4.1 - . I I . I . . . I I Illlllllu|l|lu|lllu. .. . .

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Unformatted text preview: . I I . I . . . I I Illlllllu|l|lu|lllu. .. . . .I.|.|.1|I|I|I.|..I..rlr|-Ir|rllr.I-Il. 5]...- . I 233:... 33:. .6093. 395.2% mm FEE HUBER“ OoEEwSoqmmsm mafia 9o Em KEEQ Gama m: Awmmswcz. mafia wriswu. a3.ng filing Manama aw“ N @003“ Eu. fimhmu. liillliiiilliilllllllllllgxiilili QUE EOzémbrAI Om bcm‘fimbEb Oonfiwfirm mmmtfifiomm H mmm Emwizm dim 33.31% :mm Umm: $38:an man. BSECJHmeQ 3 we: 3 Q. a: gym: 9n :5 5,13%? 2“ ZwEocwjm ucfimcmsfl 5 1m; ém 314m 61.33%me ban Hmmm Sim baa. :5 15.31% 3 Eim 33353320: 33 cm magma“ S 8316:" ESE. firmfiaw.b3<31§m_\ Sufism 9. n033c3nmgo: 2” 11m Emejfl 3 <0: 33 am Em magma.” 0m 8333 20333 cjam.‘ 9w haw. Do :0” am Eedm "Em zozom 442 ~ JaHYUN Kira HaaoosI-r SHAEPEr JEhIINY. 1994.; T‘The Unspeakable of Viglence ,1 d . ii ' P:;P::f$flifgfflfiy.d' 1:1 Celaaia! Disraarss and Paar-Calamari- edited :3, iii 2‘ l 1 rams an uta Chrismani- New York: Coliiriib' U “v a” . -- -' -' ' - - '- ' gig-[I531 ANFHDNY D. 1936. The Bibi-sir Origr'ar afNrsriaar: _.-: i I: ' ' I I ' 3' I - ' ' ' _ Practice: Commemorating ._ Spirits of the Military Dead at Yasukuni Shinto Shrine Warslggt; litIrrrarY consciousness). Seoul: .Haa’guk yon’guwiiii' ' : fl l'“lin waerara kwa'sosol mimhak”:-*(The”l in. " - -. - insjirs woman liars! 'H ’ i H ‘ 'mfln' Maud the Romain r Miflfimsfl' if 5”? 335i? “flflféflé (Imlln War and Korean literaturelf Seoul:""_f: ' SD 13:22: 13175- “MPHZSYHWIE fii Ettore .chdk siinggviik kwa munhaksachiik _ I aracteristics o dream journeys and their literar ' h' - C: S sisgpificancp). Kymyi‘agdae Haa’grrébaé aaaasaajrp 3531—52. Y lsmflcal I DH UNGCH m? 1994' ,Cfifl‘rfifl Jim H‘ffl'fl mgfliflflfl Ffifligi‘ (A Stud}r of Korean- S Japanese ralfltlfmfr dUi-‘lflg the Chosiin period). Seoul: :Chisong iii saem. DNG (IZHCJNGHYDN. 1993. Cheri‘s: rahae sass iasjia ri‘r'iayri’ag yri'a’ga (A study of Chosifi society and the volunteer army). Seoul: Haggviin munhwasa. - ' n whiff weriiablfzfiflrds “f 5.5111013 reign). 1955433.: 221 valet-211.25 a“ i more rasrrgya ii a Veritable records of Ch ” d' i ii i ' .PJYEHCh'an wiwiinhoe. [IS-DH Ynasty)‘ .43 was. SEDUL Kuksa i Serrggarrgggfaa {Verirable records of Shujo’s reign, corrected). 19?1 42 kwon Val D aria sears 'a "Z! is ' u " . ‘. ' Prygnchhn wiwfifli}: '9 (veritable mmrdfi “f ChUSDP,dYP35tY)_- SEW-1.1.3 Kill‘ffia wars from which to build modern myths about submerging individual suffering and E; -_ _ {if SDTHEBY’S. 1993, Kafmfi nggj afar; NEW Yflrk 13 '_ _' _ f"; '. 53;. loss to greater causes. The grief, anger, and despair of individuals can be integrated TDDDRDV. TszTaN.’1'9?5, T5,. pgmigflg. fl Sfmhfl a???" " I _ ' 3' ' i ,5; over time into collectivelyI shared assumptions about the indebtedness of the living I. ' ' Ithaca: Cornell University 131-355. I m ppmflfl m E LEW”? Gmff- in. ' I, to their heroic compatriots and ancestors. To remember these conflicts and those who - if"; ' (depending on the political context) eithei'r', “lost” or “gave” their lives has been ll“- JOHN NELSON “Memory believes before knowing remembers." 1il'CJ'illiam Faulkner (Light is Aagart, 1968, 1 11) For architects of citizenship and nationhood, there is no shortage of conflicts and III of California Press. Waraavaar, B. C. a, 1931 “Mn 3.“, - _ fl . Leiden University. g I - E . Dflgs 0f Knreafl_shflmafl15m' Ph-D- d153, VERDERY’ KflTHERINE l I _ i I . II I I Pfimm‘fflff” CP‘WEE- NEW $319335!riggiéénjifrZZiff I23? Bflflfligl‘imff. dim? ,_ ” "r throughout recent history a vital act of citisenship, both “affirming the community giggi-i ' ' WAKEMEN, FREDERIc, Jg_ TIES, at large and: asserting its moral character”: (Winter 1995, SS). Certainly from an _ -, Imperial Order iii Seasaresarij-Cearmy China 1" “flit Iii? i”, '- American perspective, national identitv remains "inexorably intertwined with the fad“: '. .5 ' r E BY mi. $9.5 ‘fi‘n‘gflfi: UMP-€55“? ' commiimoration and memory of past wars” (Piehler 1995, 5). This observation applies it even: more intensely elsewhere in the world g., Russia, China, France, Japan) where the loss of combatant and civilian life has been far greater.i i: I. —-:--. 1999. "Popular Religion in Cdnfhcianiihdi 'i. _ H _ etv. =_.In Cafrare area? Effie Soars re Lars Chasers Korea edited b3,- JaH K. . is... _ : yun rm Haboush and M Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center. . ._ ,Z' _. I Emma [3511511155- WILI-IAMS. RarMoNo. 197?. Marxirm and name. orfa'rdii Oasis-1: University .. Press. - _ Y1 CH'AEYGN. 1995. Irrajirr wasrarr p’ara rii’gi ya'rr’gri (ii. study of th‘é're'cords ofprisoners . Y (pf war of the Imjin War). Seoul: Pagijiing'chl-ulp'aflsflp. a I HANGHULI _ H - .2._I~ munhwfia' 999 1m?” “Emmi rfifl’ga £21 stud? of the: Imgm War). Seoul: rises-.- Y1 TCEEJEN' 1935‘ Chara? 5”? If; ff’fiflgf‘i’lffl’fi'éflflj’gflgfl Pyfi'firb’ri'a (Politics in the late Y1 YU osop anfggganlgles in the military.1r structure). Seoul: I-Ian’guk von'guwfin ' NSDK. . orig Kiltong chon yii'a’ga (A stud of the T J H .' Y Efiegu: KYemYong taehakltYo ch’ulp’anbu. Y a E {if mg Krifflflg)‘ U HDNGGUK. 1987. More arch air: "a’ .a A ' - 5.3.3111; Asga muflhwasa' £3" 3” 3 ‘1 Stud? of dream Journey novels). YUM {KYEISE'PT- 121600] 19.32. “Tafrb’a'a areagyaraé.” In Haaaraa raria‘i’riia (A collection ZEI’FLISI'EflIIJES m 1mg? Chmfimi Edited by Kugfi' kilflgfllur'i halchaei-Seoulr-Tael'egak j UIJITH. Hfltariflfiefifgbg Srfflflgg: PH __- * . This. Stanford: Stanford University Press. g g H” E bmm gamut? associate Professor of East Asian Religions in the udies at the University; of San Francisco. heast Asia Council of the Association for hsian the summer of 1995 and the Japan Foundation John Nelson (neisonj@usfca.edu) is Department of Theology and Religious St '-I would like to acknowledge the Nort Studies for a sho'rtsterrn travel grant to Japan in for a documentary film grant in that same veargji would also like to thank Chief Priest Uesugi Chisaro of Nagasaki Suwa Shrine and Professorisakurai Katsunoshin of Kogakkan University for their support of this project. Carl Freire at QTrhe' "University of Galifornia, Berkeley, kindly,r read and commented-on the manuscript, but interpretations are my own. I use "Shinto" without the macron over the final “o” as is customary for Japanese words familiar to Western . readers. Thanks to Mr. Tsuneisumi of the Yasukuni Shrine Public Relations Officefor per— mission to use the map. Finally, my appreciation goes to Chief Priest Ono Toshivasu and Senior Priests Hanada Tadamasa and Noguchi Jiro—all- of Yasukuni Shrine#'—for their courtesyr and assistance during my several visits and the filming of Japan’s Riraafr sf Rsmsrairraars: Fifty Years afier nits Pacific War. "An anonymous reader of this article notes that I ' s of memorialiaing its twentieth-century wars: France is "overrun" withsires of memory "With the gross Thsjaarrrai-af driarr Shearer 62, no. 2 {May 2003):445—46?. © 2003 by the dissociation for r’lsian Studies, Inc. 443 - -_.. -.._-_.__..___...__--...-..._ u. u..-__ 1 I "m 5-,... ..- _ -| .- 1-_|-.-I,__-. .. .. ..----- seem assian as situate slime-s £145 ' limits, because of the pain associated with the. death of loved ones in a losing war, now gain resolution and become viable landscapes of meaning.2 Some pf the most critical ways that shape :the meaning of individual memories are those institutional, organisational, and political entities and processes imbued with (and often afforded an excess of) religious legitimacy. Although religious orientations or eras was“ a . Ilsa” _.a-. _IL' u_ fit a. -'. ._._ by rapacious military force and terror Does th' _g-rflbbmg éfllgflf‘zaflfln Wm‘lght may, of course, be explicitly doctrinal, more-recent studies have shown how they may tat and death was for nothing or 'iaccordin to lsgifw Jillian the Partialpfltms Suffering also be diffuse networks of power relations that act on and often bypass individual _, criminal causePi How are they as seen as I: '1 S warliilterrfaligilal tribunals: _fflf'i'fi " . consciousness 'and are promoted through everyday sociocultural practices {Bell 1992; . ' i E 5'3 51's: P0 mes, awe-and culturalvai “'- " ' I: 6 ‘ is responsible for their deaths and ' ' - ’ - 1135 Fernandez 198 ). _ g a . . . . - . _ reconciled? Emmpmymg mmfir?’ m be remembemd 2:311:21 . . Throughout the anthropological and-histoi'ical record, we find an abundance of .11 ' social groups in which the positioningof identity and morality within a religiously I .. - ' .1 _ _tl . _ ___ t. . -.. oriented universe is conditioned by a. mediated relationship with guardian aridl'or i '51 broil-"fl Ettijpttpttgtpiitptrstttpttpttttptgtttpgzgltptt: t::itt:t:to£u}:tfi:pfltrtfi:o social mtmoty aflgt ancestral spirits. Whether these are Christian saints or the founder of a lineage, exalted emotional and contentious arenas-:IgEE-Eé‘itttd ttttthtilittttt t Buddhas tor itascible Shitnto deities (known as snipihwhether thtesp spirits are benignly Contemporary Japan Prflvides a Particultfl tit. . tt _- El- "anctiestral or (if unpropitiated) vengeful and possibly demonic, it is itare indeed to find t tttttttt t f dtttttttd tttttttt tttttttttt ttttt Fttttg areatto study”: ,‘ln.which the SDCIEtlEtSt 'tthat do not at some level and in someway promote a nostalgic aura of mflrtttttt ttttttttttttt httttt rtttt ttttt ttttttttttt . coercive an tPsychologital pull of sanctuary {Friedman Q92, 84?) if these spirits can be properly managed and t ttttlttttt ttttttt thtttt ttt ttttt ttttt tttttt t e to Jllstltlcy religious veneration for the controlled. The interventionist antdt reactionary agency afforded these spirits empowers t. tht tttttttt tttd tttdttttttttlt ttttttt tttttttt flfififimflifitlj’ettitttials to redpem both them both to sanctify and to legitimate present-day social and political orderings or - it wttttt th tt tttt tttt ttttttt t ttofi’ Jlttgntents associated-thh JERans actions t_ to challenge and, in some cases, to disruprttheni. At an abstract letel, the Spiritstflf t tttttt tttttttttttt ttttt ttttttttttttttttt rise o tpri e in beingqapanese, and hnw they the founding fathers and mothers of the nation-aretever present as guides and coercive it t t pressures for apology and restitution. __ _t __ _, examples for present—day correct policy and behavior. In specific cases, however, such it During the summer of 1995, international attention focused-io‘iiili'éztangy and tans, .as-w_e sea in contemporary Japan, these spirits are more intimate and personal. The -Eljg I ._ BEECH “f the Cfltflfli’fim 0f World War II, in which the danafixnllflgfgflg tttartay they referenced through social imemory. and commemorative rituals .ir to be over twenty million combatants and twenty-live million (Snyder __ I iiiiiitera'ciis only with traditional religious values but also, as we shall see, with the r PWJEQTS Uf remembrance fifty years later seem-ed ali'nost as iih'irierous. Sponsorin I i nation’s. highest political leaders and their netwoilts of alliance and power. i agencies, municipalities, and political patrons of every sort selected and emphasised I I I i I historical events and themes from this fifty-year-old story in order to convey to po ulai- "1 ' I i i '.. audiences (most of whom, like those in the sponsoring agencies had no..clirect . The Politics and History Commemorating expertence