Lecture 3 - Chapter 22 - The Darwinian Revolution

Lecture 3 - Chapter 22 - The Darwinian Revolution - The...

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1 1 “Nothing in biology makes sense except In the light of evolution” -Theodosius Dobzhansky, 1973 2 The Darwinian Revolution Modern view of the living world came into focus in November 1859, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection . Argued from evidence that species were not created but had evolved from ancestral species through natural selection . The theory of evolution is one of the most pervasive and explanatory themes in modern biology. The idea that organisms can change from one generation to the next, that life changes as time progresses was contrary to many past teachings by masters. NORTH AMERICA SOUTH AMERICA AFRICA EUROPE AUSTRALIA PACIFIC OCEAN ATLANTIC England Cape of Good Hope Cape Horn Tierra del Fuego Galápagos Islands Darwin in 1840 HMS Beagle in port Equator Tasmania New Zealand A n d e s About the voyage… The Challenger Expedition 4 Darwin’s Voyage on the Beagle • Visited S. America (inc. Galapagos), Africa, Tazania and New Zealand • 3 years 3 mo. on land, 18 mo at sea (1831-1836) • Observed marine fossils high in the Andes, an earthquake that caused coastal uplift, scores of endemic species in the Galapagos • Sent thousands of samples home for science and for profit • Kept a detailed now-famous journal
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2 5 Top 5 Myths about Darwin & Evolution with a little history lesson thrown in… 6 Myth 1 Darwin joined the Voyage of the Beagle as an unpaid naturalist Darwin at 22, about the time the voyage began Robert FitzRoy, Captain of the H.M.S. Beagle Darwin was instead the “gentleman companion” to Captain Fitzroy 7 Myth 2 Darwin was the first to propose that life on this planet evolved Linnaeus (classification) Hutton (gradual geologic change) Lamarck (species can change) Malthus (population limits) Cuvier (fossils, extinction) Lyell (modern geology) Darwin (evolution, natural selection) Mendel (inheritance) Wallace (evolution, natural selection) French Revolution U.S. Civil War 1900 1850 1800 1750 American Revolution 1795 Hutton proposes his theory of gradualism. 1798 Malthus publishes “Essay on the Principle of Population.” 1809 Lamarck publishes his theory of evolution. 1830 Lyell publishes Principles of Geology . 1831–1936 Darwin travels around the world on HMS Beagle . 1837 Darwin begins his notebooks on the origin of species. 1844 Darwin writes his essay on the origin of species. 1858 Wallace sends his theory to Darwin. 1859 The Origin of Species is published. 1865 Mendel publishes inheritance papers.
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3 9 Several ancient Greeks had evolutionary ideas • Empedocles believed plants came first, then animals • Developed a theory of struggle among animals that foreshadows natural selection Empedocles ~490-430 BC Lucretius, 95-54 BC • Lucretius also developed a “Survival of the Fittest” idea • “I cannot understand why you scientific people make such a fuss about Darwin.
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Lecture 3 - Chapter 22 - The Darwinian Revolution - The...

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