7.3 - LeSlie Dwyer and Degung Santikarma ‘Speaking from...

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Unformatted text preview: LeSlie Dwyer and Degung Santikarma, ‘Speaking from the Shadows: memory and mess violenoe in Bali’, in Pouligny et a]. Aftet Moss Crime: Rebuilding Stereo and Communities, United Nations University Press, Tokyo, 2007, pp. 190—214. ' COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA Copyright Regofations 1 969 Warning This material has been reproduced and communicated to you by or on behalf of the Univereity of Melbourne pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (the ACE} The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further copying or communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under the fitct. Do not remove this notice —_————|—|—- - .- . I' |.-u_|_- "fbul£9,yI..'BéeMch Mme Citrate/men I 'I axe/scat romaine (are), he has Cass: - it. I_ - IIII.- l u I . 190 H _,_, _ g - . 3L3 Cris?" Wflffi Oi“? a“ I I ' "SPEAKING FROM THE SHADOWS 191 UV} aim/i7 ms; 75%0 QCO7 I _ L I _ . . ' - I I anti~ceinmunist vielence. Between Octeber 1965and March 1966, ep- 8 I I I preximately ene' millien Ihdenesians were killed as alleged cemmunists, . . I , seme 70,000 ethers were imprisened'witheut trial, unteld numbers ef -,_:I ' I i' . , I . II I_II_II wemen were sexually assaulted and hundreds ef theusands et family from - members ef these killed er' imprisened were stamped with the label ef ' . . . . _ _ “unclean envirenment” (rides: bersiii iingiciingen) and deprived ef basic 01611101“)? and mass VIOlenCe 111 Ball civil- rights until the fall ef President Suharte’s 32-year military-backed % - dictatership in 1998.3 The island ef Bali is knewn te have experienced LEIIIEIIIIII Dwyw and Dgguflg gamikarma . _ ' . - ' - - seine ef the meat intense vielence, with seine. 80,000 te 100,000 suspected leftists (appreximately S te 8 per cent ef the island’s pepulatien) killed _ - I ' - by military and paramilitary ferces.3 Per the past feu'r decades — and - especially under Suharte’s “New Order” gevernment —. Balinese have struggled with a legacy ef eppressien and vielence a _ abeut articulating memeiies ef terrer iii a ., milieu in which state pewer, teurism capital and the embeddedness ef vii rid with ambivalence secial, pelitical and ecIenemic I;I;. elence in intimate secial relatiens'have censtrained discursive pessibil; ' _ ities. Despite a change in regime, and with it calls fer a Natienal TIUth and Recenciliatien Cemmissien (Kemisi Kebenara'n dan Rekensiliasi . . _ ' . ' ' Nasienal) te be fermed in Indenesia,"flIL these issues have net-lest their pet: I Ne, we have net fergetten, and we have net let em children fergctI. Fergctting III gflflncy far mast Balinesfl Survivflrs Bf thIE Vifllgflcg fif-lgfisféfiI whose SUI}. _ has net been eur preblem. The preblem is hew te live tegether with what we . . . .- . . _ . __ ,,_, --.- , ~ - ,, IIIIII IIEITIBIIIIIIIIIIII _ JECtIVIIIES and secial pathways IhaveIIb-een shaped by the eIngeing engage- v- Balinese surviver et' the anti-cemmunist massacres ef 1965;66 ' -" mam, in? Pas? Ell-35:31.“; a? Til-E Film? “me 33 the” VDICES haVE I been _ - . marginalized fre-ih mainstream discussiens ef “transitienal justice" er ' _ ' “pestI-ceiiflict peace~building”. ' Any attempt at facilitating recenciliatien in the wake ef mass crimes must ' " OUT film in .thifi 'ChflPtET is m Pde3 “flight 111m 110‘” Ballflfi-SE 1'13“? address the place ef memery.1 Fer it is memery that links past vielence, lived tegether 'in the aftermath ef mass vielence, analysing the place ef betrayal and cemniunity fragmentatien te the engeing pelitics ef the memery in beth centinuing cemmiinity tensiens and attempts at natienai present, shaping the limits and pessibilities ef re—imagining secial life. ' ‘ ‘ The relatienship ef memery te peace-building may, hewever, be far mere I the village elf Kesiman en cemplex than