of the war) what they considered most significant and enduring In the War Dfllflcl iii! fltFiSE-Stflfltg thtotse projects, it is easy to let our critiques about "invented traditions.” or I ' l' 1 co ogies o memo obscure t v - . . . .' YEE, regardless of [tyne manipLTIZEEfEiiljlliEijinajzifiighefiefllfigi fliigfltstttfl?mna:t Since the end of World Yil'lfar II, diverse interpretations over how to represent, ackflgwlgdge the firm g £1 E Uf- ittdttttltttit ttttt tht ttttttttttbtt tttttt thtt th. or, an I acknowledge, and atone for japan’s aggressive exploits throughout Asia and the Pacific as the? EEDPE {01‘ ways to keep the mamnr}: 0f fined Unfit saturefi titttht ti? mentit have occasioned as much controversy andtconllict as they have closure. Nowhere is pain, forgetfiilness, at, .wgrggt mfldemfittttnt ._ t . , ._._ -,_.t-' _-.,_. Feats_._o__. this more evident than among groups and indiyiduals promoting emperor veneration, -t. t Processes involved in the construction of aocial memories serve to create a kind recognition of the “rising sun”--flag, nationalistic attempts to revise the history t “f mapping” {cuflflfirmfl 1939i 3?) especially relevant for navigating seeinpnlitical - . terrains contorted by pt,th tufftttngt tttd '1ttttt thtttt tttdttttdttt-tt ttttt tttttttttttttttttt __ iflotrowing from Ketnelm Burridgp (1969), Catherine Bell suggests that a kind of personal 311g“ themselvfl within a Particular ttttdttttttt ttt. thtt tttttt tttttt ttttttttttt-t. ._ ’ redemption is at work in these 1poltittically charged, personatily etititipoweringt nttiovettmenttsttttitit t of ownership and control. Routes of memory that tttttt’ t t _P t _ use t [ teciaim the past $1992, 811'). Btel ttst. es pains totpoint out _t at t is maytnp t et tat tteitip ttttt t previous 3’ considered . offa, .- ideology or doctrine to which individuals or institutions adhere. Rather,tit is s g .t _ . . - practical, orientation for acting,ttinvplvintg bothtaccotnmoflattiptittpfittteigptncgttpteptttpttptstgy - . - i2 ' .. ELI {1.11:3 mflflfllfl 5 SEE 3 i * ,a ESEEEJ:Ettfittf:$f£fl§niifiigittl§ftlfttéiistflffifgtltlttwtrtigi ttltit: pptestioititpf collaboratipitittppttth,th'et,t_.§.'_%'..._i-{*-":- 3' :fiifliiiziildataifiifadsiiiecliiiy practices imbueal with-the aura of ntw meanings, this stance hfldlt tttt tttttltttttttt ttt ttttt tttttttt thttt ttttittttttttt tttttttttfi tittttlftfptapttt Ftrancetstwars are t encourages certain actions to be seen efficacious-within that ordering (Bell 1992, $4). for be difficult to assess comparatively Jug“ i - Pan t WUUM - eaample, Burridge asserts that people s understanding of the place, purpose, and implications 7;... dioli'ljfi- ego... . I .a. .. . to the moral imperatives of the community" to which they now ascribe {quoted in Bell 1992, -. 34). Although a more fully developed ideology may be "subtle and delayed," it is also "ulti-— mater vindicating in that it provides a type of closure of effort and result, attempt and reward, belief and fulfillment” (Bell, personal communication, October 1996). e-.'-'_:-' - .4 rtlttr. tatraipons paid to tmany nations, and, of course, the widespread destruction and death (caused y oth conventional and nuclear weapons} in its major cities. £3" 1 .‘ w - _ I t '. - .‘-. I-LI' -"'.~'-'-'_ *1“ .' J11}: ‘ _Jt.t_.t._.. _ _ t I n . . a .- i. I -- 2: hil‘i_..i'£‘i?§;eaEiFil-ielllillifi Rf?bl.§il3§.lilligiiffi53-': sei- . --- of commemorating the military dead empowers them to discharge their obligations in relation [ ...i=i?‘tt: was, i} E“- s I'H. iii-.- - if H ti “ii, a. :-_. E- lie 4: i -' tit: 1 I - . _..-. ,-.__ Lu'l ._._ _ III - - “slum-"fr I ...'r. I'll.- --___-__-_...—__..._._._..._.__-- . . . . . .. _ _ __ ____ ___ _ ____ ,L. .."__ .. .. filth—___— JUi-iiv NELSON . . - -- - " ' '- -_ -~”:_-_ '5 - "--’ .- .-., .-..- '.~ socia’iai'siioitv as ai'i‘uat- rascrics '44? . -rr:'.:' .- . 4.1-}- ..I ,ftllb'depldyriient s'ijipag, ._ Buddhist teniples 'in honor of soldiers -who had died since 1853, the year the ' " ~..:55-rebe:llion first took flight. Buddhism, however, was. in eclipse among the new elite: ".gythroughout the roughly 250 years of the "Tokugawa period, Buddhist priests and gfl-remplel had served as extensions of the ,shogunate’s adminiStrative and coercive ‘ _I I il-lfsilfiowers, and it was deemed inappropriate for a rapidly modernizing state. For a brief * " ligand-volatile period (1854—60), some temples were ransacked, priceless statues and :Iicolnswere vandalized or destroyed, and priests were stripped of their duties and titles ifji'n communities that their predecessors had-served for centuries (see Ketelaat 1990). ' Shrines dedicated to kami veneration suffered no such fate. Because a radical break withthe immediate Tokugawa past motivated much revolutionary policy, the new iii-'l'lvie'i'ji government announced inlSlSS that it would follow the ancient principle of T-_i.'5rz‘f.ftiifefffbf,lflf "a unity of governmental and ritual affairs."5 After all, the Meiji leaders - ., ,argiied, were not all of the colonizing policies of the imperial powers (Britain, France, “if liI-Iolland, the United States, Russia) driven by the powerful spiritual engine of -- _-_ .. _ _ 'i-ChriStianity? If Japan were to compete and stave off encroachments on its territorial ; Kristof'1995il _ -._. ' 1- T'sovereignty, it could only adopt the rules of a game already in‘play. As a result, the 0f Shinm fifldfid With Japan’s defeat EndifiEd b One migdht ammo-1mg]:- state suppgrt imperial court was ovefhapled: the Meiji emperor elevated 'to the status of a living Icflflperfltiflfl} In assessing Yflsukmili Shrifie F 331:1filljffi:FBCElTny-E-Pldgllllhlp“rig further ._ fl _lkafit'il, and a revamped dhinto was made important institutional vehicle through mung! understand thEir pnfiticai a and :_ Zn hits _ lfltfifil;'_;_g_'lfflLIP-'5,:-WE' muslpylfgf‘fi _3- _ 'whiohyillagegieach having one or more shrines) could be lihlted to state agendas— thought essential to Preservin the {itin 13111: E imam“ rillhtarF-ill-Eflclfi;am'5'5': “1 thE 53” wall that the Plewmls rf‘guiflfl had am will“ Inca] will? 135' . . mmflt and deepfifl gm awflrffless 0f l“II-“:{éflul i 1wel It}; glen the__social__;ripd martyr-pigl- = among advocates for revitalizatipn of ritual affairsflsyuctetizing politics will be able m apprECiatE the influenfie flflthyingécu tllI' --codes.regarding death, tog . ti rand. religion was Omura Masuprp, leader of the acclaimed Choshu infantry, which come m t _ h _ I l _ rese ctors're- ' _ * I_ I, suffered heavy losses during the -C1Vll‘Wfl[5 gTakaishi 1990, 13). As a way of hpnoring erms wit its aggression during and responsibility for the Pacific War, as a and appeasing the spirits of his soldiers who had helped create the new nation, the well ' ' i : ' - _ . _. . 35 the WflYS in which the war is both remembered and obscured from memory, :- memorials he had observed at Buddhist temples were now to be centralised at an Slflwiasdfiip;riflipne 1priginated ip 13?? during a time of civil conflicf between a - a Equally new Shinto shrine in Tokyo. Just north of what'would become the imperial The leaders 0f th g sbolgtinate an an insurrection led by forces from western japan. A palace grounds, this location for the Tokyo Shokonsha (literally, ‘that place to which K E Fe if: mus {WEE (What ff? 1362: Controlled the imperial cityof . ._;:_ the divine spiritg [of those who have made the great sacrifice] are invited") in 1369 yoyo) asked the reigning emperor of that time, Kfimai, to sponsor a ritual fin- [huge iii Elwas favored by Omura for many reasons. First, the area known as Kudan Hill won Sflldlefi whfl ha‘d dmd fighting again“ the 'TflkUBRWfl 5h*Dgunate. The first “modern,” i out over the location at Ueno favored by Kido Kfiin because the latter site had seen custom—made ritual for the military dead (irei-us-iufgil -_.was __ conducted by both several bloody skirmishes, rendering it afséiiir no ohi, or “place with lingering, unhappy Buddhist and Shinto priests at-lfiyoto Higashiyama. muslin. in I _ spirits.” The Kudan area was the perfect". space to start an institution that would DECEfl‘leI‘ 18.62? (:f'altaishi 1990. 10). ' ' _ ' _ ' 'r symbolize the future for a new "spirit of” l the land” (third) (Tsubouchi 1999, 42). After solidifying power during the neat four years, the fledgling nation’s new I il' Second, not only was Kudzu Hill one of the higher elevations in the city, it also leaders ordered 1‘11 186'? a “hall for inviting spirits” (malaria—fa) to be built in every marked a division between two distinct cultures associated with the feudal era: the region under their control.“ This was in addition to the yearly memorial services held _1_ .. shirusrochi, or "lower city," where commoners lived in cramped conditions and the I I I I I' _ "l yesionsrs region of upper-class officials and samurai. Constructing the shrine in this 5A Supreme Court decision rendered on Z'April 199? finally called iiito luse - " area wnuld 1151p Prflmflte the new gavemmentls flfltiflfl'bUildiflg agendas by blurring, of tax revenue for ritual offerings {inaugural} made by politicians at regional nation-protecting status distinctions among residents via communal activities at the shrine (Tsubouchi EhHBES; (arrer page): The case involved offerings presented on behalf of the.-.governor,.and- 1999, 49—50). Although Omura was assassinated shortly after the shrine's initial administration of Ehimc Prefecture. although the amount at issue was small $6,000, or construction, he. is revered as the founder o'fJapan’s Imperial Army. His huge bronze U 5 $1,400), a coalition of private ' ' . ,- ' ‘ ._;..C1tIEEfl5 Sued the governor. and. pr focture,‘- WIth'.-_a E313, r . _ I - h - . l . 2P1? 22- up p d al [1 h n n h n entrance see no. 2 on the map . reaching t E Japanesfl supreme Cnuri’ Ini-i'l-fli-ldfl—lhlkéi EEiSlflflr-iuflfiiiiiiifll'Iivlillilfldiheail?3'thirty.;;.-3"?:.""3' '_-- Still-qu mwerfi at a E E51: at t E 5 fl ES. an H ( ) years of oftentimes tortured logic that justified shrines"arrmarathons“ seafront"saluteresales-17'? —-—---—-—-—-—-—--" I 3 these offerings (see O’Brien 1996), the Supreme _Court ruled thirteent'oirwo that the practice _"jf'é depart at the end of the proceedings (see Nelson 1996, EDGE). To my knowledge, Yasultuni “’35 1115331: PfflhlbltEd b? the Postwar constitution. For the first time, although by implication l 3" Shrine i5 exceptiflflal in that the SPlrits are film-13h: t“ be mntlflu‘flflf hauled at the Shflfl‘g‘ rather than direct involvement, Yasultuni Shrine stood revealed as a religious institution that I I From a priestly perspective, this creates a rather volatile spiritual dynamic that requires con- had EEEEIVE-d special favors and attention from _the Japanese government {see Nelson 1999). ' stant vi gilance and ritual propitiation {seethe shtine’s website at http:iiwww.yasukuni.or.jp}. _ For readers unfamiliar with the Shinto" ritual =.'ipfb'cess,'ldeitieslh're' always “invited” to if :3 I. ' " 5See James Ketelaar’s discussion about the official pronouncement made by the new Meiji Palm‘PfltE 1?] “will? half] in thEll‘ hflflflfi filthflugh it is common to" assumb particular deities 3 government: f‘In restoring Imperial rule, which began with the emperor Jimmu’s founding of reside at shrines, priests consistently inform me of the difficulty and danger involved in man- ' the natiflfl: all thiflgfi have been fEnEWEf-l- Th5 Minis”? 