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0324581327_126367 - Chapter What’s Inside 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter What’s Inside 1 Organizational Behavior and Opportunity >> Prep Card Key topics in this chapter: definition of organizational behavior; interdisciplinary influences on organizational behavior; formal and informal organizations; the impact of globalization, workforce diversity, ethics and character, and technological innovation on organizations; how organizations deal with change; What’s a Prep Card? understanding organizationalprepare, we’ve a body ofa objective knowledge and as the practice of skill To help you behavior as developed Prep development. Card for each chapter. Each card starts with >> a short list of key concepts covered in the chapter. Learning Outcomes 1 Define organizational behavior. 2 Identify four action steps for responding positively in times of change. 3 4 5 6 Identify the important system components of an organization. Describe the formal and informal elements of an organization. Understand the diversity of organizations in the economy. Evaluate the opportunities that change creates for organizational behavior. 7 Demonstrate the value of objective knowledge and skill development in the study of organizational behavior. Chapter 1 Organizational Behavior and Opportunity 2 1 Human Behavior in Organizations 3 Understanding Human Behavior 4 Interdisciplinary Influences 4 2 Behavior in Times of Change 5 3 The Organizational Context 6 Organizations as Open Systems 6 4 The Formal and Informal Organization 7 5 Diversity of Organizations 8 6 Change Creates Opportunities 9 Four Challenges for Managers Related to Change 9 Global Competition in Business 9 Customer Focused for High Quality 10 Behavior and Quality at Work 11 Managing Organizational Behavior in Changing Times 12 7 Learning about Organizational >> Behavior 12 Objective Knowledge 12 Chapter at a Glance Skill Development 13 This columnm contains list of learning Application of Knowledgeaand Skills 14 outcomes and a chapter outline with page references. Multimedia PPT—The Highlights Slide 6 Slide 7 Slide 10 Slide 12 Slide 23 Internal and External Perspectives Interdisciplinary Influences Key Slides Open Systems View of Organizations Key of Organizations Formal vs. Informal Elements PowerPoint slides in the Plain Presentation are highLearning about Organizational Behavior >> lighted by number. Video *Clip from 8 Mile Run time: 3 minutes Jimmy “B-Rabbit” Smith, Jr. (Eminem) wants to be a successful rapper and to prove that a white man can create moving sounds. He works days Video Short at a plant run by the North Detroit Stamping Company and pursues To launch your lecture, or as a his music at night, sometimes on the plant’s grounds. This scene is an fun conclusion to the chapter, edited composite of two brief sequences involving the stamping plant watch the related short and showing Jimmy’s interactions with his manager, Manny. film clip. >> Ask your students: 1. What is your perception of the quality of Jimmy’s job and his work environment? 2. What is the quality of Jimmy’s relationship with Manny (Paul Bates), his foreman? Does it change? If it does, why? 3. How would you react to this type of work experience? *Profile on Honda Run time: 10 minutes When Honda announced in 1982 that it was building its first auto assembly plant in North America, many Video Long of the opinion analysts were that American labor could not produce the same quality automobiles Longer videos support multiple as the Japanese. But despite the culturalchapter concepts and in transchallenges involved include planting Japanese manufacturing methods to the U.S., Honda’s North some questions to ask your American facilities have attained remarkable efficiency. >> students to spark discussion Ask your students: 1. What opportunities and challenges would you expect Honda to encounter as a result of establishing manufacturing facilities in the U.S.? 2. What are some managerial techniques that help Honda’s workers achieve higher quality and efficiency in their production tasks? 3. How might changes associated with Honda’s move to the U.S. affect the behavior of plant workers and managers? Discussion Questions 1. How do the formal aspects of your work environment affect you? What informal aspects of your work environment are important? 2. What is the biggest competitive challenge or change facing the busiDiscussion Questions nesses in your industry today? Will that be different in the next five Discussion questions help years? >> you create lively lectures and push your students to think critically about the material. ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 1 1/25/08 5:18:14 AM Terms 3. Describe the next chief executive of your company and what she or he must do to succeed. opportunities 3 change 3 challenge 3 organizational behavior 3 psychology 4 sociology 4 engineering 4 anthropology 5 management 5 medicine 5 task 6 people 6 technology 6 structure 6 formal organization 7 informal organization 7 Hawthorne studies 7 objective knowledge 11 skill development 11 Experiential Exercise >> My Absolute Worst Job Purpose: For students to become acquainted with fellow classmates. Group size: Any number of groups of two. Exercise schedule: Experiential Exercise 1. Have students write answers to the following questions: Each card contains an experiential exercise with a. What was the worst job you ever had? Describe the following: (1) The type of work you did tips to guide you through helping your students (2) Your boss mine their personal experiences for connec(3) Your coworkers tions to the chapter concepts and theories. (4) The organization and its policies (5) What made the job so bad b. What is your dream job? 2. Have students find someone they do not know, and share their responses. 3. Group pairs together with another dyad, preferably new people. Partner “a” of one dyad introduces partner “b” to the other dyad, then “b” introduces “a”. The same process is followed by the other dyad. The introduction should follow this format: “This is Mary Cullen. Her very worst job was putting appliqués on bibs at a clothing factory, and she disliked it for the following reason. What she would rather do is be a financial analyst for a big corporation.” 4. Each group of four meets with another quartet and is introduced, as before. 5. Ask for a show of hands on the number of people whose worst jobs fit into the following categories: a. Factory b. Restaurant c. Manual labor d. Driving or delivery Key Terms e. Professional Here with page references in case you want to f. Health care see the exact phrasing. g. Phone sales or communication h. Other 6. Gather data on worst jobs from each group and ask the groups to answer these questions: a. What are the common characteristics of the worst jobs in your group? b. How did your coworkers feel about their jobs? c. What happens to morale and productivity when a worker hates the job? d. What was the difference between your own morale and productivity in your worst job and in a job you really enjoyed? e. Why do organizations continue to allow unpleasant working conditions to exist? 7. Lead a group discussion on Parts (a) through (e) of Question 6. >> SOURCE: D. Marcic, “My Absolute Worst Job: An Icebreaker,” Organizational Behavior: Experiences and Cases (St. Paul, Minn.: West, 1989), 5–6. Copyright 1988 Dorothy Marcic. All rights reserved. Reprinted by permission. Assignments >> Assignments ✐ Have students prepare a memo about an organizational change occurring where they work or in the college or university, using Figure 1.1 to identify how the change is affecting the people, structure, task, and/or technology of the organization. You can make these assignments as you leave ✐ Have students research a service or manufacturing company, entrepreneurial venture, class. Many are writing activities. or nonprofit organization of their choice and then prepare a brief description of it. ✐ Assign the electronic cases and related quizzes on Johnson & Johnson and Caribou Coffee. Beyond the Class A selection of materials is in the Instructor Manual. 2 PART 1 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 2 Introduction 1/25/08 5:18:36 AM Chapter What’s Inside 1 Organizational Behavior and Opportunity >> Prep Card Key topics in this chapter: definition of organizational behavior; interdisciplinary influences on organithis chapter: zational behavior; formal and informal organizations; the impact of globalization, workforce diversity, ethics and character, and technological innovation on organizations; how organizations deal with change; understanding organizational behavior as a body of objective knowledge and as the practice of skill development. Learning Outcomes 1 D Define organizational behavior. 2 Identify four action steps for responding positively in times of Chapter 1 change. 3 Identify the important system components of an organization. Organizationaland informal elements of an organization. 4 Describe the formal Behavior and Opportunity in the economy. 5 Understand the diversity of organizations 1 1 Human Behavior in Organizations 3 6 Evaluate the opportunities that change creates for Understanding organizational behavior. Human Behavior 4 7 Demonstrate the value of objective knowledge and skill Interdisciplinary Influences 4 behavior. development in the study of organizational 2 Behavior in Times of Change 5 3 The Organizational Context 6 Chapter 1as Open Systems 6 Organizations Organizational 4 The Formal and Informal Organization 7 Behavior and Opportunity 5 Diversity of Organizations 82 1 Human Creates in Organizations 6 Change BehaviorOpportunities 9 3 Understanding Four Challenges for Managers Related to Human 9 ChangeBehavior 4 Interdisciplinary Influences 4 Global Competition in Business 9 2 Customerin Times of Change 5 Behavior Focused for High Quality 10 Behavior and Quality at Work 11 3 The Organizational Context 6 Managing Organizational Behavior in Organizations as Open Systems 6 Changing Times 12 4 7 5 6 The Formal and Informal Organization 7 Learning about Organizational Diversity 12 Behavior of Organizations 8 Change Creates Opportunities 9 Objective Knowledge 12 Four Challenges for Managers Related to Skill Development 13 Change of Application 9 Knowledge and Skills 14 Global Competition in Business 9 Customer Focused for High Quality 10 Behavior and Quality at Work 11 Managing Organizational Behavior in Changing Times 12 7 Learning about Organizational Behavior 12 Objective Knowledge 12 Skill Development 13 Application of Knowledge and Skills 14 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 3 Multimedia PPT—The Highlights Slide 6 Internal and External Perspectives Slide 7 Interdisciplinary Influences Video Slide 10 Open Systems View of Organizations Slide 12 Formal vs. Informal Elements of Organizations *Clip from 8 Mile Slide 23 Learning about Organizational Behavior Run time: 3 minutes Jimmy “B-Rabbit” Smith, Jr. (Eminem) wants to be a successful rapper Videoprove that a white man can create moving sounds. He works days and to at a plant run Mile North Detroit Stamping Company and pursues *Clip from 8 by the his music at minutes Run time: 3 night, sometimes on the plant’s grounds. This scene is an edited composite of two brief sequences involving the stamping plant Jimmy “B-Rabbit” Smith, Jr. (Eminem) wants to be a successful rapper and to prove that a white man can create moving sounds. He works days showing Jimmy’s interactions with his manager, Manny. at a plant run by the North Detroit Stamping Company and pursues Ask your students: his music at night, sometimes on the plant’s grounds. This scene is an 1. What is your perception of the quality of Jimmy’s job and his work edited composite of two brief sequences involving the stamping plant environment? and showing Jimmy’s interactions with his manager, Manny. 2. What is the quality of Jimmy’s relationship with Manny (Paul Bates), Askhis foreman? Does it change? If it does, why? your students: 3. What would you react to thisthe quality of Jimmy’s job and his work 1. How is your perception of type of work experience? environment? *Profile on Honda 2. What is the quality of Jimmy’s relationship with Manny (Paul Bates), Run time: 10 minutes his foreman? Does it change? If it does, why? When Honda announced in 1982 that it was building its first auto 3. How would you react to this type of work experience? assembly plant in North America, many analysts were of the opinion that American labor could not produce the same quality automobiles *Profile on Honda as the Japanese. But despite the cultural challenges involved in transRun time: 10 minutes planting Japanese manufacturing methods to the U.S., Honda’s North When Honda announced in 1982 that it was building its first auto American plant in Northattained remarkable efficiency. of the opinion assembly facilities have America, many analysts were that American labor could not produce the same quality automobiles Ask your students: as the Japanese. But despite the cultural challenges involved in trans1. What opportunities and challenges would you expect Honda to planting Japanese manufacturing methods to the U.S., Honda’s North encounter as a result of establishing manufacturing facilities in the American facilities have attained remarkable efficiency. U.S.? 2. What are some managerial techniques that help Honda’s workers Ask your students: 1. achieve higher quality andchallenges in their you expect tasks? to What opportunities and efficiency would production Honda 3. How mightas a result of establishing manufacturing facilities in the encounter changes associated with Honda’s move to the U.S. affect the behavior of plant workers and managers? U.S.? 2. What are some managerial techniques that help Honda’s workers Discussion questions achieve higher quality and efficiency in their production tasks? 3. 1. How might changes associated with Honda’s move to theaffectaffect do the formal aspects of your work environment U.S. you? the behavior of plant workers work environment are important? What informal aspects of yourand managers? 2. What is the biggest competitive challenge or change facing the businesses in your industry today? Will that be different in the next five Discussion Questions 1. years?do the formal aspects of your work environment affect you? How What informal aspects of your work environment are important? 2. What is the biggest competitive challenge or change facing the businesses in your industry today? Will that be different in the next five years? 1/25/08 5:18:39 AM Terms 3. Describe the next chief executive of your company and what she or he must do to succeed. opportunities 3 change 3 challenge 3 organizational behavior 3 psychology 4 sociology 4 engineering 4 anthropology 5 management 5 medicine 5 task 6 people 6 technology 6 structure 6 formal organization 7 informal organization 7 Hawthorne studies 7 objective knowledge 12 skill development 12 Experiential Exercise My Absolute Worst Job Purpose: For students to become acquainted with fellow classmates. Group size: Any number of groups of two. Exercise schedule: 1. Have students write answers to the following questions: a. What was the worst job you ever had? Describe the following: (1) The type of work you did (2) Your boss (3) Your coworkers (4) The organization and its policies (5) What made the job so bad b. What is your dream job? 2. Have students find someone they do not know, and share their responses. 3. Group pairs together with another dyad, preferably new people. Partner “a” of one dyad introduces partner “b” to the other dyad, then “b” introduces “a”. The same process is followed by the other dyad. The introduction should follow this format: “This is Mary Cullen. Her very worst job was putting appliqués on bibs at a clothing factory, and she disliked it for the following reason. What she would rather do is be a financial analyst for a big corporation.” 4. Each group of four meets with another quartet and is introduced, as before. 5. Ask for a show of hands on the number of people whose worst jobs fit into the following categories: a. Factory b. Restaurant c. Manual labor d. Driving or delivery e. Professional f. Health care g. Phone sales or communication h. Other 6. Gather data on worst jobs from each group and ask the groups to answer these questions: a. What are the common characteristics of the worst jobs in your group? b. How did your coworkers feel about their jobs? c. What happens to morale and productivity when a worker hates the job? d. What was the difference between your own morale and productivity in your worst job and in a job you really enjoyed? e. Why do organizations continue to allow unpleasant working conditions to exist? 7. Lead a group discussion on Parts (a) through (e) of Question 6. SOURCE: D. Marcic, “My Absolute Worst Job: An Icebreaker,” Organizational Behavior: Experiences and Cases (St. Paul, Minn.: West, 1989), 5–6. Copyright 1988 Dorothy Marcic. All rights reserved. Reprinted by permission. Assignments ✐ Have students prepare a memo about an organizational change occurring where they work or in the college or university, using Figure 1.1 to identify how the change is affecting the people, structure, task, and/or technology of the organization. ✐ Have students research a service or manufacturing company, entrepreneurial venture, or nonprofit organization of their choice and then prepare a brief description of it. ✐ Assign the electronic cases and related quizzes on Johnson & Johnson and Caribou Coffee. Beyond the Class A selection of materials is in the Instructor Manual. 4 PART 1 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 4 Introduction 1/25/08 5:18:45 AM Chapter What’s Inside 2 Challenges for Managers >> Prep Card Key topics in this chapter: competing in the global economy; cultural differences and work-related attitudes; the diverse workforce; ethics, character, and personal integrity; ethical dilemmas facing the modern organization; technological innovation and today’s workforce. Learning Outcomes Multimedia 1 Describe the factors that affect organizations competing in the global economy. PPT—The Highlights 2 Explain how cultural differences form the basis of work-related attitudes. 3 Describe the diverse groups that make up today’s business environment. 4 Discuss the role of ethics, character, and personal integrity in the organization. workforce. Chapter 2 Challenges for Managers 16 17 Social and Political Changes 17 Cultural Differences 18 2 Cultural Differences and Work-Related Attitudes 19 Individualism versus Collectivism 19 Power Distance 21 Uncertainty Avoidance 21 Masculinity versus Femininity 21 Time Orientation 21 Developing Cross-Cultural Sensitivity 21 3 The Diverse Workforce 22 Ethnic Diversity 22 Gender Diversity 23 Age Diversity 24 Ability Diversity 24 Valuing Diversity 25 Diversity’s Benefits and Problems 26 4 Ethics, Character, and Personal Integrity 26 Consequential Theories of Ethics 27 Rule-Based Theories of Ethics 27 Character Theories of Ethics 27 5 Ethical Dilemmas Facing the Modern Organization 28 Employee Rights 28 Sexual Harassment 28 Organizational Justice 29 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 5 Women and Obstacles at Work Diversity’s Benefits & Problems Ethical Theories Individual and Organizational Responsibilities Alternative Work Arrangements Video 5 Explain five issues that pose ethical dilemmas for managers. 