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CLINICAL SPECTRUM OF ABNORMALITIES IN UREMIA Fluid and Electrolyte Disturbances Volume expansion and contraction (Im) Hypernatremia and hyponatremia (Im) Hyperkalemia and hypokalemia (Im) Metabolic acidosis (Im) Hyperphosphatemia and hypophosphatemia (Im) Hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia (Im) Endocrine – Metabolic Disturbances Renal osteodystrophy (Im) or (Pr) Osteomalacia (D) Secondary hyperparathyroidism (Im) or (Pr) Carbohydrate intolerance (Im) Hyperuricemia (Im) or (Pr) Hypothermia (Im) Hypertriglyceridemia (Pr) Protein-calorie malnutrition (Im) or (Pr) Impaired growth and development (Pr) Infertility and sexual dysfunction (Pr) Gastrointestinal Disturbances Anorexia (Im) Nausea and vomiting (Im) Bad breath (Im) Gastroenteritis (Im) Peptic ulcer (Im) or (Pr) Gastrointestinal bleeding (Im), (Pr) or (D) Neuromuscular Disturbances Fatigue (Im) Sleep disorders
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Unformatted text preview: (Im) Sleep disorders (Pr) Headache (Im) or (Pr) Impaired mentation (Im) Lethargy (Im) Asterixis (Im) Muscular irritability (Im) Peripheral neuropathy (Im) or (Pr) Muscle cramps (D) Dialysis dementia (D) Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Disturbances Arterial hypertension (Im) or (Pr) Congestive heart failure (Im) Cardiomyopathy (Im) or (Pr) Accelerated atherosclerosis (Im) or (D) Dermatologic Disturbances Hyperpigmentation (Im), (Pr) or (D) Pruritus (Pr) Hematologic and Immunologic Disturbances Normocytic, normochromic anemia (Pr) Increased susceptibility to infection (Im) or (Pr) Hypocomplementemia (D) (Im) – abnormality that usually improves with optimal dialysis (Pr) – abnormality that persists or even progresses with optimal dialysis (D) – abnormality that develops only after initiation of dialysis therapy...
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