9f Rita Will WEE again be EStflbliShfidi' aging a prolonged presence; thus, the deities are called on to participate and _then invited to and we will thereby return to the practice of the unification of rite and rule" {1990, 92). 'H. 'I I '— .-'I'_: _ , the souls of the .dead are not only e valorized and fetishized. Although .. the I shrine-.- international news 5' How did the Yasultuni situation develop? _ _.-1..-- _1 .I a ' I I; 1. I. _'.":.-g H. t5 :1 ll .- r,. a l! t.- 1.; . s 443 JUI—IN NELSON" 1. I: I .. Tudan-shitai‘Kanda -. re', 2 I :r':!-.I_..I._' 3 4 l? 13 Key to plan of Yasultuni jinja "'_The First-.Torii Statue of-Masujirn -- . .:l' at Dhomura j' Pal'ltingsPlaoe _' The'Seaontl, art;- ' Hands-Washing Plaee Divine oas' Shrine“ Office Noh Theatre Hall of Worship Main Hall Hall of Arrival worshippers" Hall The Festivals Section Tea Houses Japanese Garden Sumo Ring Yasukuni-Kailtan . Yusliakan ' Yasukanl Jinjal 3-l-l' chums. Harlan. Chiyoa‘a-ku. Tokyo. Japan Map. Yasukuni Shrine (Yeraéaaijiaja shawamand). soCIaL Mastoav as arroaL raac‘rica 449 , {and before any of Japan’s wars of colonization), the shrine had become one of Tokyo's premier public plazas and meeting spots. Its distinctive “lighthouse” lantern __(rtiaryi_idai}, its giant tutti gateways, andyits expansive grounds became known th the. general populace through periodic festivals, sumo matches, noh performances, ' and exhibitions oli-eyery kind—all within precincts made sacred by the spirits of the military dead. Early in the shrine's development in 1-372, a French circus entertained rather small crowds on its grounds. The shrine's sponsorship of periodic horse races also began in this year, with the later Taishh emperor (r. 1912—26) recalling fondly how he used to attend these competitions as a child (Tsubouchi 1999, 68—? 0). Shrine administrators hooked an Italian circus in 1890 so as to further capitalise on record crowds already attending the shrine-’s annual'festival (reiraivrai). This brief history of the development 'oflthe shrine should indicate that it clearly had 'a notable presence among the general public well before it came to be so instrumental to the state. Also during the .'early years of the Meiji government, a decision to institutionalize state-sponsored. :spirit enshrinement at this particular location helped create what can only be called a new religion. Drawing upon long- standing traditions that linked state policies to religious practices and leaders, and privileging selected symbols, myths, and institutional trappings of a broadly and newly defined “Shinto” tradition, emphasis was shifted in fundamental, strategic, and even radical ways. ' The first innovation was to' associate spirits of the dead with a tradition known for trying to avoid the contamination of death. Shinto ritual practices considered the impurity of death and the danger associated with unstable spirits of the dead as a prime source of defilement (targets) for human beings and their communities. Priests and rituals emphasised instead the life-bestowing, generative, and beneficent vitality of kairii, which were usually highly local and clan-specific deities or numinous entities thought to ensure (if treated properly) good harvests, healthy children, successful livelihoods, and victorious military campaigns (see Brown 1993, 10-12; Nelson 1996}. For centuries, kami had been positioned alongside Buddhist bodhisatrvas and other deities which took care of those immediately dangerous sides of life such as sickness and the fate of one’s soul at death. Together these interactive traditions provided complementary and pragmatic resources of great utility to generations of --_Iapane_se leaders and commoners. One of Japan’s leading researchers on death, the late Gorai Shigeru, asserted that every death creates an unquiet spirit that mus-h he suhlimated, controlled, and made into a benign and, in a best-case scenario, a benevolent spirit (hami, or in the Buddhist vocabtilaty, hernias} as soon as possible (1994, 1'35).'5 The death of soldiers creates special problems within this cultural tradition. Military casualties caused by war’s untimely and-violent circumstances take the lives of vibrant young men or women in their prime. In this content, a heightened threat. emerges: that of "unqniet spirits” (news) 6I would like to make a cross-cultural comparison here regarding views of the dead in traditional Chinese and Japanese societies. Influenced by Confucian, Daoist, and “folk” tradi- tions, many Chinese see the dead as spirits that can return to the world at certain times of the year or if proper rituals are not performed. The japanese, on the other hand, labor to convert unstable spirits into buddhas or kami, yet like the Chinese, they hold that the dead can return to this world (as at midsummer Bon and on death anniversaries) and assume agency to affect the living. As Kali Nohuyuki notes, "[w]hile it should not be possible for the spirit of someone Who has gone on to nirvana to come back in response to a summons, the Japanese complacently .hflliflle it happens” {1996, 7' 5}. "Without this kind of agency on the part of the departed spirits, the Yasukuni issue could possibly lose some of'its salient emotional pull. -__.__——_ .. I ..,- I._ - .____—_..... . I .- I. -l-'\- .. a—_._____._.\,_. r I. . -\.n a-___.._—_—_ . -|-'|- —|- ——— |-—I-——I—I-r-u—I—r-I-v-Mlu_n_n-n_— _—__.,_ .-.... . .......—__—_..__........._ _ __________ u- I-—- _-. - I I am JDHN NELISDN sn"c'IA-L'sr1'srrn'av- as filTUnL essence 45-1 which transcend. r-che _bnnds nf lnyalty int kin. These, spirits—cnnfissed, lust, and neglected—are thnught tn seek retributinn frnm the natinn (nnce they find their we. back tn Japanliinstead nf thnse nnw distant enemy snldiers actually respnnsiblefn: their deaths. Althnugh ancestral veneratinn was by and large wanderer; ' wnrshipping the snuls nf individuals thtnugh Itin,'--._nccupatinnal,.._ nt 'territnrial fl affiliatinns (Smith 1974)“—nne-'might argue that snme'aekndwle'dgment was-required 1n ezceptinnal situatinns En prnpitiate and quiet sf! nf the spirits nf the dead, friend .; -. and fee alike, befnte fncusing mere intently nn'thnse clns'er tn hnme. One perspective. might cnnsider this a deeply Buddhist, humanisric sympathy abnut the. death nf a human being, but it can alsn be seen are pragmatic design which attemp't's-tnialleviare I a fear nf spirit reprisal (Muraltami 19H, 53). _ __ , .. . ,. - I. The secnnd innnvatinn nf Meiji—perind spirit vene'ra'tinn'_recnnfigured'l'l'thi'sII same tr traditinn. Per the first time, nnly "nut" spirits, and nnly “herdic” nnes at that, wnuld :1 be hnnnred and invited tn the shnknn-jn.-Thnse nf the enemy were simply the military leaders whn, instead nf priests, seryed in_'the rituals as celebrants (hymn. she). In additinn, rather than'Ilal'ltlan nrifamily leader'spcihsnringi'it-liels'etivicie, the: initiating the ritual was new the natinn-statel'The’lcniiiit'iiy:as in the empernr whn served bnth as pattnn behind and benefactnr 'nf the self-sacrifice nf the "hetnes” (0e 1992, 55). 1When the general public came tn pay tribute tn these spirits and acknnwledge their nnble deeds, the cntnmnn'persnn wnuld be led directly tn the natinn (Muraltami 19%, 111;" dutntii".1938).T Thus, the shnknn-jn can be thnught nf as a kind nf crucible wherein unstable spiritual entities with negative? pntential cnuld be purified, snnthed, and transfnrmed-__,Ii,htn.-.kami that are bnth' .gar'the shnknnsha. Principal rituals nf cnni' emntatinn w'ere tn be held nn 6 May and ii June 1379,-the Meiji empernr annnunced that the Tnkyn Shfiknnsha (the shrine tn i-rhe' “peaceful cnuntry”). The reasnning was that, nwing tn the "metitnrinus services pref the spirits nf the deities wnrshiped," the natinn enjnys peace and security. (Yureéeni Jiaje rhernsrrbs n.d.—). The title change is significant, as Eric Wnlf reminds us, because the ability tn bestnw meanings—tn ‘nanie’ things, acts, and ideas—is a snurce nf ii".'_.-l-_pnwer.” Once they are named, hnwever, cn'nsiderable pnwer is required tn “keep the meanings sn generated in place—names must, as the Chinese say, be ‘rectified’” (Wnlf H ND GD H U} flfl DD 1....r __ ,Z' A series nf armed cnnflicts and'wars kept Yasukuni Shrine as a key referent fnt tithe new natinn's grnwing military and theaccnmpanying nbligatinns nf citizenship. Japan mndernized and expanded its nvetSeas interests (fnllnwing mndels nf cnlnnial _"_; imperialism supplied by England, Spain, France, Hnlland, and the United States}, a __T"_spitaling number nf cnnscripts were channeled intn the military (mnst dramatically 03,734 in 1912 and 136,000 in 1929 [Tanaka 1996, 210}). The lives nf thnse whn iiibecame snldiets, then war casualties, and ultimater "hernic spirits" helped tn lessen ___dissnnance between the "peaceful natinn” celebrated in the name nf the shrine with .gfjthnse state pnlicies hungry fnt new territnry' and resnurces. benevnlent and fundamental tn the natinn. _ _.__ :. - -...- 's1.-"-" -\.-\-.-ul'1'-..:-r..l ""H-‘r -. _.-.'.- I .-__.., 1 _fl _I.:|U.,_.-._'¢.r-L:I III. . _ _ 1 .--' .- '--.._."-'-'F‘ . ‘- I When the inner sanctuary nf the Tnkyn Shfikn'nshd"’wrih':'i:n'nstfiifthfldiiiil I" rituals fur the spirits nf the dead began tn be perfnrmed regularly, the shear under the cnntrnl nf the army and navy ministries in,_18?21{the answer's" that they‘ll-s French circus perfnrmed). By the end nfthe Secnnd Wnrld War, the shnknnsha wasg': " ' cnntrnlled by the Internal Affairs Ministry (Naimushn), and its priests held equivalent tn a cnlnnel within the armed fnrces. Twn years later in 13?4,'the Meiji-f; empernr attended the shrine fur a majnr ritual, annther significant departure fruits-I. established custnm. Fer pnssibly the first time in Japanese histnry, an empernr paid respects tn the spirits nf cnmmnners whn were said tn have died fnr his and the natinn’ss-Ii sake. The ynung empernr, hnwever, nnly twenty—twn at this time, alsn benefited frnm ,: _ and gained legitimacy thrnugh this act nf aclvtnnwledgement.E Japanese pnliticians and"? 5: _ patrints have been fnllnwing his lead ever since. _ " = -' With the new gnvernment centralizing its administrativegpnwers in_'Tnltyn, itl-i . annnunced in IBTS that all spirits nf the military dead, _Iuntil'then cared fnr at they _1 ' -..==_,;_.g.-.~.Patrintism, Resistande, and Redemption at Yasukuni hShrine I . The pnliti'izalf'and institutinnal cnnteitts' fnt Yasultuni’s develnptnent shnuld be .gltlear' by nnw, but what nf the internal prncess by which spirits were enshrined (gfishi)? ‘ til-The priests whnm I interviewed were unwilling- tn supply this infnrrnatinn, but Iglaccnrding tn a 1941 article written exclusively fnr army nfficers by the head priest nf igflfasukuni, we learn hnw human spirits (firtrri) becnme divine spirits (rhinrsi) belnnging lite the shrine and, by eutensinn, its key patrnn and spnnsnr, the state. The authnr nf this article, Suzuki Taken, was trnubled by the intimacy that cpmmnners felt tnward the shrine nnce their snns nt relatives were made deities. He ,__.wanted nfficers tn impart tn their cnnsignees (and they tn their relatives) the basic “prncess nf enshrinernent. 1Within the ' shrine are several distinct areas, each e'hatacterized by the specific activity nf spirit transfnrrnatinn nccutting there. The sh'bknn-jn (withinthe demise, nr “inner sanctuary"; see nn. 1!