6 Describe the effects of technological advances on today’s 1 Competing in the Global Economy Slide 18 Slide 20 Slide 23 Slide 28 Slide 32 *Clip from Mr. Baseball Run time: 3 minutes The New York Yankees trade aging baseball player Jack Elliot (Tom Selleck) to the Chunichi Dragons, a Japanese team. This lighthearted comedy traces Jack’s bungling entry into Japanese culture and exposes his cultural misconceptions, which almost cost him everything—including his new girlfriend Hiroko Uchiyama (Aya Takanashi), who unbeknownst to Jack, is his boss’s daughter. Ask your students: 1. How many cultural errors does Jack make in this brief scene? 2. Does Jack Elliot behave as if he had cross-cultural training before arriving in Japan? 3. Is he culturally sensitive or insensitive? 4. What do you propose that Jack Elliot do for the rest of his time in Japan? *Profile on Whirlpool: Meeting the Challenge of Diversity Run time: 11 minutes Since its establishment in 1911, Whirlpool has become a global corporation with manufacturing locations on every major continent. “The greatest strength of our employee base today is its diversity—the diversity of thought and what that brings to our innovation processes,” McLane remarks. Ask your students: 1. What are the three main objectives of Whirlpool’s diversity networks? 2. What challenges do managers at Whirlpool face in establishing a diverse workplace? How might they respond to these challenges? 3. Do you think that Whirlpool’s encouragement of employee networks always leads to a culture of diversity and the formation of effective multicultural teams? Why or why not? Discussion Questions 1. How can managers be encouraged to develop global thinking? 2. Why do you think some companies encourage alternative work arrangements? 3. What effects will the globalization of business have on a company’s culture? How can an organization with a strong “made in America” identity compete in the global marketplace? 1/25/08 5:18:51 AM Whistle-Blowing 29 Social Responsibility 29 Codes of Ethics 30 6 Technological Innovation and Today’s Workforce 31 Alternative Work Arrangements 32 Impact of Technology on Management 32 Helping Employees Adjust to Technological Change 33 Terms transnational organization 17 guanxi 18 expatriate manager 19 individualism 19 collectivism 19 power distance 21 uncertainty avoidance 21 masculinity 21 femininity 21 time orientation 21 diversity 22 glass ceiling 23 consequential theory 27 rule-based theory 27 character theory 27 distributive justice 29 procedural justice 29 whistle-blower 29 social responsibility 29 technology 31 expert system 31 robotics 31 telecommuting 32 reinvention 33 Experiential Exercise Nutty Buddy: An Exercise in Individual Differences• This exercise requires a bag of peanuts-in-the-shell. Students do not need an additional handout to complete this exercise. This exercise may be used as a team-builder, or an icebreaker for the beginning of the semester. The time necessary for the exercise and debriefing is about twenty minutes and is ideal for group sizes of 10–25, although it easily accommodates larger groups as well. Additional teaching notes are in the Instructor Manual. 1. The instructor rummages through a bag of peanuts-in-the-shell, choosing peanuts most similar in shape and size. Peanuts having clearly evident defining characteristics, such as split shell, an attached stem, discoloration, three nuts rather than two, etc., should be discarded. The selection process should yield approximately one-fourth more peanuts than number of participants. The qualifying peanuts are place in a large bowl that is then passed to each participant, who is asked to choose a peanut and to wait for additional instructions. 2. Each person has one minute to get to know his or her peanut. Students cannot mark on their peanut, open it, or alter it in any way. They may sniff it, talk to it, lick it, fondle it, argue with it, confess to it—in short, whatever will aid them in getting to know it better. 3. The peanuts are returned to the bowl along with those extra peanuts that had not been selected. The peanuts are then emptied onto a table or in the middle of the floor and participants are instructed to “find your peanut.” 4. If anyone cannot locate his or her peanut, he or she is invited to check everyone else’s peanut and to negotiate ownership. (A short intervention by the instructor on the vagaries of “peanut napping” may be appropriate here.) SOURCE: Christopher Taylor, Organizational Behavior Teaching Review, Vol. 13, (4) 1988–89, 123–124. Used with permission. Assignments ✐ Have students find someone whose culture is different from their own. This might be a classmate, an international student, or a Native American at their university. Interview the person about his or her culture, using Hofstede’s dimensions of (1) individualism/collectivism, (2) high power distance/low power distance, (3) high uncertainty avoidance/low uncertainty avoidance, (4) masculinity/femininity, and (5) long-term orientation/shortterm orientation. • Ask students to determine what they might need to know about doing business in the person’s country (e.g., customs, etiquette). • Tell students to be prepared to share this information in class. During class discussion, have students share anything that surprised them in the information that they gathered. Discuss why they were surprised by this information. ✐ Assign the electronic cases and quizzes on Timberland and Genentech. Beyond the Class A selection of materials is in the Instructor Manual. 6 PART 1 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 6 Introduction 1/25/08 5:19:02 AM Chapter What’s Inside 3 1 Personality, Perception, and Attribution >> Key topics in this chapter: individual differences and organizational behavior; personality and organizations; application of personality theory in organizations; social perception and how characteristics of the perceiver, the target, and the situation affect it; common barriers to social perception; attributions and their affect on managerial behavior. Learning Outcomes Learning differences and their importance in 1 Describe individual Outcomes 1 2 3 understanding behavior. D Explain how personality influences behavior in organizations. Discuss the practical Chapter 1 application of personality theories in organizations. Organizational and explain the factors that affect it. 4 Define social perception Behavior and Opportunity 1 5 Identify five common barriers to social perception. 1 Human Behavior in Organizations 3 6 Explain the attribution process and how attributions affect managerial behavior. Understanding Human Behavior 4 Interdisciplinary Influences 4 Chapter Times of Change 3 2 Behavior in 5 Personality, Perception, and 3 The Organizational Context 6 Organizations Attribution 34 as Open Systems 4 1 5 6 2 6 The Formal and Informal Organization 7 Individual Differences and Organizational Diversity 35 Behavior of Organizations 8 Skills and Abilities 36 Change Creates Opportunities 9 Four Challenges for Managers 36 Personality and Organizations Related to Change 9 Trait Theory 37 Global Competition in Business 9 Big Five Personality Model 37 Customer Focused for38 Integrative Approach High Quality 10 Behavior and Quality at Work 11 Personality Characteristics in Managing Organizational Behavior in Organizations 38 Changing Times 12 3 Application of Personality Theory in 7 Learning about41 Organizations Organizational Behavior Personality Measurement Common 12 Objective Knowledge 12 Tools 41 Skill Jung and the Myers-Briggs Type Carl Development 13 Application ® Instrument 41 Indicator of Knowledge and Skills 14 4 Social Perception 45 Characteristics of the Perceiver 46 Characteristics of the Target 47 Characteristics of the Situation 48 5 Barriers to Social Perception 48 Impression Management 49 6 Attribution in Organizations 50 Internal and External Attributions 50 Attributional Biases 50 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 7 Prep Card Multimedia Multimedia PPT—The Highlights Slide 3 Variables Influencing Individual Behavior PPT—The Highlights Slide 8 Big Five Personality Traits Slide 6 Slide 14 Personality Characteristics in Organizations Slide 17 Who Is Most Likely to . . . Video Slide 27 MBTI Preferences *Clip31 Slide from 8 Mile Perception Model Social Run time: 3 minutes Jimmy “B-Rabbit” Smith, Jr. (Eminem) wants to be a successful rapper Video and to prove that a white man can create moving sounds. He works days *Clip from The Breakfast Club (1985) at a plant run by the North Detroit Stamping Company and pursues Run time: at minutes his music 3 night, sometimes on the plant’s grounds. This scene is an John Hughes’s careful look at teenage culture in suburban Chicago edited composite of two brief sequences involvinga the stamping plant high school Jimmy’s interactions teenagers from the school’s and showingfocuses on a group of with his manager, Manny. different subcultures. They start their Saturday detention with nothing in comAsk your students: course of a day, they learn each other’s innermost mon, but over the 1. What is your perception of the quality of Jimmy’s job and his work secrets. environment? AskWhat is the quality of Jimmy’s relationship with Manny (Paul Bates), 2. your students: 1. his foreman? Does it change? If it does, why? Which Big Five personality dimensions describe each character in 3. this scene? you react to this type of work experience? How would 2. Which characters show positive affect? Which show negative affect? *Profile on Honda 3. Refer to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) section in Run time: 10 minutes of the sixteen types shown in Table 3.3 best this chapter. Which When Honda announced in Why? that it was building its first auto describes each character? 1982 assembly plant in North America, many analysts were of the opinion Note: Students familiar with the Lunchtime same quality automobiles that American labor could not produce the sequence might notice the absence of Andrew Clark, The Jock (Emilio Estevez). involved him out as the Japanese. But despite the cultural challenges We editedin transof the scene because he would not methods thethe U.S., Honda’s North planting Japanese manufacturing approve to use of his image. Americanon The Little attained remarkable efficiency. *Profile facilities have Guys: Managing Small Business Start Ups Runyour students: Ask time: 11 minutes David and Evie Wexler and challenges would you expect Honda to 1. What opportunities decided to start a home-theater business with long-time associate Paul of establishing manufacturing facilities in the encounter as a result Gerrity. In just 12 years, the three partners grew their new venture, The Little Guys Home Electronics, into a thrivU.S.? ing What are somewith $10 million in annual sales. Honda’s workers 2. small business managerial techniques that help Askachieve higher quality and efficiency in their production tasks? your students: 3. How might changes associated with Honda’s move to the U.S.of the 1. Describe the Wexlers’ personality characteristics in terms affect the behavior ofSelf-Evaluations (CSE). partners’ Core plant workers and managers? 2. Which of the Big Five Personality traits do you consider to be the Discussion owners like the most important for small-businessquestions Wexlers? Explain. 1. How do the formal co-founders’ social perceptions of each other, 3. Describe the three aspects of your work environment affect you? What informal aspects of your workof the perceiver, the target, and and explain how the characteristics environment are important? 2. What is the biggest competitive challenge or change facing the busithe situation influence those perceptions. nesses in your industry today? Will that be different in the next five years? Discussion Questions 1. What contributions can high self-monitors make in organizations? Low self-monitors? 2. Which has the stronger impact on personality: heredity or environment? Be prepared to support your position. 3. How can managers encourage self-efficacy in employees? 1/25/08 5:19:13 AM Terms Experiential Exercise individual differences 35 interactional psychology 35 personality 36 trait theory 37 integrative approach 38 locus of control 38 general self-efficacy 38 self-esteem 39 self-monitoring 39 positive affect 40 negative affect 40 strong situation 40 projective test 41 behavioral measures 41 self-report questionnaire 41 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)® instrument 41 Extraversion 42 Introversion 42 Sensing 42 Intuition 42 Thinking 43 Feeling 43 Judging 43 Perceiving 43 social perception 45 discounting principle 48 selective perception 48 stereotype 48 first-impression error 49 projection 49 self-fulfilling prophecy 49 impression management 49 attribution theory 50 fundamental attribution error 50 self-serving bias 50 Identifying Cognitive Styles Purpose: For students to identify and define cognitive styles Group size: Any number of students Activity: Have students read the situation and managers reactions to the crisis. Students then answer the questions that follow. One variation is to have students write out their own reaction before discussing the reactions of the characters in the scenario. Students can then situate their own response in the context and reflect on their personal cognitive style. Handout: MBTI Temperaments and Leadership Styles, located in the Instructor Manual Cognitive Styles of Managers: Assume that it is Friday at 3:00 PM. A customer calls to say that a major shipment of computers you sent a week ago has not arrived and that they must have the computer by noon Monday. Failing to deliver the computers will result in losing the client. The manager must either find the shipment or reship the computers and make sure they arrive on time. Below are descriptions of how four different managers would react to this crisis. Read their reactions, and answer the questions that follow. BILL accepts the reality that the shipment of computers is lost and that he shouldn’t waste time tracking it down. He sees no alternative but to put together a new shipment and send it out immediately. He expects all his workers to pitch in and stay late to get the new shipment out. MONA considers the possibility that the original shipment might be recovered as this would save everyone the trouble of having to prepare a new shipment. She attempts to motivate a team of workers to work together to track down the shipment. At the same time, she puts together another team to work out a backup plan. She works back and forth between the two teams, trying to inconvenience everyone as little as possible. DENISE tries to track down the original shipment because no matter what happens it will have to be located. She sees putting together another shipment as the only reliable solution. At the same time, she is going to develop a strategy for evaluating shipping operations to ensure that this problem doesn’t come up again. BLAKE writes off the original shipment and feels in reality there’s no time to waste looking for it. He polls his workers to see who can work late to put together a new shipment, and if no one volunteers, he will do it himself. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING: 1. Bill’s cognitive style is _____________________. What clues were evident in his handling of the crisis? 2. Mona’s cognitive style is ____________________. What clues were evident in her handling of the crisis? 3. Denise’s cognitive style is _____________________. What clues were evident in her handling of the crisis? 4. Blake’s cognitive style is _____________________. What clues were evident in his handling of the crisis? SOURCE: Adapted from O. Kroeger and J. M. Thuesen, Type Talk at Work, New York: Delacorte Press, 1992, 165–166. Group Activity Have students debate the origins of personality, with one half taking the position that personality is inherited and the other half taking the position that personality is formed by the environment. Form groups of four to six; then split each group in half. Tell each group to appoint a recorder to take notes on the discussion. Each half should also discuss the implications of its position for managers. Finally, have each group write a brief summary of discussion outcome. Assignments ✐ Assign students to develop a section of a training program for interviewers focused on helping interviewers develop better social perception skills. Be sure to address barriers to social perception and ways to avoid these barriers in the training process. Have students turn in a written outline for this section of the training program. ✐ Assign the electronic cases and quizzes on Sir Richard Branson and Google. 8 PART 1 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 8 Introduction 1/25/08 5:19:26 AM Chapter What’s Inside 4 Attitudes, Emotions, and Ethics >> Prep Card Key topics in this chapter: attitudes; attitude formation; job satisfaction; organizational citizenship versus workplace deviance; persuasion and attitude change; emotions at work as part of functioning and decision making; ethical behavior; factors that affect ethical behavior. Learning Outcomes 1 2 3 4 Multimedia Explain the ABC model of an attitude. Describe how attitudes are formed. Identify sources of job satisfaction and commitment. Distinguish between organizational citizenship and workplace deviance behaviors. 5 Identify the characteristics of the source, target, and message that affect persuasion. 6 Discuss the definition and importance of emotions at work. 7 Contrast the effects of individual and organizational influences on ethical behavior. 8 Identify the factors that affect ethical behavior. Chapter 4 Attitudes, Emotions, and Ethics 52 1 Attitudes 53 The ABC Model 53 Cognitive Dissonance 54 2 Attitude Formation 54 Attitudes and Behavior 55 Work Attitudes 56 3 Job Satisfaction 56 4 Organizational Citizenship versus Workplace Deviance 57 Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction 58 5 Persuasion and Attitude Change 59 Source Characteristics 59 Target Characteristics 59 Message Characteristics 60 Cognitive Routes to Persuasion 60 6 Emotions at Work 61 Emotional Contagion at Work 61 7 Ethical Behavior 61 8 Factors that Affect Ethical Behavior 62 Values 63 Locus of Control 65 Machiavellianism 65 Cognitive Moral Development 66 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 9 PPT—The Highlights Slide 5 Slide 15 Slide 24 Slide 33 Slide 38 ABC Model of an Attitude Work Attitudes Qualities Required for Ethical Decision Making Individual/Organizational Model of Ethical Behavior Cognitive Moral Development Video *Clip from The Emperor’s Club (2002) Run time: 3 minutes William Hundert (Kevin Kline), a professor at Saint Benedict’s prep school, believes in teaching his students about living a principled life as well as classical literature. A new student’s behavior during a literature competition causes Hundert to suspect that new student, Sedgewick Bell (Emile Hirsch), leads a less than principled life. In this scene, years later, Hundert is a guest at the estate of Sedgewick Bell (Joel Gretsch). Ask your students: 1. Does William Hundert describe a specific type of life that one should lead? If so, what are its elements? 