is eften censidered by pel' ' ' - , whem we have engaged in discussien abeut their m'emeries ef 1965/66 Memery may effer a language ef hepe, a greunding fer assertiens ef I and their negetiatiens ef secial life in the aftermath ef this peried during “never again”, but memery may alse previde the spark fer centinuing feur years ef anthrepelegical fieldwerk we pay special attentien te hew cenfiict Memery can tester a sense ef shared experience and cemmunity * memeries ef vielence tend te be neither mimetic ner fixed, examining selidarity, and menier can feed feelings ef persecutien and revenge -~ ~ . ,I5; I: hew the public narratien ef past atrecities has been blecked and chan- Memery can previde the material threugh which secial mechanisms — 7. nelled in particular directiens.5 We argue that merrier in. this centext is frem ritual te myth te infermal narrative te fermal truth and recencilia- an inherently pelitical act, but ene that escapes easy censcriptien by con- tien cemmissiens — werk te recensider histery and epen discussien ef the "5’ ‘ ‘ . ceptual eppesitiens such as eppressien versus resistance, silence versus traumatic experiences ef individuals and cemmunities. And memery can ff: SPEEChi hiStDIB’ VEFSUS mfimflf‘l’i Cflflfiiflt VETSUS IECDHCilifltiflfl er a distant be suppressed, channelled and transmuted inte new terms ef SUb}ECtl‘v'lty if past and its “werking threugh” er “lettiiiglge”. Threugh this clese fecus that may beth repreduce and recede relatiens ef inequality, vielence and I; 011 precesses ef recallng and distancing vielence, a number ef key ques- terrer ' , ‘ tiens emerge: Hew is past vielence lecated in centemperary secial prac— Since 1999, we have been engaged in a cellaberative ethnegraphic tice?'Hew are memeries expressed er hidden in a secial field dense with fieldwerk preject with survivers ef Indenesia’s 1965/66 state-spensered ' '_ traces ef betrayal and the fragmentatien ef intimate relatiens? And hew a After innss criine: Rebniiding states and cenininnities, Peniigny, Chesternien and Schnabei . it’risi, iiiiiteii Niiiieiis Univenriry Press, 200?, iSBN 073926084334 I qlqllwi. . ._..\_.__ .. . .— . .-\.-\...._—I —— .—u.—-.._-..- .._._-. __ _- - F . l rr-u—u—n—r-n-n—I—n-u —“ "."" '_. I .,_ . 'lCl’E‘, DWYER AND SANTTKA‘RMA might precesses ef rebuilding self and seciety take place eutside ef er in critical dialegue with fermal peace—buildiiig mechanisms? Like the ether chapters in this velume, eurs is a werk ef cemmitted schelarship, greunded in an engagement with lecal struggles and dedi- cated te a transfermatieri ef the terms threugh which secial justice might be cenceived and premeted. In highlighting the specificity ef relatiens ameng vielence, memery and secial suffering in Bali, eur aim is net te undermine efferts te premete healing and recenciliatien threugh a sweeping decenstructive emphasis en the exceptienal cemplexities ef lecal centexts. Rather, eur geal is te put ethnegraphy te practice in diag- nesing what the anthrepelegist and physician Paul Farmer has called “pathelegies ef pewer“,fi "these relatiens ef injustice and inequality that became situated in bedies, minds and secial lives, using these insights te reflect critically and cemparatively en centemperary internatienal dis- ceurses ef “recenciliatien”, “peace-building” and “transitienal justice”, Sharing a cencern with understanding-lecal cencepts and practices ef rec- enciliatien, we detail the particularities ef the Bali case, but 'cencur with Kimberly Theiden in this velume that reflexive neds te “cultural sensitivu ity" risk reducing situated experiences ef vielence te generic platitudes er mere variatieus en a universalized theme. We argue, tegether with the editers in the Intreductien, that witheut a fundamental rethinking ef the pest-'ceni'lict interventien packages that tend everwheimingly te fail , te recegnixe the cemplex transfermatiens that terrer engenders in