} nn the map, labeled ill/Iain Hall”) is still a vital part nf this prncess because here hurnan spirits are first lhvited tn the shrine. A ritual called the fishnets-rel annnunces tn the spirits that they ill be cnrnbined with nthet spirits within the shrine. Finally, they ate mnved tn the "ifirls dietitian, literally the “sanctuary nf enshrined spirits,” and wnrshipped there fnt In _e first time as kami nf the shrine and natinn. The priest writes: lRather than using terms that evnlre the military nature nf the cnnflict in which these..;;"" individuals died, the ward frequently used was preparers, translated rnughly as "natinnal-"i martyrs" (see Mutakami 197%, i). During my tent nf the shrine's'inuseum, the-flung. priest guiding me said that “the sacrifice nf individuals established the natinn." Klaus Antnni argues that, based upnn fnlk traditinns regarding vengeful spirits, theitnuntry must b'e’prntec't'edfissiff these spirits rather than lay them (1988, 135), but I prefer tn see an nf these cnnditinnsssl essential tn the shrine's rituals and institutinnal pnsitinning. In fact, I wnuld suggest__ths.,t'.,l - virtually any kami at a Shintn shrine in Japan has this dual prnpensity, evidenced has '35:: _. niginrinsnns (benevnlent spirit. fnrce} and asters-sirens: ("rnugh" nr vinlent spirit fnrce). Onlyfi': thrnugh carefully cnnducted rituals, snnie' nf whic'h__'must-'invnlve'-(syh1bnli_cal_ly' q.- 31:. F_| entire pnpulace, can apprnpriate nfl‘erings, sentiments {prima-rily‘gratitudefand seknselrsriii . merit}, and activities keep the atan-iitama in check. - ' 5I am grateful tn Carl Freire fnr bringing this reciprncity nf empnwerment tn my attentinfl--’.-i:";_'.- Ynu really have tn think abnut this [prncess] and understand it. is persnn whn has lnsta snn cannnt think abnut him ss'sepatate and their nvvn; ynu have tn make them _ _ understand that their snn has becnme a kami. Bereaved families are wrung tn feel I: "intimacy tn_ the shrine and behave in casual and inapptnpriate ways. Tn equate the " human spirits (jinrei) with the divine spirits (shintei) shnws a wrung ntientatinn: -—.--—-.-.--.-.....-\......-__...-. ~-..-.'.-.-..- v.-..-'-\...:.-...-. .- - .. J. .Ijlifireginnal shrines established earlier in ldfil wnuld be brnught tn Tnkyn and unified '- ""'_';_wh_ich "spirits are invited”) wnuld hencefnrth be knnwn as I“Yasukuni” (the shrine nf - 'l-I-I—-""' - - . . . ...__......-.. ass JDHN NELsoiv _ I‘- . __ :— _' soniat MEMDR‘Y as nirvat snacrics 453 - those spirits nowtbelnisg m the natifln (gaggfl) The {ml - " - ' 15.1. g, _ . ~ I - - - . Will that survsves 1 , . . . _ , g the flatiamsmm . - i 5" 5 that if I s .. finntl‘iar popular song carried a poignant protest, yet was subtle enough in its carefully . ' . +- , .iIL-fiifiii worded challen e to esca e sus icion from i'atriotic nei h'bors or the feared "s ecial ll 1 I i i. ' (.0?'1934r'=136l-‘=s3‘"" iii-f" ' g P P . P I - g . P -- t _ I _ police” (éflflpfif-fflf): i 11" PERCUCE: hflwfi‘i’eli We fifitliapnsiderable variations withphjgah;[sspifltgsgfggflé '1 l __ - ., , _ . '- seba- within the shrine; rhea "forum m We “5 Ya: spirit is settled in Yaukuni lineage and those of commoners (Nojiri- jirfi, comments lf'fis'ijififlfl H Ehlzumflm malaria“ kafle Pill Slimming it mums hflmfi' , . . _ . haha no yumeji m. in your mother’s dreams. . L. g; 5:: Museum, 13 August 1995). Both are considered on be the heroic war dead (nibbling f. I or sisal) but commoners are clearly subordinate to those spirits of imperial descent- ”g. All the same, despite the unprecedented, situation of, for example, the deceased sari f of a poor farmer receiving tribute from} the emperor, enshrinementglgflg was flu: " '- always sufficient to sustain ceremonial propriety along class lines. I I ' A struggle ensued over possession of ;-the spirits of 113.333th Ibeggflsgg family members and what I have called? the state's new .. reasoning of the chief priest just mentioned, worshipping the spirit of one’s own son-'_- could be done correctly only at Yasukuni Shrine. Letters written"fram_.thgfmnt lip-ES I before death in battle, especially those from kamikaze pilotsfinstri'ict' their descendents to come to Yasukuni to visit their spirits. Speaking to his young daughterfflfibfl-fig --: writes, "[i]f you wonder what I look like in the future, tell your mother so and ask (Transit-tiara {EU-63) A'sfthe war progressed and increasingly frequent enshrinement rituals mirrored mounting losses at the front, the patriotic pressure to conceal personal feelings could not always be managed._.Tsunoda Saburfi, a writer who lost two brothers in the war and __became a Christian minister afterwards,'-reports a radio announcer confiding to hirn‘iiha‘t, 'duriiig' broadcasts from Yasukunilonthe occasion of spirit enshrinement ceremonies, anguished cries were difficult tii shield from the microphone. With the central .Jwalkway flanked on both sides by this t'dlatives of those being enshrined, cries ' of “Murderer!” (Hirsgsrorbii) and "Give me: back my child!" (Wages-lee Easier) were often" hurled at the procession of priests and military officials solemnly approaching the inner Sanctuary. Although exclamations' “like these were clearly seditious, orders . I to come t Y k I ' . . ‘ ' ' ‘ . . - 5- '1 m his argfltfilTEl-ulfhflfle f (Mimi) 2000:; Slmllflfll” fill-rim theipllm Mam-101530 to the special police on duty followed a hands-off policy, deferring to the families’ ' 5-,: .' p _ ' I a“ 3m“ ' ' ' “f t E twent?‘t IE3 years during Which 5’0” 113% Email grief rather than to what had become the norm of stoic patriotism (Tsunoda 19W, sghrligs'fi for me and inspired me. I hope that my present deed will in some small way repay 51) Ill - " ' ‘= -' 7"." ii i. what I d ' . ' " ' - ' . -' l ' - '_ i, EDI-1T??? Dflelfflr mi? Think WE“ .flf me .flfld kflflw that will: 15% chad far “i” In a high—profile case over enshrinement and religious freedom argued before the l _ I- s coun ry.d l 151:5me HEIIWISll, and there is-nothing else that I desire. _I shall return in Japanflse Supreme (3mm. in 1933 11 atmmg}, Kumflng Katsuyuki Cgmpargd the f, -'-=--- i' s rtan " ' T ' ' ” ' - .. . . ’ .. . ' P] 1T0 families rgflgflur 31:11:11,; 1:15“ka Sfilrme bib-fail“ .2000.)'?'.-.- coercive policies and ideologies of state Shinto during the war years to an internal 1s _ d h l; .31 Du 5‘ E t e G if” arefli t E 3115-: Elf-ifimfflwflhffl ill-Tad combustion engine designed to run on fiiel provided by the youth of Japan. g; g; “HES 3“ ‘3 E EECflmPPflltlflg “mall EflflduCtEd 1“ E11311“ hflflflr must-'hsrvbaflfl Eflflflblmd Conscription into the military became the. “compression” of this cycle, providing - ii. E: the fine hfln:_11_nkmghfflmlhes_ ti} 3 CummUmW Elf militia? heffles final-"arm by docile bodies for the "combustion" of many military conflicts around Asia. Finally it if t E EH11} Em: an mum—m m flgflmzlflg Q.“ the “then ORE {fluid 5”” P33" EESPECtS 5“ and most criticall the violence of the combustion base and the “exhaust” that it ll “I its”. -' the departed spirit at the household Buddhist altar but the em basis was d'lf - - l -' - 'P - 'l: f; ._i““ii and Dccufled f h . a1 ’ . _ P , Ingram produced was mitigated and celebrated by enshrinement at Yasukuni and at local war ll 3W3? mm t E Harm“ Stage Where the fipfltl'lght Shim"? 5'3 brightll’i-s.-’c memorial sites (O’Brien 1996, 131). Chapters in textbooks of the 1940s even dealt "' E _ _ H Nevertheless, the tension between obligatory enshrinement and _..t_h_E older "5;: : traditions venerating ancestors at home or at local temples ‘is'iobvious in this popular ' song of the early 1940s (approved by the authorities, of course) with its politically ,'.?:e,- iii.- with topics such as how to regard one’s elder brother after he becomes a “glorious spirit” enshrined at Yasukuni (Wada 1974,33). but hisheart is filled with satisfaction" (Sasaki 19-96, 186). Other writings from Uehara indicate that-his satisfaction may have stemmed from his belief that he would go to the Pure Land (of Amida'IBuddha) and meet up with his brother and the girl he loved, rather than go on the forced march of military souls to Yasukuni. {Tsunoda 19?7, 60—63) '.-\.- a'jfr' 3 correct way to mourn the spirit of one's own child: . " - _ __ _ L l I ' I l a i . - . - I - , i I _ ‘ -1°We can even find resistance among the so-called kamikaze squadron pilots (the preferred I 25' ' Rl’fltfl iii-“math: hlzflmafiul'iis -- .,[M{ilher Can-13.“? .Y‘il'il‘kum £39111 the—mantras? term is eitherilii'npi? or retinas, both abbreviations of swaps? mandarin nageéinsi, the official term l is “53m” hazumi “'3' “Embfltmi " IkHE¢_la§1..£lDWfl¥aniilt -l:l-l__l'1iillfay}_5ifi ' for these special attack forces). Writing to a journalist shortly before his final mission in 1945, l ij hatto kiauite, uroraeru, the prayer to BmidalIBuddhti,h""" " I I Lieutenant Uehara Ryfiji, a graduate of field University, said he was honored to have been if: "353MB: ill-1131153 YD: but realising her error said, thosien 'to participate in the tokkfitai but believed that the victory of democracy over fascism i inakamono.” "Ssfl, please fflrgive this mum”, pagan.“ was obvious: "Tomorrow, one believer in democracy will leave this world. He may look lonely, 9Two letters from kamikaze pilots can befound prominently dis'played'ahd'discussed in" " Kanji et al. 2001, sponsored by the Japan Society for HHistoryfl’l'pi-itliook Reform. Coming at liThe Nakaya case became an important benchmark in testing the lEEfllltl’ “f What H313” the end of a problematic discussion on the war in the Pacific, they"_.help,1_swag young “readers . _ , _ , . .;;.-_-,-. I-lardacre calls "spirit-apotheosis" ceremonies {1939, 153), in which a spirit is enshrined within toward feelings of victimization and even reyenge for what as-tsisiss‘-transatliscrimiagssa1s;a. regionalii‘natiolisprfltaating" shrines. This can bje'done independently of Yasukuni Shrine, just bombing” of the Japanese homeland by rallied planes in 1944 and 1945. One letter-speaks : ,. - as catholic communities in Europe might venerate local saints not recognizedby the Vatican openly of crashing his plane into the main ship of an enemy fleet to avenge the destruction " f" in Rome. ans: Mr. Nakaya’s 19% death in an automobile accident while on duty in the Self- ____—._._H_._._.."_._._._..__".J, “_ _ that was occurring in Japan, while the other employs poetry to. convey the writer’s desire-to ' -' Defense forces, a regional veterans’ association wanted to enshrine his spirit over the protests become both a blooming mountain cherry tree and a demon (ear) protecting the nationllses. I of his Christian wife. Eventually, a ruling by the'Japanese Supreme Courtin 1983 came Ullf Nelson 20132 for a translation of these poems and an overview ofthe textbook; leflflb for an ' in favor of the "religious human rights" of the veterans’ association, and Nakaya became a ESEEESmEflt 0f the Cflfltfflvflrarl- nation-protecting spirit (Hardacre 1939, 15?; see also O'Brien 1996,: Field 1991). i 1' - ‘fl‘i . JGHN NELSDN social hibernate ‘as 'xrvoxt PRACTICE 455 , .gs -;:., To many in thoseparts of-Asia once occupied by Japanese forces, the veneration _;_;. of all those killed while in military service; including elated—Leslifttii-filgalt%_E;jeseeageg,._.; '_ r; tear the war (such linen Hideki, enshrined in 1979);“glasses“have; iii; “if ‘ nineteenth- and mid-twentieth—century Econflicts (Sakamoto 'j1994). jet.