2. Does Sedgewick Bell lead that type of life? Is he committed to any specific ethics view or theory? 3. What consequences or effects do you predict for Sedgewick Bell because of the way he chooses to live his life? *Profile on Zingerman’s Run time: 11 minutes Ari Weinzweig and Paul Saginaw know that a committed, enthusiastic staff is the key ingredient of great tasting specialty foods at Zingerman’s. The duo foster a high level of job satisfaction among employees, which has earned Zingerman’s a reputation as “The Coolest Small Company in America,” according to Inc. Magazine. Ask your students: 1. What is “servant leadership,” and what impact do you think this managerial approach has on organizational commitment at Zingerman’s? 2. What are some ways in which Zingerman’s promotes job satisfaction among employees? 3. What personal qualities and values does Zingerman’s look for in a candidate who is interviewing for a job? Discussion Questions 1. Suppose you have an employee whose lack of commitment is affecting others in the work group. How would you go about persuading the person to change this attitude? 2. Think of a time when you have experienced cognitive dissonance. Analyze your experience in terms of the attitude and behavior involved. What did you do to resolve the cognitive dissonance? What other actions could you have taken? 1/25/08 5:19:31 AM Terms Experiential Exercise attitude 53 affect 53 cognitive dissonance 54 social learning 55 job satisfaction 56 organizational citizenship behavior 57 organizational commitment 58 affective commitment 58 continuance commitment 59 normative commitment 59 emotions 61 emotional contagion 61 ethical behavior 61 values 63 instrumental values 64 terminal values 64 Machiavellianism 65 cognitive moral development 66 Chinese, Indian, and American Values Purpose: To learn some differences among Chinese, Indian, and American value systems. Group size: Any number of groups of five to eight people. Time required: 50+ minutes Full teaching notes in the Instructor Manual 1. Complete rankings (preclass) Students rank the fifteen values for either Chinese and American orientations or for Indian and American systems. If time permits, all three can be done. 2. Small groups (optional) – Unit time: 15 min., Total time: 15 min. Groups of five to eight members try to achieve consensus on the ranking values for both Chinese and American cultures. 3. Group presentations (optional) – Unit time: 15 min., Total time: 30 min. Each group presents its rankings and discusses reasons for making those decisions. 4. Discussion – Unit time: 20+ min., Total time: 50 min. Instructor leads a discussion on the differences between Chinese and American value systems and presents the correct rankings. Value Rankings Rank each of the fifteen values below according to what you think they are in the Chinese, Indian (from India), and American cultures. Use “1” as the most important value for the culture and “15” as the least important value for that culture. Value Achievement Deference Order Exhibition Autonomy Affiliation Intraception Succorance Dominance Abasement Nurturance Change Endurance Heterosexuality Aggression Some Definitions Intraception: The tendency to be governed by subjective factors, such as feelings, fantasies, speculations, and aspirations; the other side of extraception, where one is governed by concrete, clearly observable physical conditions. Succorance: Willingness to help another or to offer relief. Abasement: To lower oneself in rank, prestige, or esteem. Internal/External Locus of Control Consider American and Chinese groups. Which would tend to have more internal locus of control (tend to feel in control of one’s destiny, that rewards come as a result of hard work, perseverance, and responsibility)? Which would be more external (fate, luck or other outside forces control destiny)? Machiavellianism This concept was defined by Christie and Geis as the belief that one can manipulate and deceive people for personal gain. Do you think Americans or Chinese would score higher on the Machiavellian scale? Discussion Questions 1. What are some main differences among the cultures? Did any pattern emerge? 2. Were you surprised by the results? 3. What behaviors could you expect in business dealings with Chinese (or Indians) based on their value system? 4. How do American values dictate Americans’ behaviors in business situations? SOURCE: “Chinese, Indian, and American Values” by Dorothy Marcic, copyright 1993. Adapted from Michael Harris Bond, ed., The Psychology of the Chinese People, Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Ave., NY 10016, 1986. The selection used here is a portion of “Chinese Personality and Its Change,” by Kuo-Shu Yang, pp. 106–170. Reprinted by permission. Assignments ✐ Have students write a follow-up to the experiential exercise, describing how their initial thoughts and perceptions evolved (or were confirmed) after going through the value ranking exercise. ✐ Assign students to write a brief description of the cognitive dissonance experience exercise in the discussion question section. ✐ Assign the electronic cases and related quizzes on Canine Companions for Independence and Timberland. 10 PART 1 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 10 Introduction 1/25/08 5:19:36 AM Chapter What’s Inside 5 Motivation at Work >> Prep Card Key topics in this chapter: motivation and work behavior; Maslow’s need hierarchy; McClelland’s need theory; Herzberg’s two-factor theory; two new ideas in motivation in the past decade; social exchange and equity theory; expectancy theory of motivation; understanding cultural differences in motivation. Learning Outcomes 1 Define motivation. 2 Explain how Theory X and Theory Y relate to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. 3 4 5 6 7 8 Discuss the needs for achievement, power, and affiliation. Describe the two-factor theory of motivation. Explain two new ideas in human motivation. Multimedia PPT—The Highlights Slide 4 Slide 7 Slide 20 Slide 25 Slide 34 Slides 42–43 3 Groups of Motivational Theories Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 3 Motivational Needs Theories Motivation-Hygiene Theory of Motivation Individual-Organizational Exchange Relationship Expectancy Model of Motivation Describe the role of inequity in motivation. Describe the expectancy theory of motivation. Describe the cultural differences in motivation. Chapter 5 Motivation at Work 68 1 Motivation and Work Behavior 69 Internal Needs 69 External Incentives 70 Employee Recognition and Ownership 71 Maslow’s Need Hierarchy 71 2 Theory X and Theory Y 72 ERG Theory 72 3 McClelland’s Need Theory 72 Need for Achievement 73 Need for Power 73 Need for Affiliation 73 4 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory 74 Motivation Factors 74 Hygiene Factors 76 Critique of the Two-Factor Theory 76 5 Two New Ideas in Motivation 76 Eustress, Strength, and Hope 76 Positive Energy and Full Engagement 77 6 Social Exchange and Equity Theory 77 Demands and Contributions 77 Adam’s Theory of Inequity 78 The Resolution of Inequity 79 New Perspectives on Equity Theory 79 7 Expectancy Theory of Motivation 80 Motivational Problems 80 Motivation and Moral Maturity 81 8 Cultural Differences in Motivation 81 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 11 Video *Clip from For Love of the Game (1999) Run time: 3 minutes Billy Chapel (Kevin Costner), a twenty-year veteran pitcher for the Detroit Tigers, learns just before the season’s last game that the team’s new owners want to trade him. He also learns that his partner, Jane Aubrey (Kelly Preston), intends to leave him. Faced with these daunting blows, Chapel wants to pitch a perfect final game. Director Raimi’s love of baseball shines through in some striking visual effects. Ask your students: 1. At what level are Billy Chapel’s esteem needs at this point in the game? 2. Do you expect Gus Sinski’s talk to have any effect on Chapel? If it will, what effect do you expect it to have? 3. What rewards potentially exist for Billy Chapel? Remember, this is the last baseball game of his career. *Profile on Washburn Guitar: Motivation at Work Run time: 11 minutes Washburn Guitar’s enduring success is a rich guitar-making tradition developed and maintained by the company’s skilled craftsmen. Though many intrinsic and extrinsic factors motivate Washburn employees, watching a guitar progress from the design phase to the manufacturing floor to the artist on stage may be the ultimate thrill for a guitar maker. Ask your students: 1. What motivates Washburn’s employees to produce high quality guitars? 2. Do rock star endorsements of Washburn guitars constitute a motivation factor or a hygiene factor, according to Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation? 3. Should managers at Washburn adopt Theory X assumptions or Theory Y assumptions when seeking new ways to motivate employees? Explain. Discussion Questions 1. What do you think are the most important motivational needs for the majority of people? Do you think your needs differ from those of most people? 2. What important experiences have contributed to your moral and ethical development? Are you working to further your own moral maturity at this time? 1/25/08 5:19:41 AM Terms Experiential Exercise motivation 69 psychoanalysis 70 self-interest 70 Theory X 72 Theory Y 72 need for achievement 73 need for power 73 need for affiliation 73 motivation factor 74 hygiene factor 74 eustress 76 inequity 78 equity sensitive 79 benevolent 79 entitled 79 valence 80 expectancy 80 instrumentality 80 moral maturity 81 What’s Important to Employees? This exercise provides students an opportunity to discuss their basic needs and those of other students in the class. Have students do a ranking of the ten possible job reward factors and think about basic needs they may have that are possibly work related and yet would not be satisfied by one or another of these ten job reward factors. Teaching notes are in the Instructor Manual. Step 1. The class will form into groups of approximately six members each. Each group elects a spokesperson and answers the following questions. The group should spend at least five minutes on the first question and make sure each member of the group makes a contribution. The second question will probably take longer for your group to answer, up to fifteen minutes. The spokesperson should be ready to share the group’s answers. a. What important basic needs do you have that are not addressed by one or another of these ten job reward factors? Members should focus on the whole range of needs discussed in the different need theories of motivation covered in Chapter 5. Develop a list of the basic needs overlooked by these ten factors. b. What is important to members of your group? Rank-order all job reward factors (the original ten and any new ones your group came up with in Step 1) in terms of their importance for your group. If group members disagree about the rankings, take time to discuss the differences among group members. Work for consensus and also note points of disagreement. Step 2. Each group will share the results of its answers to the questions in Step 1. Crossteam questions and discussion follow. Step 3. As the instructor, share the normative data for 1,000 employees and their supervisors found in the Instructor Manual. Step 4 (Optional). Have students discuss the similarities and differences in their group’s rankings with the employee and supervisory normative rankings. Spend some time addressing two questions. a. What underlying reasons do you think may account for the differences that exist? b. How have the needs of employees and supervisors changed over the past twenty years? Are they likely to change in the future? SOURCE: “Crossed Wires on Employee Motivation,” Training and Development 49 (1995): 59–60. Assignments ✐ Assign students to write a memo describing the two employees you with whom you work who most closely operate according to Theory X and Theory Y assumptions about human nature. Be as specific and detailed in your description as you can, using quotes and/or observational examples. ✐ Have students develop an oral presentation about the most current management practices in employee motivation. Find out what at least four different companies are doing in this area. Be prepared to compare these practices with the theory and research in the chapter. ✐ Present this scenario to students: “Assume you are leaving your current job to look for employment elsewhere. What will you look for that you do not have now? If you do not have a job, assume you will be looking for one soon. What will be the most important factors that you will seek?” Tell students to be prepared to discuss answers in class. ✐ Assign the electronic cases and quizzes on Disney-Pixar merger and American Express. Beyond the Class A selection of materials is in the Instructor Manual. 12 PART 1 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 12 Introduction 1/25/08 5:19:48 AM Chapter What’s Inside 6 Learning and Performance Management >> Prep Card Key topics in this chapter: learning in organizations; social and cognitive learning theories at work; guiding and directing work behavior through goal setting; the process of performance management; the effect of performance rewards on organizational culture and motivation; correcting poor performance by focusing on the employee. Learning Outcomes 1 Describe behavioral theories of learning. 2 Describe social and cognitive theories of learning. 3 Explain how goal-setting can be used to direct learning and performance. 4 Define performance and identify the tools used to measure it. 5 Explain the importance of performance feedback and how it can be delivered effectively. 6 Identify ways managers can reward performance. 7 List several strategies for correcting poor performance. Chapter 6 Learning and Performance Management 82 1 Behavioral Models of Learning in Organizations 83 Classical Conditioning 83 Operant Conditioning 84 Reinforcement Theory 84 Reinforcement 85 Punishment 85 Extinction 86 2 Social and Cognitive Theories of Learning 86 Bandura’s Social Learning Theory 86 Cognitive Theories of Learning 87 3 Goal Setting at Work 87 Characteristics of Effective Goals 87 Goals Increase Work Motivation and Task Performance 88 Goals Reduce Role Stress, Conflict, and Ambiguity 89 Goals Improve Performance Evaluation 89 4 Performance: A Key Construct 90 Performance Management 90 Defining Performance 90 Measuring Performance 91 5 Performance Feedback 92 360-Degree Feedback 92 Developing People and Enhancing Careers 93 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 13 Multimedia PPT—The Highlights Slide 10 Slide 16 Slides 24–25 Slide 34 Slide 41 Learning and Personality Differences Goal Setting Functions Actual and Measured Performance Individual or Team Rewards Attribution Model Video *Clip from Seabuscuit (2003) Run time: 3 minutes Red Pollard (Tobey Maguire) identified the performance requirements and set a clear performance goal for George Wolff (Gary Stevens)—Seabiscuit must win the race. George accepts the goal and then learns from Red, Seabiscuit’s experienced jockey, about what to do to win. Red gives George tips about Seabiscuit’s behavior, and because George has no experience riding Seabiscuit, Red’s coaching helps shape George’s behavior as Seabiscuit’s rider. Ask your students: 1. Does Red set clear performance goals for George? If he does, what are they? 2. Does Red help George reach those performance goals? How? 3. Does Red give George any positive reinforcement while he tries to reach the performance goals? *Profile on Cold Stone Creamery: Managerial Planning and Goal Setting Run time: 11 minutes Cold Stone Creamery’s mission is to “make people happy around the world by selling the highest quality, most creative ice cream experience with passion, excellence, and innovation.” Within that overarching mission, executives set a companywide goal of becoming America’s number-one selling ice cream by 2010. Ask your students: 1. Do Cold Stone Creamery’s goals possess the five characteristics of effective goals discussed in the chapter? Explain. 2. What makes the “Pyramid of Success 2010” graphic an effective tool for communicating Cold Stone Creamery’s corporate mission and goals to all employees? 3. Should management at Cold Stone Creamery use the same reward system for employees in Japan as is used in the United States? Why or why not? Discussion Questions 1. Which learning approach—the behavioral approach or Bandura’s social learning theory—do you find more appropriate for people? 2. Given your personality type, how do you learn best? Do you miss learning some things because of how they are taught? 3. What goals do you set for yourself at work? In your personal life? Will you know if you achieve them? 1/25/08 5:19:52 AM Key Characteristics of an Effective Appraisal System 93 6 Rewarding Performance 94 Individual versus Team Reward Systems 94 The Power of Earning 94 7 Correcting Poor Performance 95 Performance and Kelley’s Attribution Theory 95 Coaching, Counseling, and Mentoring 97 Terms learning 83 classical conditioning 83 operant conditioning 84 positive consequences 84 negative consequences 84 reinforcement 85 punishment 85 extinction 86 task-specific self-efficacy 86 goal setting 87 management by objectives (MBO) 89 performance management 90 performance appraisal 90 360-degree feedback 92 consensus 96 distinctiveness 96 consistency 96 mentoring 97 Experiential Exercise Positive and Negative Reinforcement Purpose: To examine the effects of positive and negative reinforcement on behavior change. 1. Two or three volunteers are selected to receive reinforcement from the class while performing a particular task. The volunteers leave the room. 2. The instructor identifies an object for the student volunteers to locate when they return to the room. (The object should be unobtrusive but clearly visible to the class. Some that have worked well are a small triangular piece of paper that was left behind when a notice was torn off a classroom bulletin board, a smudge on the chalkboard, and a chip in the plaster of a classroom wall.) 3. The instructor specifies the reinforcement contingencies that will be in effect when the volunteers return to the room. For negative reinforcement, students should hiss, boo, and throw things (although you should not throw anything harmful) when the first volunteer is moving away from the object; cheer and applaud when the second volunteer is getting closer to the object; and if a third volunteer is used, use both negative and positive reinforcement. 4. The instructor should assign a student to keep a record of the time it takes each of the volunteers to locate the object. 5. Volunteer #1 is brought back into the room and is instructed: “Your task is to locate and touch a particular object in the room, and the class has agreed to help you. You may begin.” 6. Volunteer #1 continues to look for the object until it is found while the class assists by giving negative reinforcement. 7. Volunteer #2 is brought back into the room and is instructed: “Your task is to locate and touch a particular object in the room, and the class has agreed to help you. You may begin.” 