cH 3 - ENE GENE FUNCTION-RNA-transcription...

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Unformatted text preview: ENE GENE FUNCTION-RNA-transcription -proteins-dominant/recessive -translation-protein function & malfunction Transfer of genetic information Complementary base pairing transfers information during transcription to form RNA during translation between codon and anticodon DNA transcription genotype RNA rotein translation henotype protein gene is xpressed ctive hen it is transcribed phenotype A gene is expressed /active when it is transcribed (and translated) Transfer of genetic information: rom genotype to phenotype from genotype to phenotype hat is what is RNA? ENE -RNA hat is RNA? GENE FUNCTION what is RNA? types of RNA mRNA non-coding: tRNA rRNA snRNA & scRNA small RNAs and RNA terference: miRNA interference: miRNA, siRNA & dsRNA ribozymes retrotransposon intermediates large RNAs: Xist unknown function: H19 RNA = transcript : single strand nucleotides contain ribose sugar N base P N 5 ases: racil ) replaces T C O sugar bases: uracil (U) replaces T hydrogen bonds with A: A U G OH OH C G 3 Note to RNA structure: econdary structure Secondary structure ingle strand of RNA Single strand of RNA can pair to itself and form secondary structures Example: tRNA: Classes of RNA Informational/protein coding: mRNA unctional/non- oding RNA DNA Functional/non coding RNA tRNA: transport amino acid to ribosome RNA m rRNA: structural and catalytic component of ribosomes protein snRNA: structural and catalytic component of spliceosome snRNPs scRNA: direct protein traffic in cytoplasm Other non-coding RNA Ribozymes: catalyze RNAs cleavage, etc. Other non-coding RNA Ribozymes: catalyze RNAs cleavage, etc. Coded by some mobile elements: etrotransposons retrotransposons DNA Transposed Mobile element Other non-coding RNA Ribozymes: catalyze RNAs cleavage, etc. Coded by some mobile elements: retrotransposons DNA Transposed Mobile Other large functional RNAs: element e.g. Xist RNA participates in X-inactivation in female mam- als coating the inactive X X X X X X X X X mals, coating the inactive X X-inactivation Other non-coding RNA Ribozymes: catalyze RNAs cleavage, etc. Coded by some mobile elements: etrotransposons retrotransposons DNA Other large functional RNAs: Transposed Mobile e.g. Xist participates in X- inactivation in female mam- als coating the inactive X element X X X X X X X X mals, coating the inactive X- RNAs of unknown function e.g. H19, only expressed from the paternal chr. =imprinted Other non-coding RNA m ll RNAs 1 6 nucl tid s) p ticip tin in Small RNAs (21-26 nucleotides) participating in post-transcriptional RNA regulation ( RNA silencing ): miRNA (microRNA) siRNA (small-interfering) RNA silencing: is a post-transcriptional gene regulatory mechanism it can be mediated by ndogenously encoded small endogenously encoded small RNA molecules (microRNAs=miRNA) or all interfering RNAs...
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This note was uploaded on 10/04/2009 for the course BIOL 3315 taught by Professor Genetics during the Spring '08 term at UT Arlington.

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cH 3 - ENE GENE FUNCTION-RNA-transcription...

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