the al- termath ef mass crime, prejects te premete secial recevery are far mere likely te he net merely unhelpful but actively dangereus, It is, we believe, enly threugh serieus engagement with the uneven textures ef memer and the secial fabric in which it figures, and with a cemmitment te unrav- elling eur assumptiens abeut the patterns peaceubuilding sheuld take in light et' such lecal realities, that pesitive change has the hepe ef being achieved. We cenclude eur chapter with seme suggestiens fer these in- velved in peacerbuilding efferts, in the hepe ef helping te clese the gaps that currently exist between cenfiict analysis and the eXperiences ef cert- 'llict, hctween transitienal justice pregrams and the hepes and fears ef these whe still face injustice, and between disceurses ef recenciliatien and the everyday struggles ef these whe live tegether in the midst ef cen— tinuing suffering and suspicien that all tee eften passes fer “peace”, History, memory and pewer “533ml? Pitfall Ian fit-scene}: arier ballad” (“The steries ef the defeated ae un- ueted hy histery”) - — Balinese saying -___I__Ii_tary’s invelvement in the killings and en‘th'e "mg Suharte‘s reign ef these alleged te ha - -With the end cf 32 years ef dictatershi te-publicly; recensider the efficial stat .__the destructien cf the tndenesian Ce sympathixers as" a necessary defence against threats te natienal erdcr de- vetepnient, mederaity, demecracy and civiliz‘atien. Taking advantage ef _new civil freedems in the pest-Suharte era, Indenesian human rights werkers, seme ef them supperted by l' - ~ - - . tienal justice er truth and recenciliatien, be p in 1998, many Indenesians began e histery at 196366, which framed mmunist Party (PEI) and its alleged systematic persecutien dur- f I F _ i _ ve cemmunist ties,T A number e ndenesian histerians, eften acting in .cencert with vi‘ctims’ advecacy greups, began te reinterpret histerical reeerds te challenge the state’s ef- ficial acceunt at what happened en 30 September 1965, when ' - I president, Sukarne, and giving the “smiling genei'al”'Suharte a justilica— tien fer leading a campaign te destrey Indenesian cemmunism “dewn te its reets“ (saiiipei kc aker-akamye). In 2000, lecal nen~gevernmental eri ganixatrens pressed Indenesia’s Parliament te autherize a Natiena] Truth and Receiiciliat'ien Cemmissien (altheugh te date such a bedy has— yet te begin its werk), And in cities, trist and villages-acress the these whe lived tlireugh vielence began te semetimes haltinaly, archipelage, I speak ~ semetimes epenlv, semetimes shuttling nerveusly hetwecn enthusiasm and dread — aheut their memeries ef terrer, fear and survival. Such public acts ef re-remembering 1965/66 have, hewever, been met by-amhivalent respenses, making it painfully clear that a change ef re- gime has net preduced simple cerrespending shifts at the levels ef cem~ mummy-culture and subjectivity. Attempts in 2001 te exhume a mass grave at! massacre victims in Wenesebe, Java, sparked a vielent anti- 2001, whe issued a public apelegy in March 2000 fer the rele that mem- bers ef his Nahdlatul Ulama Islamic erganizatien played in carrying eut . . 9 E II- II- I the vielence, ceuld net succeed in persuading the Indenesian legislature te repeal the 1966 law (TAP XXV/MPRSf1966) banning beth the Indene— sian Cemmunist Party and “Marxist—~Leninist Ideele survivers uncertain aheut the very periences ef suffering. It is net, hewever, enly an anti-cum has questiened activist calls te ' gy”, leaving many legality ef speaking abeut their ex- _ munistright wing in Indenesia that ‘briag the past te light“ in the service at _--—-——-l——m-FI-FF I'llll-‘u F'_- . .I. . . ' I' II 1 ' I .. .-.._..__.__ . . - . r -. .......‘._._._..._".._.......__ .—._._._._I I -____ -- -- . .'| . . - ' "- I I 1 _ _'_"_I.—..-i.-—.-—-1a-i.-....._ ' r '"'--—rrvm-x.=rfi"'-'r1"-': _-|—_u-rn- r-- - I . -. . .. . . . .‘u . : -._._.-.