8. Volunteer #2 continues to look for the object until it is found while the class assists by giving positive reinforcement. 9. Volunteer #3 is brought back into the room and is instructed: “Your task is to locate and touch a particular object in the room, and the class has agreed to help you. You may begin.” 10. Volunteer #3 continues to look for the object until it is found while the class assists by giving both positive and negative reinforcement. 11. In a class discussion, answer the following questions: a. How did the behavior of the volunteers differ when different kinds of reinforcement (positive, negative, or both) were used? Most of the time the individual receiving positive reinforcement will have a number of gestures and nonverbal indicators of success. b. What were the emotional reactions of the volunteers to the different kinds of reinforcement? One of the ways to give the volunteers time to reflect and to get out of the spotlight for a moment is to have them go to a board or flip chart and list a series of words that described how they felt. Typical for volunteer #1 will be embarrassment, frustration, quit, etc. Volunteer #3 may have feelings like confusion, frustration, and ambiguity. c. Which type of reinforcement—positive or negative—is most common in organizations? What effect do you think this has on motivation and productivity? Students’ responses will depend on their exposure to specific instances. Assignments ✐ Have students prepare a memo detailing the consequences of behavior in their work or university environment (e.g., grades, awards, suspensions, and scholarships). Their memo should include their classification of these consequences as positive or negative. ✐ Tell students to be prepared to discuss whether the organization or university should change the way it applies these consequences? ✐ Have students interview a manager or supervisor who is responsible for completing performance appraisals on people at work. Ask the manager which aspects of performance appraisal and the performance appraisal interview process are most difficult and how he or she manages these difficulties. Include the aspects of his or her job that enable the manager to meet these three different needs. If students are managers, they can use their own experience for this assignment. Be prepared to discuss findings in class. ✐ Assign the electronic cases and quizzes on American Express and Toyota. 14 PART 1 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 14 Introduction 1/25/08 5:19:58 AM Chapter What’s Inside 7 Stress and Well-Being at Work >> Prep Card Key topics in this chapter: the definition of stress; four approaches to stress; the stress response—fight or flight; sources of work stress; consequences of stress; individual differences in the stress–strain relationship; preventing stress management by promoting health and preventing distress and strain. Learning Outcomes 1 2 3 4 5 6 Multimedia Define stress, distress, and strain. Compare four different approaches to stress. Explain the psychophysiology of the stress response. Identify work and nonwork causes of stress. Describe the consequences of stress. Discuss individual factors that influence a person’s response to stress and strain. 7 Identify the stages and elements of preventive stress management for individuals and organizations. Chapter 7 Stress and Well-Being at Work 98 1 What Is Stress? 99 2 Four Approaches to Stress 99 The The The The Homeostatic/Medical Approach 100 Cognitive Appraisal Approach 100 Person-Environment Fit Approach 100 Psychoanalytic Approach 100 3 The Stress Response 100 4 Sources of Work Stress 101 Work Demands 101 Nonwork Demands 103 5 The Consequences of Stress 104 Positive Stress 104 Individual Distress 105 Organizational Distress 106 6 Individual Differences in the Stress– Strain Relationship 106 Gender Effects 107 Type A Behavior Pattern 107 Personality Hardiness 108 Self-Reliance 108 7 Preventive Stress Management 109 Organizational Stress Prevention 110 Job Redesign 110 Goal Setting 111 Role Negotiation 111 Social Support Systems 111 Individual Prevention 112 Comprehensive Health Promotion 114 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 15 PPT—The Highlights Slide 12 Slide 18 Slide 19 Slide 20 Slide 23 Slide 42 The Stress Response Sources of Stress—Work Demands Sources of Stress—Nonwork Demands Stress Benefits and Cost Yerkes-Dodson Law Individual Preventive Stress Management Video *Clip from Meet the Parents (2000) Run time: 3 minutes Greg Focker (Ben Stiller) hopes his weekend visit to his girlfriend Pam’s (Teri Polo) home will leave a positive impression on her parents. Unfortunately, Jack (Robert De Niro), Pam’s father, immediately dislikes him. Jack’s fondness does not improve after Greg accidentally breaks the urn holding Jack’s mother’s ashes. Other factors do not help the developing relationship: Greg is Jewish, while Jack is a WASP ex-CIA psychological profiler. These factors blend well to cause the continuous development of stress and stress responses of all parties involved. The scene comes from the end of the movie after Greg has experienced an almost endless stream of stressors. Ask your students: 1. Does Greg experience the stress response during this scene? What evidence appears in the scene? 2. Does he experience distress or eustress? 3. Why does Greg respond so harshly to the simple request to check his bag? *Profile on Allstate: Human Resource Management While pay is often the first thing that comes to mind when people think of human resources, companies are using nonpay-related benefits to attract and retain top talent. In 2005 Allstate spent $3.3 billion on employee compensation and benefits. Management feels confident that money spent on developing human capital is money well spent. Ask your students: 1. In what way is Allstate’s benefits program a necessary response to the changing labor market? 2. How does Allstate’s onsite childcare center help employees alleviate stress? 3. Identify a benefit at Allstate that demonstrates the company’s commitment to “preventive stress management.” Discussion Questions 1. Do you think there is more stress today than in past generations? What evidence is available concerning this question? 2. If an individual claims to have job-related anxiety or depression, do you think the company should be liable? 3. Do you use any stress prevention methods that are not discussed in the chapter? If so, what are they? 1/25/08 5:20:11 AM Terms Experiential Exercise stress 99 stressor 99 distress 99 strain 99 homeostasis 100 ego-ideal 100 self-image 100 workaholism 104 participation problem 106 performance decrement 106 compensation award 106 Type A behavior pattern 107 personality hardiness 108 transformational coping 108 self-reliance 108 counterdependence 108 overdependence 108 preventive stress management 109 primary prevention 109 secondary prevention 109 tertiary prevention 110 Social Support Network Analysis Purpose: To help students develop an understanding of the types and sources of social support needed to develop an effective network. Group size: Any number students. Activities: Students complete the analysis worksheet and then gather in groups of five or six to discuss the questions provided on their worksheets. SOURCE: Adapted from J. C. Quick, D. L. Nelson, and J. D. Quick, “The Self-Reliance Inventory,” in J. W. Pfeiffer (ed.), The 1991 Annual: Developing Human Resources (San Diego: University Associates, 1991: 149–161. SOCIAL SUPPORT NETWORK ANALYSIS WORKSHEET Self-reliant individuals are masters at developing good social support networks. They prefer interdependence, and they are also good providers of support to others. This exercise, designed for use in class, will help you develop an understanding of the types and sources of social support needed to develop an effective network. 1. Individually complete the following work-related and nonwork-related network analyses by filling in the blanks with the names of people from whom you receive social support. In the parentheses following each blank, write the type of support received: E=emotional caring and nurturance; I=informational support; A=appraisal and evaluative feedback; M=role modeling and guidance; and S=instrumental support providing resources or acting on behalf of a person. 2. In groups of five or six, discuss the following questions: · Where were the blank spaces in your work and nonwork networks? · Are there any types of support (emotional, informational, appraisal, role modeling, or instrumental) that you do not receive from anyone? · What can you do to develop your network? · How has social support been important to you in managing your stress? Give specific examples. Work-Related Network (formal organizational relationships) Manager Co-workers ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( Employees Others ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) Nonwork-Related Network Family members Friends Assignments ✐ Have students write a memo describing the most challenging demands and/or stressors at their workplace (or university). They should be specific in fully describing the details of these demands and/or stressors. How might they go about changing these demands and/or stressors? ✐ Have students interview a medical doctor, a psychologist, or another health care professional about the most common forms of health problems and distress seen in his or her work. Tell them to summarize their interview and compare the results to the categories of distress discussed in the chapter. Encourage students to share in class the responses they obtained from the medical professionals and to discuss the similarities and differences among the responses. ✐ Assign the electronic cases and quizzes on Genentech and Timberland. 16 PART 1 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 16 Introduction 1/25/08 5:20:27 AM Chapter What’s Inside 8 Communication >> Prep Card Key topics in this chapter: interpersonal communication; five keys to effective supervisory communication; barriers and gateways to communication; defensive and nondefensive communication; nonverbal communication; positive, healthy communication; communicating through new technologies. Learning Outcomes Multimedia 1 Describe the interpersonal communication process and the role of listening in the process. 2 Describe the five communication skills of effective supervisors. 3 Explain five communication barriers and gateways through them. 4 Distinguish between defensive and nondefensive communication. 5 Explain the impact of nonverbal communication. 6 Explain positive, healthy communication. 7 Identify communication technologies and how they affect the communication process. Chapter 8 Communication 116 1 Interpersonal Communication 117 An Interpersonal Communication Model 117 Reflective Listening 118 2 Communication Skills for Effective Managers 121 Expressiveness 121 Empathy and Sensitivity 122 Persuasion 122 Informative 122 3 Barriers and Gateways to Communication 122 Gender Differences 122 Cultural Diversity 123 Language 123 4 Defensive and Nondefensive Communication 124 Defensive Communication at Work 124 Defensive Tactics 125 Nondefensive Communication 125 5 Nonverbal Communication 125 Proxemics 126 Kinesics 127 Facial and Eye Behavior 127 Paralanguage 128 6 Positive, Healthy Communication 128 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 17 PPT—The Highlights Slide 6 Slide 7 Slide 11 Slide 12 Slide 27 Slide 28 Basic Interpersonal Communication Model Communication Media Reflective Listening–Verbal Reflective Listening–Nonverbal Defensive Tactics–Boss Defensive Tactics–Employee Video *Clip from Patch Adams (1998) Run time: 3 minutes Patch Adams (Robin Williams) uses all parts of the communication process to talk to his highly receptive meat packers’ audience. He is the sender and they are receivers. The communication medium is a faceto-face meeting with a large audience, using his voice as the communication channel. He encodes his message in understandable American English. Patch’s message is simple: meatpackers are great people who do important work for the world. Ask your students: 1. What parts of the communication process appear in this scene? Note each part of the process that you see in the scene. 2. What type of communication does this scene show? Small group, large audience, or persuasive? 3. Is Patch Adams an effective communicator? Why or why not? *Profile on Navistar International: Corporate Communication Run time: 11 minutes Miscommunication can be costly to a business. Assuring the highest quality of communication is a task that Navistar International takes seriously throughout its truck, engine, and financial services divisions. Navistar’s team of professional communicators delivers timely, effective messages that are highly relevant to internal and external stakeholders. Ask your students: 1. What enables Navistar to meet the communication needs of its separate business divisions? 2. Explain why the communication channels used to send messages within a Navistar division may not be well-suited to transmitting messages across Navistar’s business units. 3. Why is it important for businesses to have a crisis communications plan ready at all times? What should an effective crisis communications plan entail? Discussion Questions 1. Who is the best communicator you know? Why do you consider that person to be so? 2. Who is the best listener you have ever known? Describe what that person does that makes him or her so good at listening. 1/25/08 5:20:30 AM 7 Communicating through New Technologies 129 Written Communication 129 Communication Technologies 129 How Do Communication Technologies Affect Behavior? 130 Terms communication 117 interpersonal communication 117 communicator 117 receiver 117 perceptual screen 117 message 118 feedback 118 language 118 data 118 information 118 richness 118 reflective listening 118 two-way communication 120 one-way communication 120 barriers to communication 122 gateways to communication 122 defensive communication 124 nondefensive communication 124 nonverbal communication 125 communicative disease 128 information communication technology (ICT) 130 3. What nonverbal behaviors do you find most helpful in others when you are attempting to talk with them? When you try to listen to them? Experiential Exercise Degrees of Truth in Feedback Purpose: To practice providing feedback to a direct question. Activity: Students read the scenario and provide the response they believe is most appropriate as well as why the rejected answers would not be adequate. Scenario: The following incident is an avoidance situation between carpooling work colleagues. For the scenario described below, consider the appropriateness of the feedback examples provided. Jack and Rachel have been car pooling for about a year. Though they do not socialize much outside of work (nor interact much at work), they have a very friendly relationship during the half hour or so they are together each morning and each evening. Jack thinks of Rachel as a friend, and apparently Rachel feels the same way, as they often share insights about how they feel about their jobs, families, etc. Jack sees Rachel as a nice person, though perhaps overly rigid about how other people look at the world. Rachel has often said that she feels that her boss “doesn’t treat her like someone who is being considered for promotion to a supervisory job.” She asks Jack “do you see me as supervisor material?” Critique: Critique each of the following responses Jack might give in terms of the guidelines for useful interaction. Provide the response you believe is most appropriate as well as why the rejected answers would not be adequate. a. “Hey, I think you would make a great supervisor. I’m sure it would be a challenge to anyone, but you’d do just fine. Why don’t you go in there and tell your boss that you want to know when you are going to be promoted?” b. “I really don’t know. If you’re not happy now, you should certainly give it a try. But don’t worry about it until you have to cross that bridge, though.” c. “Look, Rachel, I’m your friend, so I’ll tell you straight. You’re too neurotic about things. People don’t like the way you come on strong all the time. Nobody’s going to understand where you’re coming from like I do because they don’t spend the time with you that I do.” d. “I think I would feel comfortable working for you. Just this afternoon I’ve given my opinion about the merger and about the NAFTA decision, and you didn’t try to tell me I was wrong about either, even though you obviously disagree. But I must admit that you didn’t ask for my opinion about either one.” e. “Well, I think you sometimes seem a bit opinionated. Of course everyone usually has opinions, and yours are probably as good as anyone’s. But maybe you’d be better off if on occasion you would ask for other people’s opinions more.” Assignments ✐ Ask students: What methods have you found most helpful in overcoming these barriers to communication: physical, status based, cultural, linguistic? Have students write a brief response for each barrier and explain their answer. Be prepared to discuss in class. ✐ Have students identify a person at work or at the university who is difficult to talk to and arrange an interview in which they practice good reflective listening skills. Direct them to ask the person questions about a topic in which you think he or she is interested. Students should pay particular attention to being patient, calm, and nonreactive. After the interview, summarize what they have learned. ✐ Assign the electronic cases and quizzes on Whole Foods and Caribou Coffee. Beyond the Class A selection of materials is in the Instructor Manual. 18 PART 1 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 18 Introduction 1/25/08 5:20:36 AM Chapter What’s Inside 9 Work Teams and Groups >> Prep Card Key topics in this chapter: group behavior; group formation and development; work teams in organizations; diversity and creativity in teams; empowerment and self-managed teams; upper echelons: teams at the top; managerial implications: teamwork for productivity and quality. Learning Outcomes 1 Define group and work team. 2 Explain the benefits organizations and individuals derive from working in teams. 3 Identify the factors that influence group behavior. 4 Describe how groups form and develop. 5 Explain how task and maintenance functions influence group performance. 6 Discuss the factors that influence group effectiveness. 7 Describe how empowerment relates to self-managed teams. 8 Explain the importance of upper echelons and top management teams. Chapter 9 Work Teams and Groups 132 1 Groups and Work Teams 133 2 Why Work Teams? 