- from, a i h I __ _ perspective shared by many veterans and bereaved family members", the-degree hf guilt J [53,1- ::_ and compliance of all of those once in the-_.-military or who supported the "nation'g' lf 5' cause is rendered less problematic by alsimple shift in historical perspective: "I know ._ there are class-A war'criminals enshrined here,” said one former navy officerl,i'“but ._ ff they had to follow the national policy. at that time. In a wide perspective, they might I v :_=I~_ also have been victims of the war” (“Pilgrimage Marks Surrender: Relatives of War Dead Visit Controversial Yasukuni,”jtapasrr Times, 16 August 1996, p. 2). A «- Yfishfikan: The Museum of Memory_.and,Repose,_ - - ' _ _ _ i‘ Nowhere does the sanctimonious perspective of victimisation gain a louder voice than at the shrine's war memorabilia museum, the Yfishfikan. Located some fifty I fig: 55; meters to the west of the shrine’s central walkway (see no. on the map), thebuild‘ing fl,- : itself is an impressive example of European-style architecture; Whatlcatches one’s eye gal-la: - on approach, however, is the area in front of the museum where, on what is'designared i as “sacred ground," a vintage machine gun, howitzer, torpedo, and a tank standg LI; Closest to the museum's stately entrance .__is a statue of 'lMorhgg’f‘ h "-| children she bravely raised in the absence'_(or loss) of hergl-hus-band'.” _ I H, gag-3,1, The museum's alignment separated-valartaa“teen-fies antes; it ' :i context is evident from these exterior displays-alone:-.OnheiiiisidepjtiI-iriisittiri'itravelsliii-- i ': it it through the military exploits of the Meiji, Tfllsl‘lfi, and Showa periods (see the museum - fl link within Yasukuni's website, httpo’iwwwyasukuni.or.jp). The narratives that a, Z accompany the exhibits are actively evangelical, extolling the commitment, loyalty, 1" ‘ bravery, and self—sacrifice of those who died in_ service, to themation and emperor. _ -',,..f_, 3 _ iii 3'5": 7? Here, as Patriotic songs emote softly in the background, the shrine and nation’s i; i: ' I '- _ I anonymous spirits once again become tangible human beingist-_I'Muraltami Shigeyoshi, I i - gut-in2; ‘f in his otherwise excellent account of Yasultuni, follows-the. of_stating__ __ __ Figure 1_ Display at Yagukufli's Yfighfikflh museum, Phflm {mm iii-iii: that thE “’33 dead have “'3 PErSUflalltlv’ 01' ifldiViduflliW l1:974:igl-fiffifififlfifififfldtéfiitiffllfi’i"iii -." ' :5 ' author’s collection. . -i':'-i'7i-ii3'ii 51" the complementary role that is provided by the museum.- Displayed within 'wellhlit - ' I glass cases, the faces of the war dead look out hauntingly at the ==visitor from _. , .. :fi-r , ti photographs, accompanied by detailed life-stories, the citcr‘imstanc'cs of their ':heroic” technology of destruction and personal sacrifice that was I‘qulII'EEl references the deaths, and a variety of personal effects (helmets, blood-stained uniforms,i'field if pouches, letters, and so on). Whether the dead are commanders, soldiers, pilots, sailors, or field nursesm—all casualties and all enshrined as divine spirits—what is stressed repeatedly is the spiritual bond between the Japanese family and its nation, one that even survives the finality of death. . _ In 1995, fifty years after the war, the Yfishfilcan’s exhibits were designed so that a visitor’s last impression came from a display of (what is usually called in English) the military’s “suicide squads." Ranging from ltamiltaae pilots to one—mien speedboat bombs to the bizarre bomb-on-a-pole divers sabotaging. baring-abound; sh_ips,~_ the l2Class-ell war criminals were the. top leaders who, at the Tokyo and Nuremberg war tribunals, were charged with crimes against humanity and were held personally responsible for actions carried out under their authority. obligatory relatihns'hip of citizens to their nation and emperor. The museum, shrine, and conservative politicians argue that Japan has survived intact precisely because of these individuals who were so willing to take literally the imperial drrecttve to offer yourself courageously [should emergency arise]" (Hardacte 1989, 12.2). The priest guiding me through the museum noted, “[t}hat is the problem with usrng the English word ‘snicide’ to describe these actions. These people were not desperate or mentally unbalanced; they freely surrendered their lives that the nation might live” (Nojiri, toui comments, 1995). The photographs of: young men juxtaposed with the one—man submarines, light weaponry, and lighten-planes displayed within the museum’s ' rotunda (used “with love and care” by the “deities of the shrine,” according to a shrrne brochure [Bururna 1994, 222]), celebrates a community of idealistic heroes and heroines, one standing in stark contrast _to the selfishness and materialism of Icontemporary Japan that awaits just outside the shrine's precincts (see fig. 1). ---u-\.wu I-—'\.'\.I.——-—-— |_. ._____—....,W rifle JoHN NsLsott secret istsitoar- as sires-i easctice 45? A number of. people with whom I spoke upon exiting the "museum felt the” least they could do is'to honor the spirits of the war dead enshrined at Yas'ukuni. As a man in his late twenties put it: “I read about the situation when the enemy's aircraft carriers were attacked by kamikaze, but right now I can’t imagine; hCinth}? 'co'tild "do it: Personally, I don't have that kind of courage. But, ohiithe“ other handll wonld like to}; is know more about the young people’s thoughts and feelings of that time” (Nelson 1 199?). This feeling to acknowledge more fully the sacrifices bf the military dead and I ‘1' politicians with the Central Association :of Shinto Shrines, the Bereaved Families' ;;,-,flssociation ,(Iaoku—kai), and numerous 'veterans’ organizations. The apology was finally ejiisshed from the prime ,minister’s office withont Diet approval. Even without iii‘cnnsehsus, phrases such as “acts of aggression" and-‘"colonial rule" were edited out at eel-1e insistence of right-wing politicians (Green 2001, 95-96). Forces opposed to the I i l 1 _ _ ;r___rl_1e_lassistant head priest at Meiji Jingfi (where the spirit of the Meiji emperor is educate oneself about the circumstances of the time is precisely whatean' lead a. qii‘enshrined) and endorsed by TU percent of;'I.DP members in the Diet, collected more motivated individual to encounter other parts of the-"Ya'siiktini conunuiiity.’lti' this than. five million signatures (“The Japan: that Cannot Say Sorry” 1995, 31). Their Ffigflrd: 3“ and? [if Pfllitical acriflfl ETDUPS labflfl “3 C911???“ CUfiUEil-‘Y flfldfifllpethy? reasoning was that, since the war was fought in the emperor’s name, to apologise for lfltfl flCtiViEm and. Pfltfflflflgfii subsumed Within a more broadly enctittlpassing]i ll" '1: would be unthinkable because of the chain of associations that this one rEdemPtiVE PWCESS flbflut the were its 1633129: and the she-ping Pf rflclfil acknowledgment would initiate. To use their own words, “individuals can apologise, the Japanese people. u 3 _'__,_,_._.,_,I ,;._. 'f' not nations” (Nelson 199?}. The anti-apology coalition was also present at the m ' " ' ' - ' ' = rally_£or..the Asian Symbiosis Festival-Lin Tokyo on 29 May 1995, which "thanked tithe war “dead and praised Japan for its contribution to the independence of Asian "gs: countries" .(McCormack I996, 2T4). y, ' f; 5' Further subverting the (Social Democratic) prime minister’s efforts to pass the apology referendum, a number of LDP cabinet officials not only visited Yasukuni Shrine, but the party issued its own statement one hour after the prime minister’s highly ig'fanticipated press conference during which he issued the first official apology for the ,, 'i'eonsiderable suffering that Japan had caused to its Asian neighbors. The LDP statement, Rwhile acknowledging the need to learn from the "lessons of history," conveyed no direct 'iiapologry {usigg instead the word hearei [to reflect upon peat actions]), nor did it raise ,ssiies of compensation or mention aggressibn in any way. Echoing the Meiji emperor’s "lifii'd's when he gave Yasukuni its name, the EDP statement expressed gratitude to the -. ,,':-,-._-; nation’s "war heroes, upon whose sacrificefJapan’s modern prosperity was built” 'u' conflicting Messages of Apology and Praise" 1995, 1}. When looking for key players and strategistsin the 1995 commemoration and I = 'ology controversy and in the ways social memory is engaged at the highest levels . “Irv-1 . ._ . r:. ‘1‘...“ , _ . ' ...|.- F I , . _ ...1_. _, _ . .1 .“n- .._. 11._ _ _ -. . '1. ' _ '. - ' ' I. - 1-' a 1 -._- _ - F- 1.12"” "-._‘ur :- " "' " - .- 1--..-.._ .1 ., :.'I'I Moral Comm-undid“: of ' Since at least 196?, postwar Japanese governments have been engaged in , promoting and acknowledging this “sanctified, and “richly eymbolic community fife spirits despite constitutional injunctions prohibiting these'attentions. Article 20 of".-;-; the constitution stipulates that a representative of the state cannot pay tribute at a"! religious institution without violating the principle of seeseeeeet religion and stare-i; : (Haldane 1939: 144% All the eerie, erert tear er erhefstsiii55‘h3idi1tt.iiilis?astral-i ' Japan’s surrender), a number of prime ministers, members ofgth'e officials have paid their respects at the'j'shrine, despite the“ uproar that these visits cause. On 22 April 1975, Primei'Minis'ter Takeo became” the first_postwar prime minister to visit Yasukuni; after that, Prime Ministers 'Fukuda:;.,; Takeo, Dhira Masayoshi, Suzuki Zenkde' Nakasone Yasuhi'ro, Hashimoto Rem.am1 mag: most recently, Koiaumi Junichird, have followed. Not only do their visits flaunt constitutional restrictions, but they evoke prewar days when the shrine was-“a state-23:, sponsored institution and received visits from Meiji, Taishti, and Shfiwa emperors”; {seventy-two times in all}; members of the Imperial family (over one thousand visits); and top governmental and military leaders (Nojiri, tour comments, 1995}. Worship at Yasukuni is thus ntver "simply" personal as some- politicians occasionally claim as they sidestep the constitution.” In 1990, had been attempted I I numerous times before, then .-Socialist Party chairperson Doi- Takako proposed a '_i1sh of reporters and television cameras |[see Nelson 199?), but this was nothing binding referendum to acknowledge the nation's wartime responsibility. Prime _ :mpsred 1:0 Elm mrdifl attention given rdhifi Visit in J 1113? 1996 after hfiflflmiflg primt‘ Minister Murayama Tomiichi’s'coalition government tried to. pass the resolution ,3 r' " lnistet. time for the fiftieth anniversary of the end of the war, only to meet considerable i»; Well known for his intransigent style and tough talkiin Japan and for a 1994i opposition from an alliance that joined leading Liberal; Democratic; _ airliner) 'i'; etatement that the question of Japan’s aggression in the war was a matter of “delicate ' i I " I - ? Jfinitions,” he answered a reporter’s question about the legality of the 1996 visit the following statement: "Why should it matter any more? Surely it is time to letting that sort of thing [Yasukuni visitation and worship] complicate our 1. ..I .I- . a ilpositions as head of the International Trade and Industry Ministry and as LDP party ' 'eha'irman. Often overlooked, however, was his third position: chairman of the Bereaved Earnilies‘ Association. Hashimoto’s 1995'L visit to Yasukuni played to a predictable 1'3’In 1995 eight cabinet ministers used state—provided t'rahsportation to goi'to-li'asukutll and sis: registered at the shrine using their official titles, despite then Prime Minister Mute,- -* , ~ _ I _ _ _ , , , pal-113's PIE-a that the}: distance themselves-Ifmm activities; 313-1th ' = fltflrflfltlflflfll falfltlflfls. F'flu 35k Same qUEStlDfl IfI 5hfl'Lfld attend a Chflfitlflflh the}r represented were some of the meet ritel'erseer i'fl the-sererofireflrel bails? narrates yle wedding ceremony? I also observe Buddhist rituals when I take part in funerals Trade and Industry, Transportation;Construction-eHome Affairs,sManage'mentrands-.Eootdl, ;' '.'