens. How Do Insects Harm Humans? Stinging European Yellow Jacket Honey Bee Many stinging insects are also beneficial, e.g. as predators, pollinators. Some are highly defensive (yellow jackets, Africanized honey bees), making them dangerous to humans. 8 How Do Insects Harm Humans? Biting and Stinging Fire Ants Reaction to fire ant bites Rapid bioinvasion, currently in California, very damaging bioinvasion, pests due to their feeding and nesting habits. How Do Insects Harm Humans? Biting and Stinging Fire ant mounds in S.E. USA Highly defensive behavior when mounds are disturbed Extensive, large mounds, interinterconnecting colonies with multiple Fire ants on tennis shoe queens. How Do Insects Harm Humans? Transmitting Pathogens Insects/arthropods that transmit pathogens causing disease are called vectors Most are blood feeding arthropods. Common arthropod vectors: Mosquitoes Flies Fleas Lice Ticks Rhodnius, Rhodnius, The Kissing Bug 9 How Do Insects Harm Humans? Transmitting Pathogens Pathogens that are transmitted Bacteria: Bubonic Plague Viruses: West Nile, Dengue, Yellow Fever Protozoans: Protozoans: Malaria Rickettsia: Rickettsia: Rocky Mountain Fever Nematodes (round worms): Filariasis (‘elephantisis’, river (‘elephantisis’, blindness) How Do Insects Harm Humans? Transmitting Pathogens Pathogens that are transmitted: Viruses: Dengue: Common in Asia, S. America. We have the vector mosquito. Several types, some are lethal. West Nile: An emerging epidemic, invaded bird populations. Yellow Fever: Nearly prevented the building of the Panama Canal. How Do Insects Harm Humans? Transmitting Pathogens Pathogens that are transmitted: Protozoans Malaria: up to 2 million deaths/year in Africa and this is on the increase. We have the vector mosquitoes in California. Mosquito abatement and life style prevents epidemics. Protozoan has become resistant to quinine based prevention methods. 10 How Do Insects Harm Humans? Transmitting Pathogens: Filariasis, transmission of nematodes Filariasis, Nematode is acquired by mosquito Nematode multiplies and grows in human host Nematode is transmitted Mosquito injects nematode into human host during feeding Elephantitis (lymphatic filariasis) and Onchoceriasis filariasis) Typical filarial habitat River Blindness Elephantitis Victims of River Blindness Where it is endemic, entire villages are blinded by their teen age years. How Do Insects Harm Humans? Transmitting Pathogens: Transmission of Bacteria Flea Feeding 14th century flea cage Bubonic Plague, The Black Death Transmitted by fleas, endemic in rodents, can become air-borne. airA.D. 542-590 Plague of Justinian, prevented the Justinian from reunifying the 542former Roman Empire, an ambition that might have averted the Dark Ages had it succeeded. 1348: The Black Death, 1/3 of European population dies. Historical and cultural consequences were profound. 11 Bubonic Plague, The Black Death Influenced art, medicine, even nursery rhymes. Beak doctors--filled “beak” with herbs to protect themselves from air-borne doctors--filled airinfection. Recognized some sort of “vector”, thus the long robes and gloves. How Do Insects Harm Humans? Transmitting Pathogens: Transmission of Rickettsia Lice Classical typhus Ticks TickTick-borne typhus How Do Insects Harm Humans? Transmitting Pathogens: Transmission of Protozoa Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Visceral Leishmaniasis 12 How Do Insects Harm Humans? Transmitting Pathogens: Transmission of Protozoa: Chagas Disease Insect feeds and defecates protozoans. Person rubs organisms into bite wound and infection proceeds. Rhodnius, the “Kissing Bug” Kissing Bug Infection of the Eye Destruction of Heart Muscles Megacolon Conclusions • Insects benefit us by providing food, medicine, products and fiber. • They are important pollinators and play an important role in the food chain chain. • They are formidable enemies and compete with us for our food sources, destroy our structures, bite us and transmit deadly pathogens. 13 ...
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