134 Benefits to Organizations 134 Social Benefits to Individuals 134 3 Group Behavior 135 Norms of Behavior 135 Group Cohesion 136 Social Loafing 136 Loss of Individuality 136 4 Group Formation and Development 136 Group Formation 137 Stages of Group Development 137 Punctuated Equilibrium Model 138 Characteristics of a Mature Group 139 5 Task and Maintenance Functions 141 6 Factors that Influence Group Effectiveness 141 Work Team Structure 142 Work Team Process 142 Diversity 142 Creativity 143 7 Empowerment and Self-Managed Teams 144 Empowerment Skills 144 Self-Managed Teams 145 8 Upper Echelons: Teams at the Top 145 Multimedia PPT—The Highlights Slide 8 Slide 20 Slides 22–25 Slide 50 New vs. Old Team Environments Tuckman’s Five Stage Model Mature Group Characteristics Executive Teams & Organizational Performance Video *Clip from Apollo 13 (1995) Run time: 3 minutes This scene shows day 5 of the mission, about two-thirds of the way through Apollo 13. Earlier in the mission, Jack Swigert (Kevin Bacon) stirred the oxygen tanks at mission control’s request. An explosion in the spacecraft happened shortly after this procedure, causing unknown damage to the command module. Before this scene takes place, the damage has forced the crew to move into the LEM (Lunar Exploration Module), which becomes their lifeboat for return to earth. Ask your students: 1. What triggers the conflict in this scene? 2. Is this intergroup conflict or intragroup conflict? What effects can such conflict have on the group dynamics on board Apollo 13? 3. Does mission commander Jim Lovell (Tom Hanks) successfully manage the group dynamics to return the group to a normal state? *Profile on Cold Stone Creamery: Teamwork Run time: 11 minutes Teamwork at Cold Stone Creamery has increased employee satisfaction, expanded job knowledge, and augmented worker productivity. Most importantly, teams have created a culture of fun. Who would expect anything less from the maker of the ever-popular Birthday Cake Remix and the deliciously dirty Mud Pie Mojo. Ask your students: 1. What norms of behavior would you expect to find among team members working in a Cold Stone Creamery ice cream store? 2. What are some of the challenges involved in creating a global team at Cold Stone? 3. What characteristics of a team may influence group effectiveness, and what role does diversity play in team success? Discussion Questions 1. What was the most effective group (or team) that you have been a member of? What made that group (or team) so effective? 2. Name a company you know of that successfully uses teamwork and empowerment. What has that company done that makes it so successful at teamwork and empowerment? Has its team approach made a difference in its performance? How? 3. Do you admire the upper echelons in your organization or university? Why or why not? Do they communicate effectively with groups and individuals throughout the organization? Diversity at the Top 146 Multicultural Top Teams 147 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 19 1/25/08 5:20:39 AM Terms Experiential Exercise group 133 work team 133 teamwork 134 psychological intimacy 134 integrated involvement 135 norms of behavior 135 group cohesion 136 social loafing 136 loss of individuality 136 status structure 140 task function 141 maintenance function 141 self-managed team 144 upper echelon 145 Putting the Beat Back in Group Work Purpose: For students to review or teach the chapter components to each other in the group and to receive different contributions from students than are normally provided. This exercise provides an avenue for students to risk being creative among their peers. You and the members of your team are lyricists for a major must publishing house, Country & Western, Inc. (CWI). CWI specializes in country music, and has developed a unique approach to the creative business of developing hit country songs. In contrast to the normal approach to song writing, artists under contract to CWI provide only the music to their songs. CWI employs specialists in lyrics (you and your teammates) to write the titles and words. When a musician submits a new melody to CWI, the Vice President of Creativity listens to the tune, identifies a topic he believes to be appropriate for the melody, then assigns one of the lyric production teams to develop a catchy title for the song using the words (or variations of them) the Vice President designated for the topic of the song. For example, if the assigned topic was “love,” acceptable titles might include: “I ain’t had a beer since breakfast so what I’m feelin’ must be love,” or “Lovin’ you sure beats punchin’ cows.” The Vice President of Creativity has just assigned the following topics for titles. Make a creative country and western song title out of as many as possible in the time allotted. Topic Proposed Title 1. Empowerment ____________________________________________ 2. Group cohesion ____________________________________________ 3. Team ____________________________________________ 4. Group development ____________________________________________ 5. Quality circles ____________________________________________ 6. Social loafing ____________________________________________ 7. Upper echelon ____________________________________________ 8. Psychological intimacy ____________________________________________ SOURCE: Adapted from Donald D. Bowen, The University of Tulsa. Assignments ✐ Have students prepare a memo describing their observations about work teams and groups in their workplace or university. Instruct students to address the following questions: Where have you observed teams or groups to be most effective? Why? What changes might be made at work or in the university to make teams more effective? ✐ Have students develop an oral presentation about what the most important norms of behavior should be in an academic community or a workplace. Their presentation should include how these norms should be established and reinforced. ✐ Assign the electronic cases and quizzes on Stryker and Toyota. Beyond the Class A selection of materials is in the Instructor Manual. 20 PART 1 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 20 Introduction 1/25/08 5:20:44 AM Chapter What’s Inside 10 Decision Making by Individuals and Groups >> Prep Card Key topics in this chapter: the decision-making process; models of decision making; decision making and risk; Jung’s cognitive styles; other individual influences on decision making; participation in decision making; the group decision-making process; techniques for group decision making; cultural issues in decision making and how participation levels affect the outcome of group decision-making efforts. Learning Outcomes 1 2 3 4 5 6 Multimedia Identify the steps in the decision-making process. Describe various models of decision making. Discuss the individual influences that affect decision making. Explain how groups make decisions. Describe the role culture plays in decision making. Explain how organizations can improve the quality of decisions through participation. PPT—The Highlights Slide 8 Slide 14 Slide 22 Slide 23 Slide 26 Slides 31–35 Models of Decision Making Z Problem-Solving Model Jung’s Cognitive Style Two Brains–Two Cognitive Styles Four Stages of Creative Process Group Decision Making Video Chapter 10 Decision Making by Individuals and Groups 148 1 The Decision-Making Process 149 2 Models and Limits of Decision Making 150 Rational Model 150 Bounded Rationality Model 151 Z Model 151 Escalation of Commitment 152 3 Individual Influences on Decision Making 153 Risk and the Manager 153 Personality, Attitudes, and Values 154 Intuition 154 Creativity 155 4 The Group Decision-Making Process 158 Advantages and Disadvantages of Group Decision Making 158 Limits of Group Decision Making 158 Techniques for Group Decision Making 161 Factors in Selecting the Appropriate Technique 162 Special Decision-Making Groups 162 5 Diversity and Culture in Decision Making 163 6 Participation in Decision Making 164 The Effects of Participation 164 Foundations for Participation and Empowerment 164 What Level of Participation? 165 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 21 *Clip from Dr. Seuss’ How The Grinch Stole Christmas (2000)* Run time: 3 minutes Students will undoubtedly know the story, but if they have not seen the movie, they need to know it doesn’t hold completely true to Dr. Seuss’s original work. In this scene, the Grinch (John Carey) is deciding whether to accept an invitation extended by Cincy Lou Who to be the Holiday Cheermeister at the Whobilation One-Thousand celebration. Ask your students: 1. What are the Grinch’s decision alternatives or options? 2. What decision criteria does the Grinch use to choose from the alternatives? 3. Describe the steps in the Grinch’s decision-making process. *Profile on McDonald’s: Managerial Decision Making Run time: 11 minutes The McDonald’s story, which gained legendary status under the leadership of Ray Kroc and Fred Turner, weaves together many themes of business success—visionary leadership, mass-marketing genius, and groundbreaking business models. Yet one theme in the McDonald’s success story is often overlooked: good decision-making in turbulent times. Ask your students: 1. Cite at least two ways in which management at McDonald’s followed the decision-making process during the company’s big turnaround. 2. Were the decisions made by McDonald’s management programmed or nonprogrammed? Explain. 3. What common decision-making errors could have caused even greater problems for McDonald’s? Discussion Questions 1. Why do you think identification of the real problem is the first and most important step in the decision making process? How does attribution theory explain mistakes that can be made as managers and employees work together to explain why the problem occurred? 2. How will you most likely make decisions based on your cognitive style? What might you overlook using your preferred approach? 3. How can organizations encourage creative decision making? *The film’s short title is How the Grinch Stole Christmas. 1/25/08 5:20:48 AM Terms Experiential Exercise programmed decision 149 nonprogrammed decision 149 effective decision 150 rationality 150 bounded rationality 151 satisfice 151 heuristics 151 escalation of commitment 152 cognitive style 153 risk aversion 153 intuition 154 creativity 155 synergy 158 social decision schemes 158 groupthink 159 group polarization 160 brainstorming 161 nominal group technique (NGT) 161 devil’s advocacy 161 dialectical inquiry 162 quality circle 162 quality team 162 participative decision making 164 Dilemma at 29,000 Feet Purpose: This exercise requires students to think through an ethical situation, take an action, and create a convincing justification for their actions. The exercise is designed to encourage critical thinking about complex problems and to encourage thinking about how students might resolve a dilemma outside their area of expertise. The Dilemma: Imagine you are the sole leader of a mountain-climbing expedition and have successfully led a group of three climbers to the mountain summit. However, on your descent, trouble sets in as a fierce storm engulfs the mountain and makes progression down nearly impossible. One climber collapses from exhaustion at 24,000 feet and cannot continue down the mountain. The two stronger climbers insist on continuing down without you because they know if they stay too long at high altitude death is certain. No one has ever survived overnight on the mountain. A rescue attempt is impossible because helicopters cannot reach you above 18,000 feet. As the leader, you are faced with a difficult choice: abandon your teammate and descend alone or stay with your dying teammate and face almost certain death. On one hand, you might stay with you dying teammate in hopes that the storm might clear and a rescue party will be sent. However, you know that if you stay both of you will most likely die. On the other hand, you are still strong and may be able to make it down to safety, abandoning your teammate to die alone on the mountain. The Exercise: Your assignment is to make an argument for one of the actions, staying with your teammate or descending alone. The technical aspects of mountain climbing are not important, nor is it good enough to state that you would not get in this situation in the first place! What is important is that you provide a well-reasoned argument for your action. A good argument might address the following points: 1. A discussion of the pros and cons of each action, staying with your teammate or descending alone. 2. A discussion of the underlying values and assumptions of each action. For example, staying with the teammate implies that you have a particular obligation as the leader of a team, descending alone suggests you may place more value on your own life. 3. A discussion of your own values and viewpoints on the topic. In other words, take a stand and justify your position. How, for example, might you justify to the family of the abandoned climber your decision to descend alone? How might you justify to your own family your decision to stay with the ailing climber? 4. With prior experience, knowledge, or beliefs lead you to the conclusion you came to? 5. How might this situation be similar or different to the dilemmas faced in more typical organizations? For example, do leaders need to take actions that require them to make similar difficult decisions? Have you experienced any similar dilemmas that had no easy answer in the workplace, and how did you resolve them? Final Thoughts: Remind students that there is no right or wrong answer to this case. The point is to consider and make clear ethical choices by evaluating all relevant information, evaluating the underlying assumptions of each, and creating a clear and convincing argument for action. SOURCE: D. C. Keyes, “Dilemma at 29,000 Feet: An Exercise in Ethical Decision Making Based on the 1996 Mt. Everest Climbing Disaster,” Journal of Management Education, 26 (June 2002): 316–318. Assignments ✐ Have students find two examples of recent decisions made in organizations: one that they consider a good decision and one they consider a bad decision. Instruct them to write a brief description of the decisions, and then write a summary of what went right, what went wrong, and what could be done to improve the decision process. Be prepared to compare and contrast the two examples in a presentation to the class. ✐ Assign students to write a description of an experience they personally had with groupthink. Have them describe the symptoms and the outcome and propose possible remedies for the groupthink situation they experienced. ✐ Assign the electronic cases and related quizzes on 3M and Genentech. 22 PART 1 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 22 Introduction 1/25/08 5:20:53 AM Chapter What’s Inside 11 Power and Political Behavior >> Prep Card Key topics in this chapter: the concept of power; individuals and groups as sources of power in organizations; the ethics of power; symbols of power and powerlessness; politicking and influence tactics in organizations; managing up (i.e., managing the boss, sharing power, and empowerment). Learning Outcomes 1 2 3 4 Multimedia Describe the concept of power. Identify forms and sources of power in organizations. PPT—The Highlights Describe the role of ethics in using power. Slides 7–11 Slide 22 Slide 23 Slides 32–34 Slide 42 Slide 44 Identify symbols of power and powerlessness in organizations. 5 Define organizational politics and understand the role of political skill and major influence tactics. 6 Identify ways to manage political behavior in organizations. Chapter 11 Power and Political Behavior 166 1 The Concept of Power 167 2 Forms and Sources of Power in Organizations 168 Interpersonal Forms of Power 168 Intergroup Sources of Power 169 3 Using Power Ethically 170 Positive versus Negative Power 171 4 Symbols of Power 172 Kanter’s Symbols of Power 172 Kanter’s Symbols of Powerlessness 173 Korda’s Symbols of Power 173 5 Political Behavior in Organizations 173 Influence Tactics 174 Political Skill 176 6 Managing Political Behavior in Organizations 177 Managing Up: Managing The Boss 177 Sharing Power: Empowerment 179 Terms power 167 influence 167 authority 167 zone of indifference 167 reward power 168 coercive power 168 legitimate power 168 referent power 168 expert power 168 strategic contingencies 169 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 23 Sources of Organizational Power Kanter’s Symbols of Power Kanter’s Symbols of Powerlessness Influence tactics Empowerment’s Four Dimensions Employee Empowerment Grid Video *Clip from Scarface (1983) Run time: 3 minutes Cuban refugee Antonio Tony” Montana (Al Pacino) comes to Miami to pursue the American dream. He quickly rises in power within the Miami drug world until life turns against him. This lengthy, punishing film will leave unforgettable images and thoughts on almost any viewer. Issues of power form the underlying foundation of the film. Ask your students: 1. What are Mel’s sources or bases of power in this interaction with Tony Montana? 2. What are Tony Montana’s sources or bases of power? 3. What type of power relationship forms between the two men? *Profile on The Second City Theater Run time: 11 minutes Since 1959, The Second City has been the nation’s premier source of improvisational and sketch comedy. Like skilled improvisational actors on a stage, management at Second City encourage feedback from front-line employees and spontaneously parlay that information into new business opportunities. Ask your students: 1. Who has authority at Second City, and what forms of interpersonal power do these individuals possess by virtue of their formal positions? 2. Give an example of power in action at Second City. 3. In what ways does Second City’s improvisational “yes-and” approach to management empower employees? Discussion Questions 1. Who is the most powerful person you know personally? What is it that makes the person so powerful? 2. What kinds of membership (alienative, calculative, moral) do you currently have? Is the power used in these relationships congruent? 3. As a student, do you experience yourself as powerful, powerless, or both? On what symbols or symptoms are you basing your perception? Assignments ✐ Assign students to write a newspaper feature on a person they admire which analyzes the person’s use of power in terms of the ideas presented in the chapter. ✐ Assign the electronic cases and related quizzes on John Lasseter and Google. 