-"'- -'=itgmplgs,. _ .f'. (*‘Hgghimflm Visits Yflgukflni,”jgpgg Time, 30 July .1996, P, 4), By nation, Environment, Agriculture, Forestry and"Fishetiies,and—Dbl'ensei'Thefidncation'minirtfll ':- '- - ' s . . u . f . . . . .-,-. ,- -.-. _, a 1n the tell ion card be referenced the ta matism o reh tous tactices in would have also attended had he not been embroiled in controversy-lover 'a' remark-made one}?~ - ' g g ’ p g g p August to the effect that whether or not the war was one of aggression “depended on one.- film“: Where SPECIfiC Sltuatmflfi' take Plum-CY fiver £1133? dflcmflal '3“: therfllfldlcal way of thinking" (“Conflicting Messages of Apology and Praise," Yeatiari Shiealwa, 15 august Ehuntlaties. His visit also fulfilled a vow to the Bethavecl Families’ flSSDClfltlDfl and P.- 1).- _ .I: 1." the first official visit by a prime minister since Nakasone’s controversial visits in _____...r.._._....-.'..... .. . . —r-I-r-| -—-I—_I-1-rI-rI-rrrrrI-rI_-r-rI-rl-r1-I-I—l-I anti JDI—IN Nstan' ” _ f - sneiAI. Mrsmnaria's mun. r'aacrice £159 1933 and 1-985! (Neil-ti, rnur cninments 1-9951-1‘i "Ar- fni'niejg.-.- -: 3' - ‘ . . '2' PrefeCture,'Shiraishi #5)}:Iihflfihfiggfljfi:flp‘flchegp r t; 1 A I 1513003 fer the ICll'CilS- 0f mare Empaisn'fs'traws? that-..pmea 5- “gust-'Cmmemflrfltms interests nf the Bereaved Families’ 'Assntiatinn'{Ki'thhatatl-'9‘93tfsthia1t'd:thihjfifit1 Nelsen 1999). What he is really painting tn is hnw a pnlitician can easily Explnit t‘fi ,_ . . . . _ , - . . . . . _ . .- ., 1 A , ‘ cnntinniflg emntinn'al and PSFthic Pull that is exerted it‘ll-the spirits nf the war 0n 5 “gut every year Yasujtu'm braces fur (andt I think’ Embraces) What the thrnu h the medium nf Yasulcuni'Shrine and nther memnrial . :. . . _ -_ _ ,. The recent 11 rnttr nve'r Prime hrl‘n'1 tiK '2 A ' St 2001 It ‘ LC"— " a fiddhm mild“ at” 315” “writs 1“ the Shunt-'3 tall”: 3 “THE at the End 0f Summer _ i "is e - ni urnis- u t .- ,_ . , , - I _ _ I i _ p ' -' -- 51-1-3 e -- ’ are 2092' __ catinn tn acknnwledge a family s relatinnship tn its ancestral spirits, cnupied with ' priest described tn me as "nut. annual circus." The added resnnance nf the -| .- and January 2003 visits prnvides annther case study-in thi-g‘flflgning relatinnship . . .- - between religinn and the state. Knizumi annnuncedtpn lj May 2001~(a littlfi Dirge nne mnnth after being named prime miriister):_,__ilfln;{_niatteg:_;iif-'_l.-I ,3ng undgf Lflthineland nnstalgia that evnkes the cultural and spiritual essences nf what it means japanese. As we nnted earlier in this discus'sinn, calling 15 August a "circus" criticism 13mm nther n t. I . . . . .. . .- . ,._, , _,,_ _ . .. _"'t"iiikes,_,t3,_l,11e shrine’s hiatnry- and status". as a plate nf spectacle—finm its huge festivals a t I I - -- I I- -- I' - I - .' 1:35 arr-fist I IIIL- .t 1- I 1" ' I ..l'. - I II I t "S y " Y rest-tetra mt DEE it "Eta "DEE mg; ...El's';-1.t3:.tt3dttttltt 1.“ the Years befnre 1945 nf hnsting pageants and parades tn its sumn I '....-':,IJ-.,_,_‘I tn war fnr their families and fnr the cnuntty . . . and maketitcleatt'thanUdptahjtwiis' fl I] n:- I l ' I _ I a a - _-'._. 'l_-..-'. _ I. :__ I I -_ ' ...-E Elf?- ‘ I. I i I . I flatter g wag? war t szuml salts HE W111 rtrlflt-Yasukum Shrine “t1 Augufll -;' This IS‘tl'lE day when mnst cabinet ministers and nther pnliticians pay their 15’ Jfipfl mitt 15 .Mflt 2.001’ P' 9' On 11 July” ht fflflmlteeffi. familiar :“ttttdtttttlit t 1' {usually in mid tn late afterrinnn), when media frnm all nver the wnrld cnme nne referencing nfficial sncial-memnry abnut the war, by explaining that "I Haggai .. .. . . . . - . . . . , .. _ _ a! """ii'rerify hnw militaristic the Japanest still are by filming aging veterans in unifnrm make a visit as prime minister because japan s return tn prnsperity was'helped by th " ' ' . , ,, H , _, I, , , , _ ,2. fiftiirching-raggedly tn bugle calls and barked cnmmands, and when the trucks nf right- Sflfltfices at nut 50,1dlefl ( Emma-u m ,Hflnm war Dead? _M‘tmtt’§t St’ttttt’mt 11-} a“ ya grnups equipped with stadium speakers cnnverge en the shrine blasting patrintic 2001’ p‘ 4% Cflmlflg at 3 “mg 0f CDDSIdEEabIE mfltmtflst filter 25 Ptflpflttd tttttbtltli - tit-“"3 and slngans. (The pnrtrait nf right-wing paramilitary members seen in fig. 2, ' .I ..I L' I. _ -__:_‘ ~13; fnr middle-schnnl students lnng nii natinnalistic pride and revisinnist views nf histn' _, -'*‘ (see Nelsnn 2002), criticism frnrn bnth dnmestic and internatinnal snurces grewg-"F‘" .' * ' t ' '- fl . i n - - .' ~ ' heal-Ed that szuml fiflfille‘d hit tflw With *1 t"Jul-"131' 15‘“- Vltlt tin .13 Augutt Bl" Elm... HiThese are sideshnws cnmpared tnthe main event, when nver eighty nrganiaatinns, 50’ hflwever’ he appeal-Ed m irritate Evfitynfle' .Etlfltettattv‘t bad??? fall: 35 _ .. the Sntiety Hnnnring the Gltirinus War Dead (Eirei ni kntaeru kai) tn the he FBPItUIHtEd “3 ftltttgfgtlemtfldt-t? flbflfldfil Families’ Assnciatinn, file in and nut nf the shrine’s inner sanctuary fnr {Utflgn and dDmESIiIE critics were 'turinus that the visit '"dccurred nail, and Event? -..'*-: services tn cnmmemnrate patticular cnmmunities nf war dead. Prntests frnm Ptltttt ltt YHSUkttttl “’Fte . ., , H grnups alsn nccur nn this day, but these grnups are nnt allnwed nn the Pttfltltttflg a lt’t-ttlfi‘tfltltltJl at We” 35 making the Ptt'P'tt numb'tt t't Eta]?t and t" precintts. They must pnsitidii themselves at the shrine’s public entrances nr appmpflflte m venemfiflg dfiitifi at a Shrine (Katatfl-l‘lt- 2.901: Bl- Filth-11?; fit What tn badger ritual prnceedingst'i'Jsing lnudspealters frnm the rnnftnp nf a nearby Pm“? m be a very Interest-mg Ease tearing legal 'PIECEdEflts 5E: by the Supreme CB t ltifit'Etsity (Nelsnn 199?}tlfi Shrine administratan attempt tn ignnre all criticism frnm 111 19.97. the Prim? miFlttEt watt-“Pd “1 Ottflt’tt 2.001. 133’ 3 StD'I-ll't 13t- 639 Ptfllfltltt’g, _ gganiaatinns such as the Japanese ChristianIChurch nr the Cnmmunist Party that fnr vinlating cnnstitutinnal restrictinns nri the separatinn nf religinn' and the stat; ' ' (“Prime Minister Sued fnr Shrine Trip,” Meiirtrhi Shaman, 1 I i I I I I I I ‘ ._ _ .. -:-:._..1-._.:-.--1-1.-:-.E--IL H; ..:.._-«:.I-__.I.r__ld—._. I‘.‘ I I l I I II I KnitUHtl 5 “5”: 35 we” .35 Hathtmflt” 5 “t 1996! Ytttfitt thfltitlttlt’ttt the tt’ttttt‘t’ttt-l Juntapnsitinn nf snrriber and festive mnnds cnmpnses the atmnsphere nf the day, tear m and Year flutt‘t'tl‘ttukum "-Shflnetreceltef[giltht‘tt'fi'tltt‘tt‘ftlte‘twati'ttlttutt'ifttlth' ' -. 'L1_1;-.-.1-.--v-Tas duly impressed by the nu'riibet nf special—interest nrganiaatinns that were membttt tit tht LDP ttltt than dtft't ttlt‘ill-fitttlfl-t-ttltltt-ttlltttlllt"-2543,; a ._ ,, ymitted by the shrine tn cnngregate alnng its wide central apprnach {beginning at "t an the map). Each nrganiaatinn "dispensed infnrmatinn related tn “new” histnrical j" Ettpectives abnut the war in the fnrm nf bnnlts, bingraphie's, pamphlets, newsletters, i ten fnrth, with nne grnup shnwing its cninrs via nriginal paintings nf battle scenes 'L~-_ iittterans. The visitnrs’ center (see nn. 11 nn map, Iaheled "Hall nf Arrival”), where ' i' -.'. 5.. .-"e. H :1" FD tn "Ii-'1"? ' befnre the central hall'nf wnrship, includes 'a tangent fashinn, ages, and .1- i-Ii J_ nr seek tn tindn, in the wnrds nf Pierre Bnurdieu, the “cnnditinns nf felicity” -_. I": 'I_ .- _. " 116) that legitimate the shrine’s sacraliaing perfnrmances. mTn thnse Asian natinns nnce nccupied by the }apanese military, Hashimntn's visit in the wnrds nf nne Chinese editnr, “gratuitnusly nfl'ensive” {"Hashimntn's Prnvncativt jflpflfl Time, 30 Jul? 1996, p. 16).S_uch'is the cnetcive pressure nn pnliticians tn pay visits tn Yasulcnni that nne schnlar, De Shinnhu, likens it me seventeenth-centurytest nf which fnrced individuals tn step nn an-image nf Jesus nrrhiaryltntprtive that they were Christian (a practice called fertile). Official visits tn Yasnlgupi,,have hecnrne a similar tesr'jggti lnyalty and allegiance fnr many ambitinus LDP pnliticians {QfiJJI-Qfifiliyg), _. _ _‘_ ljKniaumi received a green light fnr his “surptist'tiiiiit't'itirit‘I’Blfihjgust4fthmttliithtathfit _ the Bereaved Families' Assnciatinn, the Ianku-kai. The reasnning was simpleg..-:theeBHQlfihli. , .e- _ lt-Knbayashi Takasulte lists a number nf religinus grnups that have traditinnally nppnsed Wfi’klfld nf Yasulcunilcentered mnvemeiit {19?9, 10340): the United Shinshi'i Assnciatinn; MyE-shinji wing nf the Rinaai Zen, andmsectarian Buddhist grnups including Ni- ttittfn, J edn, and Tendai; sect Shintn grnups such as Gmntn-kyn and Tenri-kyn; newer religinus i such as P. L. Kyndan arid Risshfi—knsei-kai; Japanese Christian and Cathnlic hnliday nf stair runs ftnm 1?; tn 16 August, and sn any acknnwledgmerit'ttithddtiparted _ r _ _ L during this perind was acceptable tn the lankunkai ennstitiiency. The "advice came hem-$1? ' 'Ziltc'hes; Lutheran and japan Baptist Chhrches; the YWCA; plus the Japan flssnciatinn nf deputy president tit the Isnku-ltai, Knga Maltntn, fnrmerly' the secretary..generalpftlle. _ affitl-iginusflLegders. An annnymnus reader has alsn pninted nut the nppnsitint'i nf nne nt the Knga aisn-attended a delegatinn tn China'in early flugust, led by fnrmer LDP Secretary . teeth: and pnlitically attive grnups, the I-Iahanya Taikai (Mnthers' Cnngress), fnrmed Hirnmu Nnnaka, tn cit-plain tn the Chinese leaders the ratinnale and importance anniaurI'itlfl " * stat-195w (see alsn Salturai and “01131113, 1991). At the 1995 cnmmemnratinn, the shrine visit ("Knga Guided Kniaumi’s Decisinn nn Yasukuni 1'Wnrship Date, Methnd," Yerer'eri {3.x- _r an amplified tirade ftnm the rtinf nf a nearby Ht'isei University building with equally the, 10 August 2001, p. 1)., - t I 1:?” ,j teplittin'g (althnugh apprnpriately snmb'er) patrintic music. I.- l-M11-tt-i_-i_-i_-_-i...-i._...-.-..-.. . ... -.. .--n.---- i.-- "'\u' --—-.--- -- -u-J-Ia_ -"—l—I—I'-'l'I-I'I'l-l—l-'-I'l—I'I-I—F'I |.'i.|1..-__|._ _ ..............-....__. —|-u-5.u—i---.-.- .. . . ........._- ' 'sncIaL-hsnnat as aéi'ruar. PRACTICE . 461 . _ . a. i‘ferii'ains"and‘shiruting pensinns fnr familiesi'whn inst relatives, the grnup has becnme -.-mai_ie pnlicy .nriented since 1956.13 Althntigh nstensiblv'a private nrganiaatinn, the .-=Bereaved Families’, Assnciatinn has nccupied'ihince 195]r a building nwned bv the ‘_ r-’:'-.'