1/25/08 5:20:57 AM information power 170 personal power 171 social power 172 powerlessness 173 organizational politics 173 political behavior 173 political skill 176 empowerment 179 Experiential Exercise Social Power Role Plays The French and Raven’s (1959) taxonomy of bases of social power is a useful conceptual tool. In an organizational behavior course, we invariably deal with notions of power, influence, and authority, often as a prelude to getting into issues of leadership. The distinctions among legitimate, expert, referent, reward, punishment, and information bases of social power are also very relevant. Purpose: This experiential exercise involves students in learning the material in an active way. Goals of the Exercise: Three things happen with the exercise: (1) students get an opportunity to devise influence attempts based on the French and Raven taxonomy; (2) the class assesses the probable results of using each kind of power; and (3) the class could more clearly focus on understanding social power at work in the class itself. This exercise is most effective one-third of the way into a typical course, when control and influence issues are most salient. Procedures: Divide the class into six groups of equal size, each of which is assigned one of the power bases. (It is helpful to have three or four people who do not join a group but remain outside to assist with data collection and tabulation.) The groups are given the same scenario, which involves one person (a teacher) attempting to influence another person (a student). Each group has 10–15 minutes to prepare an actual influence plan using the type of power that has been assigned their group. You may wish to tailor the presented situations to your own needs. The following one has worked well with undergraduate classes. You are an instructor in a college class and have become aware that a potentially good student is repeatedly absent from class and is sometimes unprepared when he is there. He seems to be satisfied with the grade he is getting, but you would like to see him attend regularly, be better prepared, and thus, do better in the class. You even feel that the student might get really turned on pursuing a career in this field, which is an exciting one for you. You are respected and liked by your students, and it kind of irritates you that this person treats your dedicated teaching with such a cavalier attitude. You want to influence the student to start attending class regularly. This situation may be particularly useful because it allows you to discuss, at the conclusion of the exercise, your position in the class and how that particular class might respond if you were to use these different kinds of power. When all groups have completed their planning, each selects one member to play the instructor. In the development of their roleplay, the group has to decide where the influence attempt is to take place (in the classroom, teacher’s office, snack bar, and so forth). The group may also pick, from their own or another group, a “student” who is to be the recipient of the “instructor’s” attempt. Outcomes: The data allow the generation of tentative answers to several interesting questions: 1. Which kind of influence is most likely to immediately result in the desired behavior? 2. Which will have the most long-lasting effects? 3. What effect will using a particular base of power have on the ongoing relationship? 4. Which form of power will others find most acceptable? The group can use the answers to these questions to begin to draw a contingency framework for the use of different kinds of power. Under what conditions will a particular kind of influence be most effective and what will be the likely side effects? It is fruitful to share your own reactions to the data. A typical class had the following mean response (5 = high agreement): Punishment Reward Referent Legitimate Expert information Q#2 4.0 3.9 2.9 3.3 3.7 2.5 Q#3 3.1 3.6 2.2 2.1 3.3 2.3 Q#4 2.1 4.2 3.4 2.4 3.4 2.8 Q#5 1.6 4.2 4.6 1.2 3.6 2.7 For this group, it is clear that you could get compliance by using punishment; however, that would have a detrimental effect on your ongoing relationships with students (they have power of their own of all six types!). Likewise, using your superior role may get results but not without relationship costs. It looks as if rewards are the most effective way to influence this group, but you can also rely on your expertise. Anecdotal data collected following class sessions leads to the belief that this is an effective way of teaching the French and Raven model. Most students appear to be actively and thoughtfully involved, and when asked to evaluate the class, give high marks. SOURCE: Adapted with permission from Gib Akin, Exchange 3 (4) (1978): 38–39. While the role play is going on, the students in other groups are asked to think of themselves as the student being influenced. They fill out the “Reaction to Influence Questionnaire.” After each presentation, all students outside the playing group record their reactions as if they were the student being addressed by the teacher. As an option, the forms can be collected by the assistants who tabulate the results while the next group is playing the influencer. When all groups have presented, the aggregated response to each question by influence type can be displayed on the board for discussion. (The assistants are helpful since the data comes in fast, and your time is spent coordinating role playing. It’s helpful for the assistants to have calculators.) The entire activity, including introductory lecture and post-exercise discussion, can be completed in 50–70 minutes. ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 24 1/25/08 5:21:02 AM Chapter What’s Inside 12 Leadership and Followership >> Prep Card Key topics in this chapter: leadership and management; early trait theories; behavioral theories; initiating structure and consideration; the Leadership Grid; Fiedler’s LPC; path-goal theory; normative decision theory; recent developments in leadership theory; emerging issues in leadership; followership; guidelines for leadership. Learning Outcomes Multimedia 1 Discuss the differences between leadership and management and between leaders and managers. 2 Explain the role of trait theory in describing leaders. 3 Describe the role of foundational behavioral research in the development of leadership theories. 4 Describe and compare the four contingency theories of leadership. 5 Discuss the recent developments in leadership theory of leader–member exchange and inspirational leadership. 6 Discuss how issues of emotional intelligence, trust, gender, and servant leadership are informing today’s leadership models. 7 Define followership and identify different types of followers. 8 Synthesize historical leadership research into key guidelines for leaders. Chapter 12 Leadership and Followership 182 1 Leadership versus Management 183 2 Early Trait Theories 184 3 Behavioral Theories 185 Foundational Behavioral Research 185 The Leadership Grid: A Contemporary Extension 186 4 Contingency Theories 186 Fiedler’s Contingency Theory 187 Path–Goal Theory 189 Vroom-Yetton-Jago Normative Decision Model 190 The Situtaional Leadership® Model 192 5 Recent Leadership Theories 192 Leader–Member Exchange 192 Inspirational Leadership 193 6 Emerging Issues in Leadership 196 Emotional Intelligence 196 Trust 196 Gender and Leadership 197 Servant Leadership 197 PPT—The Highlights Slide 3 Slide 6 Slide 7 Slides 14–18 Slide 34 Slide 38 Leadership and Followership Leadership vs. Management Leaders and Managers Leadership Grid Emerging Issues in Leadership Cultural Differences in Leadership Video *Clip from U-571 (2000) Run time: 3 minutes This action-packed World War II thriller shows a U.S. submarine crew’s efforts to retrieve an Enigma encryption device from a disabled German submarine. After the crew gets the device, a German vessel torpedoes and sinks their submarine. The survivors must now use the disabled German submarine to escape from the enemy with their prize. The U-571 scene is an edited composite of the “To Be a Captain” sequence early in the film and the “A Real Sea Captain” sequence in about the middle of the film. A “chalkboard” (title screen) that reads, “Mr. Tyler, permission to speak freely?” separates the two parts. You can pause and separately study each part of the scene. Ask your students: 1. What aspects of leadership does Dahlgren (Bill Paxton) describe as important for a submarine commander? 2. Which leadership behaviors or traits does Klough (Harvey Keitel) emphasize? 3. Are these traits or behaviors right for this situation? Why or why not? *Profile on McDonald’s: Leadership Run time: 11 minutes Like many industry-leading corporations, McDonald’s has achieved its greatness by showing equal concern for people and performance. That balance, though difficult to maintain, is as vital to the company’s ongoing success as it was when Ray Kroc transformed a small hamburger stand into a franchising wonder. Ask your students: 1. Where does leadership at McDonald’s fall on the Leadership Grid discussed in this chapter? Explain. 2. Which contingency model of leadership is utilized at McDonald’s, according to the video? 3. Would you describe Ray Kroc as a transformational, charismatic leader? Why or why not? 7 Followership 197 Types of Followers 197 8 Guidelines for Leadership 198 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 25 1/25/08 5:21:06 AM Terms Discussion Questions leadership 183 formal leadership 183 informal leadership 183 leader 184 manager 184 autocratic style 185 democratic style 185 laissez-faire style 185 initiating structure 185 consideration 185 Leadership Grid 186 organization man manager (5,5) 186 authority-compliance manager (9,1) 186 country club manager (1,9) 186 team manager (9,9) 186 impoverished manager (1,1) 186 paternalistic “father knows best” manager (9+9) 186 opportunistic “what’s in it for me” manager (Opp) 186 least preferred coworker (LPC) 188 task structure 188 position power 188 leader–member relations 188 charismatic leadership 194 followership 197 1. Do you (or would you want to) work in an autocratic, democratic, or laissez-faire work environment? What might be the advantages of each work environment? The disadvantages? 2. Is your supervisor or professor someone who is high in concern for production? High in concern for people? What is his or her Leadership Grid style? 3. Describe the relationship you have with your supervisor or a professor. What is the best part of the relationship? The worst part? What could you do to make the relationship better? Experiential Exercise National Culture and Leadership Purpose: This instrument measures Hofstede’s four traditional dimensions of national culture—uncertainty avoidance, individualism, power distance, and masculinity. It also measures a fifth dimension, paternalism. “The paternalism scale includes items that assess the appropriateness of managers taking a personal interest in workers’ lives, providing for workers’ personal needs, and generally taking care of workers.” The complete 29-item questionnaire can be found in the Instructor Manual. The following shows which items should go with which elements on the scale: 1–5 6–11 12–17 18–24 25–29 Uncertainty avoidance Individualism Power distance Paternalism Masculinity This instrument has no scoring mechanism. There are two ways to evaluate the results: 1. Have the students determine their total scores for each of the five sections (higher score is indicative of strength on that dimension toward the value the dimension’s title indicates), and see which of the dimensions scores higher. They can see, relative to themselves, how the dimensions vary in strength. 2. Take mean scores from the whole class either: a) for each separate item, or b) for each of the five sections. Then write these means on the board and discuss the relevance of the variability of the scores. SOURCE: Adapted from Peter Dorfman, Advances in International Comparative Management, vol. 3, pp. 127–150. Copyright 1988 by JAI Press Inc. Used with permission. D. Marcic and S. M. Puffer, “Dimensions of National Culture and Effective Leadership Patterns: Hofstede Revisited,” Management International (Minneapolis/St. Paul, West Publishing, 1994), 10–15. Assignments ✐ Have students choose a leader they admire and write a description of this person including his or her characteristics and attributes that they admire. As well, have them note any aspects of this leader or his or her behavior that they find less than wholly admirable. Limit their answer to one page or an outline format. ✐ Have students interview a supervisor or manager about the best follower the supervisor or manager has worked with. They should ask questions about the characteristics and behaviors that made this person such a good follower. Note in particular how this follower responds to change. Be prepared to present interview results in class. ✐ Assign the electronic cases and related quizzes on Google and American Express. Beyond the Class A selection of materials is in the Instructor Manual. 26 PART 1 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 26 Introduction 1/25/08 5:21:12 AM Chapter What’s Inside 13 Conflict and Negotiation >> Prep Card Key topics in this chapter: functional and dysfunctional conflict; structural and personal factors that cause conflict in organizations; forms of conflict in organizations; intrapersonal conflict; interpersonal conflict; conflict management strategies and techniques; conflict management styles. Learning Outcomes 1 Describe the nature of conflicts in organizations. 2 Explain the role structural and personal factors play in causing conflict in organizations. 3 Discuss the nature of group conflict in organizations. 4 Describe the factors that influence conflict between individuals in organizations. 5 Describe effective and ineffective techniques for managing conflict. 6 Identify five styles of conflict management. Chapter 13 Conflict and Negotiation 200 1 The Nature of Conflicts in Organizations 201 Importance of Conflict Management Skills for the Manager 201 Functional versus Dysfunctional Conflict 201 Diagnosing Conflict 202 2 Causes of Conflict in Organizations 203 Structural Factors 203 Personal Factors 204 3 Forms of Group Conflict in Organizations 205 Interorganizational Conflict 205 Intergroup Conflict 206 Intragroup Conflict 206 4 Individual Conflict in Organizations 206 Types of Intrapersonal Conflict 206 Managing Intrapersonal Conflict 208 Managing Interpersonal Conflict 208 5 Conflict Management Strategies and Techniques 210 Ineffective Techniques 211 Effective Techniques 211 6 Conflict Management Styles 213 Avoiding 213 Accommodating 213 Competing 214 Compromising 214 Collaborating 214 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 27 Multimedia PPT—The Highlights Slide 6 Slide 10 Slide 22 Slide 28 Slides 36–38 Slide 39 Consequences of Conflict Causes of Conflict in Organizations Power Relationships in Organizations Ineffective Techniques for Dealing with Conflict Conflict Management Styles Creating a Conflict Positive Organization Video *Clip from The Guru (2002) Run time: 3 minutes “Deepak Chopra meets Dr. Ruth” is a possible alternate title or subtitle for this film. The film follows Ramu Gupta’s (Jimi Mistry) journey from India to the United States where he wants to become a film star. Unlucky at keeping a job, Ramu is fired from a waiter’s job and a pornographic film role. By closely following the advice of Sharrona (Heather Graham), his ex-pornographic co-star, Ramu becomes a highly acclaimed though mystical sex therapist. Ask your students: 1. What is the latent conflict (cause of conflict) that triggered this conflict event or episode? 2. What conflict management style do Ramu and Sharrona use during this episode? 3. Do they end the conflict with a clear conflict aftermath? Do you expect the conflict to continue? Why or why not? *Profile on Yahoo! Run time: 11 minutes Yahoo! is a global-business success story. Launched as the hobby of two Stanford University graduate students in 1995, the search-engine portal has become one of the most trafficked Web sites in the world. Management at Yahoo! have shown both the global savvy and conflictresolution skills necessary to lead the Internet to its next phase of growth. Ask your students: 1. What structural factors can lead to conflict at Yahoo! and other global corporations? 2. What personal factors can lead to conflict at Yahoo? 3. How might Yahoo!’s managers diagnose if a specific conflict is functional or dysfunctional? Discussion Questions 1. What causes you the most conflict at work or school? 2. Identify the different intragroup, interrole, intrarole, and person– role conflicts that you experience. 3. Are you comfortable with your preferred conflict management style? Would you consider modifying it? 1/25/08 5:21:16 AM Terms Experiential Exercise functional conflict 202 dysfunctional conflict 202 jurisdictional ambiguity 204 interorganizational conflict 205 intergroup conflict 206 intragroup conflict 206 intrapersonal conflict 206 interrole conflict 206 intrarole conflict 207 person–role conflict 207 interpersonal conflict 208 fixation 209 displacement 209 negativism 209 compensation 209 identification 209 rationalization 209 flight/withdrawal 210 conversion 210 fantasy 210 nonaction 211 secrecy 211 administrative orbiting 211 due process nonaction 211 character assassination 211 superordinate goal 211 distributive bargaining 212 integrative negotiation 213 The World Bank Game: An Intergroup Negotiation Purpose: To experience the conflict between advantages of cooperation and advantages of competition in a mixed-motive dilemma; to explore some dynamics of trust between groups; to practice negotiation skills. Group size: No more than ten participants per team. Two teams can be formed to compete against each other, with the instructor serving as banker and the remaining students designated as observers. (Alternatively, several pairs can be conducted simultaneously, with each team competing against one other team, and one student serving as banker for every two competing teams). Materials: · Twenty 3” x 5” cards for each team, each card with a marked side (X covering the entire side) and an unmarked side. (Playing cards may be used as substitutes). · A copy of the World Bank Record Sheet for each team (found in the Instructor Manual). · A copy of the World Bank Banker’s Instruction Sheet for each banker (also in the Instructor Manual). Physical Setting: Teams competing against each other are located close to each other, but their meetings are private. Their negotiators also need a private place to meet briefly several times. Process: 1. The banker forms pairs of teams. (There must be an even number of teams). 2. Participants should read the World Bank General Instructions, and the banker responds to questions. 3. If there are two teams, the instructor serves as banker. If there are more than two teams, additional bankers (one for each additional pair of teams) are appointed. Bankers are briefed about their roles and given a copy of the World Bank Banker’s Instruction Sheet. 4. Teams have ten minutes to organize themselves and plan their strategies. Before play begins, each team must select a negotiator, representative, team recorder, and treasurer. 5. The banker signals the beginning of round one to each team. 6. The bankers call the game to a close at an appropriate time. Variations: 1. To increase collaboration, the design may be altered as follows: (a) reduce the number of moves in each round to five; (b) require negotiation after each move; or (c) increase the penalty for an attack. 2. To increase competition, the design may be altered as follows: (a) increase the number of moves in each round to ten; (b) make negotiations more difficult and costly by assessing a fee; (c) remove the penalty for an attack; or (d) multiply the payoff threefold for move 4, and fivefold for the final move. 3. To focus on the negotiation process, all negotiations may take place in a neutral location in the presence of all parties to the negotiation, e.g., both teams may observe. The number of negotiators may also be increased to two from each team. SOURCE: Adapted from N. H. Berkowitz and H. A. Hornstein, “World Bank: An Intergroup Negotiation,” in J. W. Pfeiffer and J. E. Jones, (eds.), The 1975 Handbook for Group Facilitators (San Diego, Pfeiffer & Company), 58–62. Assignments ✐ Have students describe three defense mechanisms they have seen people exhibit and analyze why they think these mechanisms were used. Have them briefly describe how they would manage this type of reaction to a conflict? ✐ Tell students to think of a person with whom they have had a recent conflict. Have them write a letter to this person, attempting to resolve the conflict. Students should use the concepts from the chapter to accomplish this objective. They should be sure to address whether the conflict is functional or dysfunctional, what styles each party has used, effective strategies for resolving the conflict, and ineffective strategies that should be avoided. ✐ Assign the electronic cases and related quizzes on Molson Coors Brewery and Genentech. 28 PART 1 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 28 Introduction 1/25/08 5:21:22 AM Chapter What’s Inside 14 Jobs and the Design of Work >> Prep Card Key topics in this chapter: work in organizations; scientific management; job characteristics model; social information processing and ergonomics as alternative approaches to job design; Japanese, German, and Scandinavian approaches to work design; telecommuting, alternative work patterns, and technology at work. Learning Outcomes 1 2 3 4 Multimedia Differentiate between job and work. Discuss the traditional approaches to job design. Identify and describe alternative approaches to job design Identify and describe contemporary issues facing organizations in the design of work. Chapter 14 Jobs and the Design of Work 216 1 Work in Organizations 217 The Meaning of Work 217 Jobs in Organizations 219 2 Traditional Approaches to Job Design 220 Scientific Management 220 Job Enlargement/Job Rotation 220 Job Enrichment 221 Job Characteristics Theory 222 3 Alternative Approaches to Job Design 224 Social Information Processing 224 Ergonomics and Interdisciplinary Framework 225 International Perspectives on the Design of Work 226 Work Design and Well-Being 227 4 Contemporary Issues in the Design of Work 228 Telecommuting 228 Alternative Work Patterns 229 Technology at Work 230 Skill Development 231 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 29 PPT—The Highlights Slide 6 Slide 13 Slide 20 Slide 21 Slide 27 Slide 35 Six Patterns of Work Job Characteristics Model Outcomes of Job Design Approaches 1 Outcomes of Job Design Approaches 2 Scientific Approaches of Labor Sciences Assessing Job Design and the Nature of Work Video *Clip from Reality Bites (1994) Run time: 3 minutes This scene shows Lelaina (Wynona Ryder), former class valedictorian, as she interviews for a job with Wienerdude (David Spade) at a local Wienerschnitzel. Wienerdude describes the different elements of the job Ask your students: 1. Assess the proposed job using the core job characteristics of the Job Characteristics Model. Is each job characteristic high or low? 2. Do you expect the job described by Wienderdude to induce high levels of internal work motivation and work satisfaction? Why or why not? 3. Would you expect the work context (working conditions, supervision, coworkers) to positively or negatively affect a person’s motivation and satisfaction? *Profile on The Evolution of Management Thinking Run time: 11 minutes As history shows, management theories evolve and are shaped by the times. By learning the various approaches to work that have come before, today’s managers can become better equipped to create satisfying, engaging jobs—ones that reduce stress and increase employee well being. Ask your students: 1. How might managers at Peet’s Coffee & Tea utilize job rotation and why? 2. Using the Job Characteristics Model, explain why American Apparel’s implementation of self-directed teams led to quality work performance and high worker satisfaction. 3. While technology has enabled Zingerman’s to develop an e-commerce component to its gourmet-food business, how might technology change way the company designs jobs for employees throughout its seven Ann Arbor, Michigan, locations? 1/25/08 5:21:25 AM Terms Discussion Questions job 217 work 217 meaning of work 217 work simplification 220 job enlargement 220 job rotation 220 cross-training 221 job enrichment 221 Job Characteristics Model 222 Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) 222 engagement 224 social information-processing (SIP) model 224 ergonomics 225 lean production 226 sociotechnical systems (STS) 226 technocentric 227 anthropocentric 227 job sharing 229 flextime 230 virtual office 230 technostress 230 1. What do you think managers should learn from the traditional approaches to the design of work used in the United States? 2. Do you think it is possible for American companies to apply approaches to the design of work that were developed in other countries? 3. What do you think is the most important emerging issue in the design of work? Experiential Exercise They Want Me to Go to Singapore to Be a Manager! Purpose: Aids students with the dilemma of a potential international assignment. Group Size: 4 members per team. Scenario: Joe Pratt is a manager for a major appliance manufacturer, Whirlwind Corp. His boss has just informed him that in two months he will be sent overseas to Singapore to head up marketing for the Washer/Dryer Division based there. His overseas assignment will last two years. His boss told him that he would be part of a management team of four managers from Germany, Singapore, and Japan. His boss also told him that he would send over the company’s Overseas Assignment Orientation booklet and information about housing. If he had any other questions prior to his departure, Joe should call his boss or the Human Resource department. After the conversation with his boss, Joe didn’t know what to think. He hadn’t expected an overseas assignment. He has never been overseas and his boss didn’t say anything about training. An overseas assignment was not really appealing to him, and he could never understand why anyone would want to spend time living anywhere but the United States. He was also worried about what his family would think, since his mother was a senior manager in another city. Joe had secured the position without her assistance, yet he realizes that he has benefited by having such a visible name connected with her success. Joe is confused. He wanted to make a career with this company, but wonders if he has the motivation necessary. In addition, he doesn’t want to disappoint his parents, since they, no doubt, will be thrilled with the advancement opportunity. Discussion Questions: 1. If you were Joe’s supervisor, what information about job enrichment could you provide Joe? 2. What information about how jobs are viewed in Japan would benefit Joe in Singapore? 3. What other specific training information would be beneficial to Joe? SOURCE: Adapted from Connie Bowman, Defense Logistics Agency. Assignments ✐ Have students interview an employee in your organization or another organization and develop an oral presentation about how the job the employee is doing could be enriched. Make sure they ask questions about all aspects of the employee’s work (e.g., what specific tasks are done and with whom the employee interacts on the job). ✐ Based on the materials in the chapter, have students prepare a memo detailing the advantages and disadvantages of flextime job arrangements. In a second part of the memo, have them identify the specific conditions and characteristics required for a successful flextime program. ✐ Assign the electronic cases and related quizzes on Coca-Cola and Toyota. Beyond the Class A selection of materials is in the Instructor Manual. 30 PART 1 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 30 Introduction 1/25/08 5:21:29 AM Chapter What’s Inside 15 Organizational Design and Structure >> Prep Card Key topics in this chapter: key organizational design processes; basic design dimensions; five structural configurations; contextual variables like size, technology, and environment; forces reshaping organizations; cautionary notes about structure. Learning Outcomes Multimedia 1 Define differentiation and integration as organizational design processes. 2 Discuss the basic design dimensions managers must consider in structuring an organization. 3 Describe five structural configurations for organizations. 4 Describe four contextual variables that influence organizational structure. 5 Explain the forces reshaping organizations. 6 Identify and describe emerging organizational structures. 7 Identify factors that can adversely affect organizational structure. Chapter 15 Organizational Design and Structure 232 1 Key Organizational Design Processes 233 Differentiation 233 Integration 236 2 Basic Design Dimensions 237 3 Five Structural Configurations 238 Simple Structure 239 Machine Bureaucracy 239 Professional Bureaucracy 239 Divisionalized Form 240 Adhocracy 240 4 Contextual Variables 240 Size 240 Technology 241 Environment 242 Strategy and Goals 244 5 Forces Reshaping Organizations 245 Life Cycles in Organizations 245 Globalization 246 Changes in Information-Processing Technologies 246 Demands on Organizational Processes 246 6 Emerging Organizational Structures 247 7 Factors that Can Adversely Affect Structure 247 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 31 PPT—The Highlights Slide 10 Slide 17 Slide 19 Slide 31 Slide 37 Slide 42 Differentiation between Marketing and Engineering Basic Design Dimensions Structural Configurations of Organizations Strategy and Goals Structural Roles of Managers Four Symptoms of Structural Weakness Video *Clip from Casino (1995) Run time: 3 minutes Martin Scorcese’s lengthy, complex, and beautifully photographed study of 1970s’ Las Vegas gambling casinos and their organized crime connections completes his trilogy that includes Mean Streets (1973) and the 1990 Goodfellas. Ambition, greed, drugs, and sex destroy the mob’s gambling empire. The film includes strong performances by Robert De Niro, Joe Pesci, and Sharon Stone. The violence and expletive-filled dialogue give Casino its R rating. The Casino scene is part of “The Truth about Las Vegas” sequence early in the film. It follows the scenes of deceiving the Japanese gambler. It starts with a close-up of Sam “Ace” Rothstein (Robert De Niro) standing between his two casino executives (Richard Amalfitano, Richard F. Strafella). His voice-over says, “In Vegas, everybody’s gotta watch everybody else.” The scene ends after Sam Rothstein describes the excheaters who monitor the gambling floor with binoculars. The film continues with the introduction of Ginger (Sharon Stone). Ask your students: 1. Which type or form of organizational design does this scene show? 2. Does this scene show the results of the differentiation and integration organizational design processes? 3. Does this scene show any behavioral demands of organizational design? What are they? *Profile on Boyne Mountain & Boyne Highlands Run time: 11 minutes In 1947, Everett Kircher started his career with little more than a dream and a $1 down payment on a piece of land. From that humble beginning, the Detroit native would go on to launch a ski-resort network that would change the shape of the industry. Ask your students: 1. Why was decentralization essential to Boyne’s continued growth, despite the company’s early success with Everett Kircher at the helm of a vertical structure? 2. What would have happened if Kircher had been unwilling to delegate authority and decision making to general managers as the business grew and became more complicated? 3. Discuss the impact of environment and technology on Boyne USA’s organizational structure. 1/25/08 5:21:32 AM Terms Discussion Questions organizational design 233 organizational structure 233 differentiation 233 integration 236 formalization 237 centralization 237 specialization 237 standardization 237 complexity 237 hierarchy of authority 237 simple structure 239 machine bureaucracy 239 professional bureaucracy 239 divisionalized form 240 adhocracy 240 contextual variables 240 technological interdependence 242 environment 242 task environment 243 environmental uncertainty 243 mechanistic structure 243 organic structure 244 organizational life cycle 245 1. How would you describe the organization you work for (or your college) on each of the basic design dimensions? For example, is it a very formal organization or an informal organization? 2. Do the size, technology, and mission of your organization directly affect you? How? 3. Who are your organization’s competitors? What changes do you see in information technology where you work? Experiential Exercise Design and Build a Castle Purpose: To give students an opportunity to design an organization and produce a product. Group Size: 3 teams of 6–8 members each Time: Students are given 45 minutes to complete the project. Activity: Three product-development teams are working within the research and development division of the General Turret and Moat Corporation. Each of the three teams designs a castle for the company to produce and sell. Given limited resources, the company cannot put more than one design on the market. Therefore, the company will have to decide which of the three designs it will use and discard the others. Exercise Schedule: 1. (5 minutes) Each group is designated #1, #2, or #3. Members read only one memorandum, the appropriate one for their group. One (or two for larger groups) observers are selected for each group. Observers read their materials. Memoranda are in the Instructor Manual. 2. (10 minutes) Groups design their organization in order to complete the goal. 3. (15–20 minutes) Each group designs its own castle and draws it on newsprint. 4. (5–10 minutes) “Typical consumers” (may be observers or others) tour building locations and hear sales pitches. Judges caucus to determine the winner. 5. (10–15 minutes) Groups meet again and write up the central goal statement of the group. Also, write the organization chart on newsprint with the goal written beneath. These are posted around the room. 6. (5–15 minutes) Instructor leads a class discussion on how the different memos affected organization design. Which design seemed most effective for this task? Optional Extension: If there is time, have students actually build the castles. To build the castles, you may give students: a. Sheets of plain/scratch paper and tape, or b. Sheets of colored construction paper, staples, and tape, or c. Paper, sheets of cardboard or tagboard, staples, and tape, or d. Paper, staples, tape plus handfuls of shredded paper (from a paper shredder) Discussion Questions: 1. What do you think made one “castle” “win” over the others? 2. How much difference did the “sales pitch” make? 3. Is one group’s organizing structure better than another’s? Are others more useful in different “Castle Companies” or different situations? 4. Was communication influenced by any particular structure? 5. What other dynamics of your group seemed to be important and influenced your final product? Assignments ✐ Have students write a memo classifying and describing the structural configuration of their university based on the five choices in Table 15.1. If they need more information for their classification and description, have them determine and cite additional sources they can use. ✐ Have students interview an administrator in their college or university about possible changes in size (Will the college or university get bigger? Smaller?) and technology (Is the college or university making a significant investment in information technology?). Have them ask what effects the administrator anticipates from these changes. Students should be prepared to present their results orally to the class. ✐ Assign the electronic cases and related quizzes on NASA and Timberland.. 32 PART 1 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 32 Introduction 1/25/08 5:21:38 AM Chapter What’s Inside 16 Organizational Culture >> Prep Card Key topics in this chapter: the key role of organizational culture; functions of organizational culture; the leader’s role in shaping and reinforcing culture; organizational socialization; assessing organizational culture; changing organizational culture. Learning Outcomes Multimedia 1 Identify the three levels of culture and the roles they play in an organization. 2 Evaluate the four functions of culture within an organization. 3 Explain the relationship between organizational culture and performance. 4 Describe five ways leaders reinforce organizational culture. 5 Describe the three stages of organizational socialization and how culture is communicated in each step. 6 Discuss how managers assess their organization’s culture. 7 Explain actions managers can take to change organizational culture. 8 Identify the challenges organizations face developing positive, cohesive cultures. Chapter 16 Organizational Culture 250 1 Levels of Organizational Culture 251 Artifacts 252 Values 255 Assumptions 255 2 Functions of Organizational Culture 256 3 The Relationship of Culture to Performance 256 The Strong Culture Perspective 256 The Fit Perspective 257 The Adaptation Perspective 257 4 The Leader’s Role in Shaping and Reinforcing Culture 258 What Leaders Pay Attention To 258 How Leaders React to Crises 258 How Leaders Behave 258 How Leaders Allocate Rewards 258 How Leaders Hire and Fire Individuals 258 5 Organizational Socialization 259 The Stages of the Socialization Process 259 Outcomes of Socialization 261 PPT—The Highlights Slide 4 Slide 5 Slide 20 Slide 29 Slide 30 Levels of Organizational Culture Organizational Culture Levels Stages of Socialization Changing Organizational Culture Cultural Modifications in Current Business Environments Video *Clip from Backdraft (1991) Run time: 3 minutes The scene shows many cultural artifacts of the Chicago Fire Department. Some are bold symbols such as the fire trucks, loud sirens, fast driving, the bright red fire hydrant, and the roaring fire. Others are equally important cultural symbols but less bold in presentation. For example, nicknames appear on the backs of the firefighter’s jackets. Stephen McCaffrey’s (Kurt Russell) jacket says, “Bull.” Ask your students: 1. What parts of the Chicago fire department culture does this scene show? Does the scene show any cultural artifacts or symbols? If it does, what are they? 2. Does the scene show any values or norms that guide the firefighters’ behavior? If it does, what are they? 3. What does Brian McCaffrey (William Baldwin) learn on his first workday? *Profile on Caterpillar: The Environment and Corporate Culture Run time: 11 minutes Despite many decades of success, leadership at Caterpillar had become convinced that big changes were necessary if the company was to keep in step with the societal, political, and natural climates of today’s global village. Led by CEO James Owens, senior management at Caterpillar analyzed the situation and reached an intriguing conclusion. Ask your students: 1. How can Caterpillar’s corporate culture, which springs from the organization’s internal environment, impact the external environment? 2. What “story” does management at Caterpillar recount as a way of communicating the company’s redesigned values, according to the video? Why are such stories important? 3. What role do leaders play in shaping Caterpillar’s organizational culture? Why is it difficult to change a company’s organizational culture, and how can management know when a permanent change has successfully occurred? 