.;.Weifarie Ministry and leased tn the grnup free; nf charge (Hammnnd 1995). That was -.mughly the saithelltime that the leadership nf the 1,300,000-hnusehnld Ianku-kai = ‘e began calling cm the empernr, the prime minister, and his cabinet, as well as generals ' '"the Self-Defense fnrces, tn attend Yasukuni's spring and fall festivals, just as "they did befnre the war. In 1969, wnrlting” in clnse cnncert with the Ixnku-kai and ':-';he Central Assnciatinn nf Shintn Shrines, the LDP intrnduced a bill (Yasukuni hfian) to grant state suppnrt tn the shrine nnce m'nre, specifying that, althnugh the shrine’s .purp'nse was tn aner rites fur the snuls nf the war dead, its service tn the natinn shnuld '__'place it abnve being classified as a religinus insritntinn, which wnulcl then permit inflicial visitatinns frnm the empernr and prime-minister (see Murakami 1974; O’Brien 199.6). Althnugh this bill was defeated fiveétimes (1969—72 and 1974), the lxnkutkai ;_has-'lnnt changed its gnals but, rather, has develnped new tactics and wnrking relat'innships in the 1980s tn further these :and nther agendas.” _-.Annther kev nrganixatinn in league 'jwith Yasukuni Shrine and listed as a subnrganitatinn within the Central Assnciatinn nf Shintn Shrines is the Shintn seiji :_.-.--renmei (League prnmnting ties between pniitics and Shintn, usually abbreviated as 'Shinseiren). Started in 196? tn help facilitate passage'nf the Yasultuni hnan legislatinn, the Shinseiren is anything but secretive abbut its agenda. The first gnai is tn respect grand hnnnr the imperial hnusehnld. Next, it wants tn "cnrrect” the reiatinnship between g-g'J-‘pnlitics and religinn. Within the Shinseiren, the Grnup fnr'Cnrrect Gnvernment 1' 1': ' 'F _- _' ;_=;.' ' f‘iiMuraitami nntes several turning pnints fnii'increased interest in reviving what he sees as if:- a kind nf pnstwar state Shintn {19?4, 209—10}."_In each example, the Ianku-ltai played signifi« i-Fcant rnles. The first was the fifty-ninth perindic rebuilding nf the Ise Grand Shrines in 1953 (the year that thenccupatinn ended), which awnke and helped fncus the fervnr nf the Central ‘ '- ,, .._-.-hssnciatinn nf Shintn Shrines, religinus lav grnups, and ,the right wing. As a bv-prnduct nf ' I" "this event, the Irnku-kai increased its nrganiaatinnal capacities. In 1955 the chief priests nf all _ natinn-prntecting shrines had a meeting at Yasukuni tn devise plans fnr the shrine becnming fiiifa public rather than religinus insritntinn, which was suppnrted in 1956 by an Iankuakai __ _ ' 1 f-ficnnference. In 1962 the empernr attended an Ianku-lcai meeting, a precursnr tn his participatinn _ _ __ ,—,_,:._,.___,, _. ' i,':;-;'_in afihuge cnmmjb'mnratinn ritual fnr the war dead in 1963 nn the grnunds nf Yasultuni (Large Figure 2* Right‘wiflg Parmilitflry members paging-Hat dial; Egg-1992, 1*1'3-3}. ‘Nnrr'na Field nntes annther landmark piece nf legislatinn, the reign-pame law nf Shrimp 1;,th from fluthmis Cfillflctiflfl " ' ' .'_- "--__-1:. 1'__9?9, in which the years are knnwn bv the reign,_.pame nf the current empernr: Snverergntv ;, - ;-. _, .* mag-reside with the penple,” she writes, "but time-1's measured by the lives nf empernrs” (1991, 2154;:see alsn Runfififlfll). I _ _. a i ' ' i 'li'liJne nf thdsie vital relatinns-hips is with the Central Assnciatinn nf- Shintn Shrines Uinja Hnnchfi}, whnse nvert business is tn manage japan's eighty-'thnusand-plus shrines and tn certify.r pr'iestl}l prnmntinns, frnm the must juninr tn the mnst seninr head priest. At the level nf .-..-;. a"1211:1earances, Yasukuni Shrine is nnt a fnrmal member nf the Jinja 'Hnnchfi because nf Yasu- "l't'unifs .advncacy nf renewed state suppnrt fnr its religinus activities {Murakami 19m, 219}. Havertheless, all priestly appnintments are made with the tacit cnnrdinatinn nf the jinja Hnn- thfi, land I believe nnthing happens at the shrine withnut its acquiescence and cnnsultatinn. Ihrnugh its weekly newspaper, the f filth Swath-the Central Assnciatinn attempts tn ntchestrate hntjnnlv the religinus and sncial agendas nf shrine Shintn institutinns natinnwide but alsn tn direct natinnal shrine pnlicv an as tn suppnrt pnlitical cnnservatism and the cnntinuitv and Stability that it prnmises (Creemers 1963}. These pnlicies aim tn prntect the interests nf the tinterall shrine cnmmunitv, especiailj,r regarding prnpnsed revisinns in the Religinus juridical ___~,_I’_ersnns Law which 'wnuld cnmpel religinus institutinns tn reveal their finances publicly. hum 'i'ifihinri Kv-‘fi (Supreme truth) and the satin gas attacks in 1995 can be partially blamed fnr this, _ light-1t withnut hum and the tangible threat tn the natinnal pnlitv that it prnvided, nencnnser- "“"‘i'ative nrganiaatinns such as the Jinja Hnnchfi .wnuld nnt have gained the suppnrt frnm pnli- “ ' _ ticians and the general public that they did. - I - .. L'nli' grnups assemble befnre entering the inneri'shrine fnr memnrial rituals, alsn nfl'ered it»: abundance nf free literature frnm suppnrting grnups as well as the shrine itsel' .” Fnremnst amnng these memnrializing cnmmunities is the Bereaved Families’ Assnciannn. Fnunded in 1947 {as the Nihnn Ianku Knsei Renmei, nr "Assnciatinn fnr :5- the Welfare nf Families nf War Casualties") fnr the express intent nf repatriating ,;._2 “£315 a representative, but by nn means exhaustive, list, here are a few ni' the grnups permitted tn affiliate themselves with the shrine: Citizens’ Cnuncil tn Preserve Japan {Nihnn n mamnru knkumin kaigi, nnw called Nihnn kaigi}, the Assnciatinnlnf Believers___in_the Mat- velnuslj.r Revealed Teaching nf' the True Buddha (Hnngei Hail-ibnj-dnsliikail,f"the Ash - .-| . '.. snciatinn tn Awaken the Japanese 'Piubiic (Nihnn minankti"iral¥tiisei""hb" kai}, 'the""hll-Japan Alliance nf 1War Cnmrades (Zenknltu senyfi rengnkai), the Memnrial Fnundatinn nf the Sacred - and Virtunus Shnwa Empernr (Shnwa seitnku kinen aaidan), the Assnciatinn nf the japanese _ Hnmeland (Snknku Nihnn nn kai}, the fill-Japan Assnciatinn nf Navy Veteran's (Kaikflkai ::.;;.-»- Zenknku rengfikai), and the Assncia inn fnr the Prnmntinn nflthegNatinnal Flaglana-Hfighem .3;- {Knkki knkka suishinkai)_ - - -- - -. . - . -. . ‘-'—"——-—a.-\.-I-.-.-a. |.-...-\._.. ..-\. _.-.-.-\..-\.- I. . -l.- r ,____-...- . I _ . -..u.|._|__...- . _. -- .....______._—_..u.._. --r-—|-rI-I-l-I-I ._._.....____‘__._..._....... . I . _ _ _ __ ‘hufiIl-_'\.- .-| . ' " J UHN NELSUN ' soC'iaL'iiiiasioav as xiii-oar. Paactrca . 463 ""i.l;::_,_-and_'-winnin g a preliminary game in the 200? World Cup) have grown that will further f; reshape the terrain of social memory and cultural identity within national contexts. Additiflnflflyl it believes that. the my Inf National andfflg an 11 Fabrm (émm; Commemorative -?Dl1tiCS to Come hitters-Eu) should be an occasion complete 'with ceremouiES:._atrended- by politilrians at:E “1:35”le Shl'lflfi‘ (similar In the late-1945 CEfEmflflY CallEd 'é'fgwutw [BRIDE 2001]). .I, l could assume logically that institutions such as Yasukuni Shrine or Finally, it wants to create a new and specifically Japanese iconst'itutio'ri,"“correiirl’ that} a: linrga'niaations such as the Bereaved Pamilies'; Association-and others listed above should national educational curriculum, and promote prosperity and happiness among the; fiihave developed a more critical attitude toward state wartime policies. The staggering .l 5113311353 PEflPlE l3? Cflfltflbfltiflg t0 the peace-nil coexistence offithe Japan'eseiwithjiiirhléili‘ _.;:_ civilian and military losses alone, not to iiiention the. destruction of Japan’s major peoples in the world {Shinspiren __1I_99§,13see| also‘lflelsoniZOGUa). ' __ _ ,“r 1’ Elfi-citips, would seem to warrant a detailed reevaluation of how the nation's defeat and Of course, lithe-:33suffering-- of' its people came about} 'We have seen, however—through the is essential to further, these objectiveii'i Kalli-libilrthaltl l _.,_intg.lrvention of spirit—calming rituals and alirhfltifll I'flEIIlDl'Y 0f fEfil-Efllptiflfl CEfl’EEfECl 011 subotganiaation, the Shinseiren Kokkaigin Kondankai, which-is basicall}r all of these llYflSiUkUfll—hflw the 1955 and human “Elli-"f 3 war dUES 110* flacessafll)’ engendflr *1 Diet members who publicly subscribe tn the aiming—mantignad agenda, nurtures these 5-5" ti-s-if'éwidespread distrust of those policies and institutions responsible. More generally, the connections. Representing both the House of Representatives and the House of ilIth-Wllml {timid regarding thfi Pal-‘lfi‘: wards; dECldEle mil datflmlflfllll’fi' in Shaping Councilors, the Knkkaigjn Kandankflf- bgasfit-fif hwy-fig? Piper. 133 members in this-..., K'E'Ilcrucial emotional, psychological, political, or religious referents needed to provide group who are, according to its December1993-13ublicationfthe "pipeline for realizing "i: mailing abflut the war and its Cflflsequmces' Ifldl‘llduals can and Will ball“? What our goals“ (Shinseiren 1993). eylithey Want or, perhaps more accurately, what they need. It Shfluld mine as nu surprise that_Japflfl.5 recent. aim-istgfimfl'fl Yflshim; I,Yasukunl's rituals of enshrinement, its jcommemorative events, and its sanctuaries was addressing Shinseiren’s thirtieth anniversary .. illhfilding libel-military dead help mmflt‘ifllmflze 5mm memflries and attitudfis that he delivered his controversial remarks {for which he apologizedbub-which ifltfidhfilll' $053?th ParthlPatEd in t1“ war dildwm 5ILil?‘3"53":l”P-"-3l the ldfifllflgl’ bEhlfld ltfl retracted);th Japan is a divine flatigfl-g with the.Iigmpfimfigflitg;ggfipép:"g'HiéfiifltE, goals __(iflclpdipg liberation from ,polisnial powers and a vast coprosperity predecessor, Obuchi Keizfi’ had set thy, mne far 'b'gl'a gtgggeflts Di: _thi5j_haturel ___r " spherp)._‘:l"his dispussiop has alsof‘i'idted how the shrine’s religious practices suggesting to Titus magazine that Emp'erbr Hirohiro should be nominated as person ll‘lllmlnfln blames m an_ Impermfll’ Sflflclmflfid “atlfln‘smte and tweak Cmmrflfll’ of the century (Symonds 1999). ' _ pecific emotions and beliefs about agencyi'5and the spirits of the military dead. Until his selection as foreign minister for the Hashimoto cabinet, Obuchi chaired vi I h caning (“It gaze Dutwfld’ we can rflcfignize the Yasukufli Visage in Dther glflbfll the Association of Diet Members Willingto Visit Yasultuni Shrine. Once in power, Frill-“m m WhICh IEIJEIW tracll'imfls, .flrfi Emclflrfld SE” 1533,1315 “3 flgen‘lfls Pf ' ' mpowerment. The Christian Coalition in the United States, Hindu nationalists in he named to his own cabinet three individuals who, like himself, were intimately , 1 . f. _ _ , I associated with the movement to reposition the shrine within the nation’s political I élgdla’dIEEmI-Z undflfinifiihfinswmldmjaflr h1§_hll’n}'“‘=fl1:ll Vfltlrlms 31.91155 It: lb: consciousness: one served as chair of the.Shinseiren,'another as it's secretary general," ,_- 1,, fulfil mg Gm’ E. Ila: tare: 3:. hllstmfll? 1 1115's,? Elf Eflfitmnfi “f” 3 1E” and a third as vice chair of the .Iaoltu-lcai. After the ,solid victory of legislation ' D lug tflflumess’ walmlzauflfl’. an a 1g "Fir ca mg 3311:1111le Y E lgmus. val ues' remgflizmg thg “'5ng sun flag and gym?” anthem 3-5 Jpfiénigyaffififlléfifiéhmfi fibuchi - although advocated by a relatively small— percentage of the overall population, the n t d dd I _. _. I 3.: .. . ,. i . :renchant positions of these groups are portrayed as representing the heart and soul EamEaEHFD fl FEES til]: Yflsukum Ewe Ill 5‘15"“ 1999’ Chmf Cflbmflt. Slcrltatll-tll of the contemporary nation. When their_r_tin‘iing and tactics are right, they often {1:23 the gig: all]? Y gg?SEd Elfinsgmekseplmtflfathfi 501113 Ell: w: Erlménall "net-teed in stealing the media spotlight and reaching international audiences. semi vernmefltalmbl Eating? a; t lit Yaw kum. gm DEE a339,}, a??? E 'l;-**' _' To categorize this defining and defending of values as backward-looking AL, 5; 1999 1 [D Y :1 It: Jurisgoflflsu um 3’3 _ml£l‘lm’ nationalism or religious filndamentalisrnf. however, clouds our understanding of a Ell-jive!1999633683“:;:Efifhtmml 31": 3 at Wthil-mlP liq-Jig?