6 Assessing Organizational Culture 261 Organizational Culture Inventory 261 Kilmann-Saxton Culture-Gap Survey 261 Triangulation 261 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 33 1/25/08 5:21:42 AM 7 Changing Organizational Discussion Questions Culture 262 8 Challenges to Developing a Positive, Cohesive Culture 263 1. Name a company with a visible organizational culture. What do you think are the company’s values? Has the culture contributed to the organization’s performance? Explain. 2. Name a leader you think manages organizational culture well. How does the leader do this? Use Schein’s description of how leaders reinforce culture to analyze the leader’s behavior. 3. Suppose you want to change your organization’s culture. What sort of resistance would you expect from employees? How would you deal with this resistance? Merger or Acquisition 263 Developing a Global Organizational Culture 264 Developing an Ethical Organizational Culture 264 Developing a Culture of Empowerment and Quality 265 Terms organizational (corporate) culture 251 artifacts 252 espoused values 255 enacted values 255 assumptions 255 strong culture 256 adaptive culture 257 organizational socialization 259 anticipatory socialization 259 encounter 260 change and acquisition 260 triangulation 261 Experiential Exercise Identifying Behavioral Norms Purpose: Students identify campus norms at their university. Every organization or group has a set of norms that help determine individuals’ behavior. A norm is an unwritten rule for behavior in a group. When a norm is not followed, negative feedback is given. It may include negative comments, stares, harassment, and exclusion. There are sometimes very different norms for the international students than for the dominant culture students. Some students will have a hard time remembering the socialization process they lumbered through as freshmen. It is worth noting that transfer students have a different socialization process than most students. Another interesting response usually follows if you ask students how their campus culture differs from other universities. 1. As a group, brainstorm all the norms you can think of in the following areas: Dress Classroom behavior Studying Weekend activities Living arrangements Campus activities Dating (who asks whom) Relationships with faculty Eating on campus versus off campus Transportation 2. How did you initially get this information? 3. What happens to students who don’t follow these norms? 4. What values can be inferred from these norms? SOURCE: “Identifying Behavioral Norms” by Dorothy Marcic, Organizational Behavior: Experiences and Cases (St. Paul, Minn.: West Publishing, 1989). Reprinted by permission. Assignments ✐ Have students select an organization that they might like to work for and learn as much as they can about that company’s culture using library resources, online sources, contacts within the company, and as many creative means as they can. Assign students to prepare a brief presentation summarizing the culture for the class. ✐ Have students research two culturally different organizations of their choice and then prepare a brief description of both companies. Explain why the culture, though different, works for each company and the benefits to each organization. ✐ Assign the electronic cases and related quizzes on Toyota and Caribou Coffee. Beyond the Class A selection of materials is in the Instructor Manual. 34 PART 1 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 34 Introduction 1/25/08 5:21:47 AM Chapter What’s Inside 17 Career Management >> Prep Card Key topics in this chapter: careers as joint responsibilities; career choices and types of jobs; the career stage model; career paths; mentoring; dual-career households; work–home conflicts; career anchors. Learning Outcomes 1 2 3 4 Multimedia Explain occupational and organizational choice decisions. Identify foundations for a successful career. Explain the career model. Explain the major tasks facing individuals in the establishment stage of the career model. 5 Identify the issues confronting individuals in the advancement stage of the career model. 6 Describe how individuals can navigate the challenges of the maintenance stage of the career model. 7 Explain how individuals withdraw from the workforce. 8 Explain how career anchors help form a career identity. Chapter 17 Career Management 266 1 Occupational and Organizational Choice Decisions 268 Preparing for the World of Work 269 Occupational Choice 269 Organizational Choice and Entry 270 2 Foundations for a Successful Career 271 Becoming Your Own Career Coach 272 Emotional Intelligence and Career Success 272 3 The Career Stage Model 273 4 The Establishment Stage 274 Psychological Contracts 274 5 The Advancement Stage 275 Career Paths and Career Ladders 276 Finding a Mentor 276 Dual-Career Partnerships 278 Work-Home Conflicts 278 6 The Maintenance Stage 280 Sustaining Performance 280 Becoming a Mentor 281 7 The Withdrawal Stage 281 Planning for Change 281 Retirement 281 8 Career Anchors 282 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 35 PPT—The Highlights Slide 5 Slide 10 Slide 16 Slide 40 Slide 41 Career: Paradigm Shift Conflicts during Organizational Entry Career Stage Model Career Anchors Managing Your Career: Key Questions Video *Clip from The Secret of My Success Run time: 3 minutes College graduate Brantley Foster (Michael J. Fox) leaves his Kansas home and goes to New York to look for a job. He is continually frustrated in his quest but eventually lands a mailroom job. This scene appears early in the film following Brantley’s layoff from a job he never started. Ask your students: 1. What do these scenes suggest about the job seeking process? 2. Does Brantley behave ethically during his job interviews? 3. What do these scenes suggest about career management? *Profile on Gil Vasquez of Washburn Guitar Run time: 11 minutes Unlike workers of past generations who expected to work for one company, new-career employees like Vasquez job-hop up the career ladder, taking jobs at numerous companies to obtain growth opportunities. Though Vasquez sits atop the managerial hierarchy of Washburn USA, his career path has included key positions at Fender, Baker Guitars, and Ernie Ball. Ask your students: 1. At what stage of the Career Stage Model is manager Gil Vasquez? Explain your answer. 2. Has working numerous jobs with many different companies made Vasquez more valuable in the eyes of today’s employers? Why or why not? 3. In your view, what are Gil Vasquez’s career anchors? Discussion Question 1. What do you think will be the most stressful career stage? What type of stressors led you to make this choice? Assignments ✐ Have students contact the human resources manager of a local business and ask if he or she would take a few minutes to discuss some issues about résumés with you. Structure the discussion around the following questions: a. How often do you encounter “padded” résumés? What is the most common “padding” and how do you react to it? b. Do you verify the information on résumés? How do you do this? How long does it take for you to be sure that an applicant has been honest about his/her qualifications? 1/25/08 5:21:50 AM Terms career 267 career management 267 realistic job preview (RJP) 271 establishment 273 advancement 273 maintenance 273 withdrawal 273 psychological contract 274 career path 276 career ladder 276 mentor 276 dual-career partnership 278 flexible work schedule 279 eldercare 280 career plateau 280 phased retirement 282 bridge employment 282 career anchors 283 c. What would you do if you found that a productive, loyal employee had lied on a résumé when he or she applied for a job? Is “résumé fraud” an offense that warrants firing? Tell students to summarize the findings from their interview in a memo to you. ✐ Assign the electronic cases and related quizzes on Caribou Coffee and Google. Experiential Exercise Dual Careers Purpose: (1) to help students be more aware of how underlying biases regarding gender roles can influence their decisions affecting the careers of others and (2) to help students be more conscious of their own and others’ differing values and perceptions regarding family roles, and of issues related to career decisions involving dual career couples. The handouts for students are in the Instructor Manual. Suggestions on Delivery: · Tell students that you have a short exercise that will help them to identify and examine important issues related to personal career decisions. Place students in two or more groups composed of four to six persons each. · Tell the students to first individually read the case that you are about to hand out, and then quickly respond to the questions at the end. Also, tell them that after they have finished their individual responses, they should then begin to share one-by-one within the group their individual responses (i.e., accept or reject the promotion offer, and why they decided to accept or reject). Activities: 1. Distribute the case exercise—half of the groups receiving the Chris as male form and half receiving the Chris as female form. 2. After group sharing and discussion has been completed by most groups (typically lasting 15–20 minutes), tell the students that you would now like to begin to examine, in a total class discussion format, the issues, concerns, and problems that this exercise helped to identify. Ask the students to now go beyond this particular case, and to identify what general career issues came up in their sharing of why they responded the way they did to the case. List these issue topics on a list as they are identified, and discuss their importance—but don’t talk about this particular case yet. This general discussion typically promotes a useful examination of the importance of such topics as: · Dual career couple challenges · Self-sacrifice vs. actualization · Child care for working parents · Career opportunities in academia vs. business · Influence of earning power on career decisions · An organization’s career advancement expectations/policy · Temporary spouse separation for conflicting career opportunities · Allegiance to company vs. spouse and family · Family financial support/security · Following career dreams vs. pragmatism · Traditional roles of husband and wife in providing family financial support and child care 3. After you have exhausted this class discussion, ask for a show of hands of those who believe that Chris should accept the promotion offer, and then a show of hands of those who believe that Chris should reject the promotion. 4. Ask one of the students to explain why he/she believed that Chris should accept the offer. As the student begins to explain, and refers to Chris as a male or female, depending upon the form received, what typically occurs is: (a) others in the class with a different Chris gender will spontaneously begin to correct the student (b) the explaining student’s group members and others will vociferously support the student’s correctness of Chris’ gender (c) as students look again at their forms brief mass confusion will take place, and (d) the students will collectively come to realize that they’ve been had and, in good humor, accuse the instructor of underhanded trickery. 5. At this point, admit to the deception, and inform the students that identical cases were passed out—only in half of the forms distributed Chris as male with spouse Kim as female, and in the other half the gender is switched. Discussion Questions: 1. Ask the students if it matters whether Chris is male or female. 2. Should Chris’ gender influence your decision to accept or reject? Beyond the Class A selection of materials is in the Instructor Manual. 36 PART 1 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 36 Introduction 1/25/08 5:21:55 AM Chapter What’s Inside 18 Managing Change >> Prep Card Key topics in this chapter: forces for change in organizations; the role of external and internal forces in bringing about organizational change; change agents; why employees resist change and how to manage that resistance; force field analysis and Lewin’s model; organization development interventions. Learning Outcomes Multimedia 1 Identify the major external and internal forces for change in organizations. 2 Describe how different types of change vary in scope. 3 Discuss methods organizations can use to manage resistance to change 4 Explain Lewin’s organizational change model. 5 Explain how companies determine the need to conduct an organizational development intervention. 6 Discuss the major group-focused techniques for organization development intervention. 7 Discuss the major individual-focused techniques for organization development intervention. Chapter 18 Managing Change 284 1 Forces for Change in Organizations 285 External Forces 286 Internal Forces 288 2 The Scope of Change 289 The Change Agent’s Role 289 3 Resistance to Change 290 Major Reasons People Resist Change 290 Managing Resistance to Change 291 4 Lewin’s Model for Managing Change 292 5 Determining the Need for Organization Development Interventions 294 Diagnosis and Needs Analysis 294 6 Group-Focused Techniques for OD Intervention 295 Survey Feedback 295 Management by Objectives 295 Product and Service Quality Programs 296 Team Building 296 Process Consultation 296 7 Individual-Focused Techniques for OD Intervention 297 Skills Training 297 Leadership Training and Development 297 Executive Coaching 298 Role Negotiation 298 Job Redesign 298 Health Promotion Programs 299 Career Planning 299 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 37 PPT—The Highlights Slide 3 Slide 4 Slide 16 Slide 21 Slide 27 Organizational Change External Forces for Change Reactions to Change and Managerial Interventions Applying Lewin’s Model Diagnosis and Needs Analysis Video *Clip from Field of Dreams (1989) Run time: 3 minutes Ray Kinsella (Kevin Costner) is the target of change. He must decide between giving up his farm to Mark (Timothy Busfield) and Mark’s partners or continuing with his dream of hosting baseball games. Terrance Mann (James Earl Jones) continues the vision of the dream with his steady description of why people will come and relive their childhood love of baseball. His role in Ray’s decision is critical—a clear vision of the future. Ask your students: 1. Who is the target of change in this scene? 2. What are the forces for change? Are the forces for change internal or external to the change target? 3. Does the scene show the role of leadership in organizational change? If it does, who is the leader? What does this person do to get desired change? *Profile on Hard Rock International Run time: 11 minutes Over the years management has guided Hard Rock International through major changes, such as standardizing its brand identity, downsizing after 9/11, adjusting to shifting technology, and implementing top-down reengineering moves. Through it all, Hard Rock has maintained its free-spirited culture and outpaced competing theme restaurants. Ask your students: 1. What sort of resistance might Hard Rock’s new owners face when initiating organizational change? 2. What measures can Hard Rock’s new owners take to reassure staff and investors that change is good? 3. What innovative ideas or changes could Hard Rock implement to appeal to the next generation of music lovers? Discussion Questions 1. What do you think are the major external forces for change in today’s organizations? 2. Do you think organizations can prevent resistance to change? If so, how? 3. What organization development techniques are the easiest to implement? What techniques are the most difficult to implement? Why? 1/25/08 5:21:58 AM Terms Experiential Exercise planned change 286 unplanned change 286 incremental change 289 strategic change 289 transformational change 289 change agent 289 unfreezing 293 moving 293 refreezing 293 organization development (OD) 294 survey feedback 295 management by objectives (MBO) 295 quality program 296 team building 296 process consultation 296 skills training 297 leadership training and development 297 executive coaching 298 role negotiation 298 job redesign 298 Organizational Diagnosis of the University Purpose: Give students experience in organizational diagnosis. Assume that their team has been hired to conduct a diagnosis of problem areas in their university and to make preliminary recommendations for organization development interventions. Each team member should complete the University Profile. Then, as a team, evaluate the strengths and weaknesses within each area (academics, teaching, social, cultural, and administrative) using the accompanying University Diagnosis form. Finally, make recommendations concerning organization development interventions for each area. Be as specific as possible in both diagnosis and recommendations. Each team should then present its diagnosis to the class. University Profile Not True 1 2 3 4 5 Very True I. Academics 1 2 3 4 5 1. There is a wide range of courses to choose from. 1 2 3 4 5 2. Classroom standards are too easy. 1 2 3 4 5 3. The library is adequate. 1 2 3 4 5 4. Textbooks are helpful. II. Teachers 1 2 3 4 5 1. Teachers here are committed to quality instruction. 1 2 3 4 5 2. We have a high-quality faculty. III. Social 1 2 3 4 5 1. Students are friendly to one another. 1 2 3 4 5 2. It is difficult to make friends. 1 2 3 4 5 3. Faculty get involved in student activities. 1 2 3 4 5 4. Too much energy goes into drinking and goofing off. IV. Cultural Events 1 2 3 4 5 1. There are ample activities on campus. 1 2 3 4 5 2. Student activities are boring. 1 2 3 4 5 3. The administration places a high value on student activities. 1 2 3 4 5 4. Too much emphasis is placed on sports. 1 2 3 4 5 5. We need more “cultural” activities. V. Organizational/Management 1 2 3 4 5 1. Decision making is shared at all levels of the organization. 1 2 3 4 5 2. There is unity and cohesiveness among departments and units. 1 2 3 4 5 3. Too many departmental clashes hamper the organization’s effectiveness. 1 2 3 4 5 4. Students have a say in many decisions. 1 2 3 4 5 5. The budgeting process seems fair. 1 2 3 4 5 6. Recruiting and staffing are handled thoughtfully with student needs in mind. University Diagnosis STRENGTH 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. WEAKNESS INTERVENTION Academic Teaching Social Cultural Administrative SOURCE: “Organizational Diagnosis of the University” by D. Marcic, Organizational Behavior: Experiences and Cases (St. Paul, Minn.: West Publishing Company, 1989), 326–329. Reprinted by permission. Assignments ✐ Find an article that describes an organization that has gone through change and managed it well. Develop a Hot Trend or other box feature of your own about the example you find using the format in this book. Prepare a brief oral presentation of your feature for your class. ✐ Think of a change you would like to make in your life. Using Figure 18.1 as a guide, prepare your own force field analysis for that change. How will you overcome the forces for the status quo? How will you make sure to “refreeze” following the change? Summarize your analysis in an action plan. ✐ Assign the electronic cases and related quizzes on Cisco Systems and American Express. Beyond the Class A selection of materials is in the Instructor Manual. 38 PART 1 ORGB_IE Cards_01-38.indd 38 Introduction 1/25/08 5:22:01 AM ...
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