“ j,- v-igorous interaction with the present. In a__'religious sense, Lionel Caplan believes that . , _ _ , - _ . _ I all_"_fundanientalisms" are process orientedi- they are consistently engaged with their This proposal met with considerable opposition and was_subsequently shelved, _- enncaptnal adversaries and draw from them key unifying paradigms (1987, 5). but we Shflum flat take this Uutmme E‘s-'3‘- .fiflal dafeal' It-wflslflfifihdfilfifilipafihflglllgfiff ; Conversely, wrapping these groups with the generic flag of “nationalism” does not b? “'3‘” familiar DblECthES thfiPCflflbE fillafifiFl,_l?_flCl{ '33 {HE—Ell»le 1950?- Pllllplllllfillll: , " really work either, as this label obscures more than it reveals about target audiences “if these ideas are Still acrifiléllfifia litheir'd massages, the complex interplay" of symbols and their referents, and the WE“ 3'5 Shrine admifllsuamrl at I l J (iii-ltural systems that preceded their selféconsciously held political ideologies (see conservative priests around the country) are ready and willing to permit affiliations, Andaman 1933I 19y with the shrine. If anything, new organizations (such as the Japanese Society foli. ' if: Because disciplinary predispositions? (and audience expectations) influence History Textbook Reform) and momentum (such as efforts to initiate constitutional"; mathodology and theory, researchers often privilege politics, economics, or social reform, the emergency military preparedness,Hill-{yi'tji hearers hairs], and even hosting-m; 1eonllict as the primary factors that engage. individuals in projects of self-definition, .r_-. ‘ 1 ' -Ii.I- '. -. ._ 'r _ ail-1r "i rI-n.i-.-.-a - -- ..____... ... -._. _ __ -———n—I-r-I-I-I-n-I-r-I—r-q—I-r—I_I.|..|_|_a_ _. . . ...... —--—n—r—u-i_-I__i_._.--. . .-| ' - . l l I -"'J=D"-t JUHN NELSUN 'soniat Man'oav’as airhat ranctica 465 mm lain—t 'I' I ' .._.,_ . PLnN, LIDNEL, ed. 198?. Stnaiiai in Raiigionr Fandamantniism. Albany: State P at? m Ely-an ySr-iivhiie’ Universityr of New York Press. 1 I method or'utheory helps 'me radii-=ifiili‘yitli of relatives, neighbors, and colleagues in a war. Should the tears I'saw streaming do " the faces of men and women as they left Yasulcuni Shrine's 'war museum serve as - verifying the coerced complicity of individuals in shrine and state agendas? Or F a young mother joking with her-childreniupon exitingathe same museum a miere if minutes later suggest other conclusions? Even with tl'i'bfields' of meanings", mornoriii, rituals, and shrine affiliations positioned as I have _guggested, the propagation of th I; *iEihNNEnTDN, PAUL. 1939. HamilSotiatiai' Ramamirar. Cambridge: Cambridge P igfaaamsas, WILHELMLIs H. M. 1963. about Shinto Afiar Waria’ Wm H. Leiden: E. J. Brill. . . ii JUN and KDEDEI KEIICHIED, eds. 1986. Ynsnnnni ronio': Nihon no ohinéon no __ " damn no tnma ni {The Yasukuni controversy: For the sake ofJapan's spiritucalming tit tradition)..Tokyo: Nihon Kyobunsha. is. MEWS 15 Tim 3 “ME? “f “DI-Em“?- 111935149175”::tiiitiiioa~9th Shrine *‘Eomoaa, mama. 1968. Lira: a Angora. [New York} H Smith and a Haas ‘ by}: £1551.“ g thE 51mm sung Hi the. Yfiihfiimil museuiii)IETTTmPlY-fiai. ‘ 195'iizi-Pcprint, New York: Modeifn Library. . i i i i they might at any other Shinto institution. In addition, because-foogogrgpfggglgfififl ; .i i .aEZ-ENANDEZ Jig-{MES W 1986 Parffimbm Ems! Pflfmflm' Tb P! [If ,1, . occurs, they might also manage tostay clear of thgiqgggflgzializifighwebsgnfiyésukufi} - phcflmm filmmiflgmfl: India-1a Utihéfiity Press . a at)! roPaI in religio-political network (see Gerholm 1938). ' . .. ._ . . The active process of gazing'_.-"upon a twentieth-century past {knotted destruction and death (as well as accomplishment and success) encompasses someiii'i the most long—standing and resilient symbols, values, and institutions in Japan'p'ii - . dependent upon whichperspectiveof memory one chooses or is led into. , example of Yasukuni Shrine, individuals can redeem painful personal memories frti :.. historical reckoning, affiliate with the some of the most active and powerful spa-cf? ' Elli-LI}, .NQEMA. 1991. I n tho Ran-rim it"s. Dying Emparor: jnpnn nt Cantory’r End. New iii-'I3YDE1C: Pantheon Books. I filEDMhN, JONATHnN. 1992. “The? Past in the Future: History and the Politics of ifjflldentity.” Amaricnn Anthropoiogist 94(4): 8 3 'i—S 9. ,_ EHDLM, Tomas. 1983. "On Ritual: A Postmodernist View." Ethnos 536—4): 191— " 203. _ ,I _. I}: interest groups in the country, and have all of the above sacraliaed through tit" .-. @Rfiigdgifi: 3531:3394 Nibmjm w Ibflfléfl Uapflnflfl mews Bf death} Tflkym _ practices and events. Simply mention the imperial household or the "giorious ' 1‘ . ' ._ : ~ ' u - . ' . . . . BEN MIcHnnL . 2 . ’ ' ; ‘ ' ‘ ' dead and the discourse further transforms into a moralistic-:fngttglsg prgtected by th vfim’af Ufim mm iflwEEIN‘: $11,120:]? :iijgiijiffie FEZEliffiifg giggfigfl m ‘3” same “divine” spirits. It is""ai"neatlyiself—justifying'iaiid'highl§:'inthmoven compact." ' has g0 far escflpgg any Sgriflus legal. challeflgfl. _ _ I _ _ _ _ gig, ELLEN H. 1995. “Politiiis of the War and Public History: Japan’s Own I The codependent relationshipbetween social and the values and pracfigg FIE-Museum (Ilfipntroverpy.8 Bigiann ofongarrgad doingsgcboinQEZLG):56—613? . I: Shaplfig m apphcatiflfl is dynamic and in _Eflflstam. Ireal-Iigflmmt as... new pfllitigr PELEN. 9 9. into sap-nu _t a tnta. i —19 . rmceton. rinceton Eh Situations develop in Japan and around the wand.’."una1 the-individuals . “New y IESS‘ . , . . ' . I ~ organizations affiliated with Yasukuni Shrine- discover -ali:Efflt1tiVfiE___D1-,flfl h TiiflflflKUMA’ Ed' 1988' Kmdm NTWTTET m Tim”: (Madam Jflpflflfise BUTT? g1 empowering or emotionally satisfying scope, we should not be suffitised that A find the-39115391" $513111)- Tflki’flinEShWfl 311913”- Japan that Cannot Say Sorry.” 1-995. Economist, 12 August, 31—33. Timer. 1996—2901. Tokyo. 3; - I'NDEUYUKI. 1996. “Japan and the Confucian Cultural Sphere.” jnpnn Echo ,___.g3:? 2—13. if i I _II 'NIEHID et a1. 2001. Atnrnrhi 'ranisiri hyonnrho (The new history textbook). shrine continues to provide solace and legitimacy (through its seductive morass? nation, social memory, and the moral certitude oféfit‘ufll.Frag-flag?._:.-...ao:l-.:;:_.-.-:.;_-o--= " '._.--'.:. - 'r.-. . ..n .-.-.,-.-- ._ 5-"... - ‘1 at; f. :_ . r..- ' ' - “Ll'St fif'nREfE re -::_ _.- '- .- {j a ANDEESDN, BENEDICT. 1983. :imnginaai Commnnitiar: Raflactionion tin Origjmrg Sprmdof Nntionniism. London: Verso. Amour. Mans. 1938, “rostrum-Jigs.__aaa___,rs1t_ Religion: The Problem-i” Vengeful Spirits.” Atinn Foiniora Stntiiat'49(1'):12§:%56. _ ' .- _ .'--n-_'- . -L" . s_ ‘ TAR-‘3'- 2001. "Koiaum'i Shrine: Visit Satisfies Neither Side.” flmbi i EShiminn, 15 August, p. 8. - . . ' ‘_-'_-' q. ., :- ‘t‘fih I 'I ’ .'="_-f'r2l'-' :inELnaa, JAMES. 199D. OfHaratirr nnn’ Martyrs in Maifijnpnn. Princeton: Princeton 'I. ‘Yflikusha. .:_ . .._, BELL, CATHERINE. 1992..Ritnni_ Theory, Rimes! Pom-ripe, Oxfgrd Univefii Eiyniversity Press. _ ._ Press. . .. . ._:~i‘i '-. ,___iiHaaa TETSUYn. 1993. Snirnishi Hornni no nannyai (Research on Shiraishi BUUEDIEU, PIEEEE. 1991. Laingnnga rand Matsuyama: Ehime Daigaku. I Thompson. Translated by G1fifl'flfl?iflflfldfififi 7" TnKnEUKE. 1'9?9. Enrnnnni monn’ni: iraan to annnnni noon {The Harvard University Press. - :- " - - ' ' ' - 4 ' problem: The constituting and the laws regulating Yasukuni). Tokyo: __ . PTcrE, EICHDLAS D. 1995. .”Where Japan Deifies its War Dead.” Nam Yarn -_ima.r, 30 July, sec. 5, p. 3. . if ' ...'E.-. STEPHEN S. 1992. Emparor Hirobito nnai Sharon jnpnn: A Poiiticni Biography. ,_ _ Routledge. '. l' I. ‘J’i'rirni Shimonn. 1999—2001. Tokyo. J : :1 .kf: . 'lyl' BEDWN, DELMEE. 1993. "Introduction-:3 In Thagfigmisriiigaofjnpnn: V'o New York: Cambridge University Press. ' '2 2 .. BUEEIDGE, KENELM. 1969. Nam Hanoan, Nam Enrth: A Stnaiy ofMiiiannrinn Action New York: Schocken Books. . _ o BURUMA, Int-J. 1994. The Wages of Gniit: Mamariar of War in Garmnny nndjnfig _, New York: Fartat, Straus, Giroua. :. 1" -......... .aoo JDHN NELSDN .- .sfl'g'iat. Marion? sis RITUAL PRACTTCE 467 . . . ._ l I .1 ._ __ - .I _, .__._ J _ .-I'.-_ - .. . _ _ - . . . --'- - - -, 1 . ._--. _ . -_. I I. I - .' _.-_n.'.rl_ _ I . «5' - . . ' _. .' . F - ---'-I . . _ . I- . ' _ . :- rte: --'--' '. - - ."- '- .--.-'. -- '- '. - -'- - ,‘L.- 43-;- ~ - .-". . .. --: .r-.-. r:. ‘- {-'- 61-“- MATSUG- 20.00. "The .Last NotesioIf the Pilots tang I .iioYIZiER, 1:01.115. 1993. "'World- Wan 11-: In Grofior’r Nero Mnfriosodin Encyclopedia. Death and'Af—terlife." - New York: Grolier’s Incorporatediari'd Online Computer Systems. QMDNthaIg-PETER. 1999. “Obuchi Raises the Banner of Japanese Nationalism.” International Committee of the Fourth International. 2 August. World Socialist Iii“ Web Site. Accessed 12 March 2003' http:ifwww.wsws.orgi'articlesr’l999? _ _ _ . . aug1999l'jap-a02.shtrnl. jiaja no mean ism; (Madam Shrine; FUMITD, ed. 1990. Yorhéooi moadoi Adam-so nonper (A chronology organisations and social regulation). Tokyo: Infanmni Shoten. I. ' I . I II connected to the Yasulcuni problem). Kyoto: Nagata Bunshoolo. MURAKAMI SHIGEYosi-Ir. 19%. Korea Saga-is {state 311mm), Tflkyg'g Iwgfiafiiig as -' 'I‘I'anoana. TDSHIYUKI. 1996. HiddeaIHoi-rori: joposao War Crioror is World War H. Shiasho. - ‘ . - - . - - ' I I . _ _ I'. Boulder, Colo; Westview Press. I - —-—. 1924. Irei ro Moron: Ymoéooi no mist? (Ilnfitingsouls robe pacifiedi ’ESUEDUCHI YUZEJ. 1999. Yomézmi. .Tfllijrfl: Shiflchfishfl- principles of Yasultuni}. Tokgo: Iwanami Shiofiering L' EEISUNDDA Saeunfi. 197?. Yosaéooi Iio ooioeoo {Yasulcuni and spirit appeasement). ' I I " Tokyo: Sanitsu Shobo. .n. . 4.5 .-_II. NELSDN, Jeri-IN K. 1996.21 Yoorffii: obs Lfio rifeESinoroI-Férirro. Seattle: University .. . ail:- Washington Press. 3" ' ._ " I_I. _ ' ' ' ' j___:_;_sna TAEHICHIEG. 19?4. Horizon: semioori oboeoemnio: .ronro so éodoooo ro eyorbi (Our . 1997.]opon’r Rirnolr tyrRoirroororisoro: Fifij; Yoiorr ofior mo ngéflf War. Prflducéi - . young citizen censors: War, children, and education). Tokyo: Taihei Shoppansha. and distributed by John Nelson. 32 min. Videocassette, EI. *‘fliNTER, JAY. 1995; Sim of Memory; Rim of Moorsiag: Too Grasr Wear in Baropson —_. 1999. “Shifting Paradigms of Religion and the State: Implications of iiI CHEW-W! Hfliflifii cambridgfl Cambfidge UfliVEPSiW 139355- 199? Supreme Court Decision-for Social, Religious”, and Political Change. ” 3532559“: ERIC R- 1932- EiimP-‘i iii"?! 3‘53 FEW-‘9 With-9W Him”?— Berkflei’ and L95 1111531351 Asian Sma’ior 33(4):?9?—814. ii iii-rs-University of California Press. I I ——-——. 2000a. Eadarirrg Identifies: Too Gone ofSAmro in Cooroiosgoasflrjgpgm.flfi-fifiluifi s-iijiaéonijinjo. 2002. 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