__ ' . ' -i. - - 194 anaa AND SANTIKARMA natienal recenciliatien. In eur discussiens with Balinese survivers ef the vielence. ene ef the mest impertant insights they shared with us is that Mei/66 is net simply an event ef the past against which ene can talte a distanced stance. It is net semething that ene intentionally cheeses te ei- ther “remember“_ by way ef a truth cemmissien er a revamped national curriculum that aims te replace falseheeds with facts, er te “ferget” by way ef erasure frem the mass media er efficial histeries er threugh mere persenal attempts te deny er disregard. It is net, as seine Western psy- chelegical medels might enceurage us te think, a traumatic ezpericnce lecated safely in individual er secial histery, recevery frem which ins velves a “werking threugh“. er “letting ge” ef a destructive past, er the arrival at “clesure” threugh an- impesitien ef meaningful narrative en the chaes ef pathelegically insistent and fragmentary memery.1n Rather, the events ef 1965/66 have channelled and dammed pessibilities fer speech, secial actien and religieus and cultural meaning, giving rise te new relatiens between language, experience, secial space and pelitical practice. Vielence av real, remembered and petential — centinues te rever~ berate threugh seeial netwerks, marking everyday life and meulding as- piratiens fer the future. Fer Balinese snrvivers, “rccenciliatien” implies net simply a “ceming tegether“ ef eppesing sides ef a cenflict, but a far mere weighted re-imagining ef disceurses ef self, seciety, cemmunity and citizenship. ' in part, the endurance ef the events ef 1965/66 and their centinuing peignancy in the present have been effects ef the New Order state’s per- sistent attempts te centrel understandings ef what it termed the Pertrriwe -’65 er “1965 Incident“, te centain a diverse range ef terrifying experi- . ences within temperal beunds (“The incident”) while at the same time expanding them inte a flexible master symbel (“Cemmunism”) that an" therized engeing pelitical eppressien. The New Order state’s strategies fer discursive management included beth the repressive impesitien ef si- lence upen survivers, and an enthusiastic pregram ef cemmemeratien and symbelic centrel ef the histery ef the vielence. The Suharte regime’s efficial acceunt ef 1965/66 was depleyed te advertise its claims te rule and te justify its harsh secial and pelitical pelicies as a paternalistic pretectien fl.- . .' _. ' ' ' SPEAKING EROM rite sr—raeows 195 W. _ lance. (Theiden, inlchapter 4, discusses the use ef similar rheteric by the Peruvian military.) Fer a new generatien ef lndenesians, the halting tales their parents might have teld bf their experiences — er the deep silences they may have effected te preserve their safety — were drewned cut by edile Hele and the Museum Pengkhianatan PKl (Museum cf the Phil Treachery) in Jakarta and prepaganda pieces such as the state—preduced film Pengkhienet {3/30/8 (The 30 September Mevemenr Traders), which was screened en public televisien and in classreems each 30 September until 1999. One Balinese university student whese grandfather had been killed in the vielence, which teelt place 15 years befere his birth, de— scribed te us hew his understanding ef his family histery had been shaped by such state rheteric: “Starting in elementary scheel I learned that cem— munists were evil and vielent, and l was cenfused abeut hew my ewn family ceuld have been ameng them. But when I asked my mether hew Grandfather ceuld have been such a bad persen, she said nething. Only later did I realize that her silence was meant te'pretect me.“ The maintenance ef these efficial narratives ef cemmunist evil and threat centinued threugheut Suharte’s reign, despite the glebal thaw in Celd War rheteric that marked the 19905. Up until Suharteis fall m and even after - state efficials regularly animated the spectre ef cemmunism as an instrument ef secial centrel, dismissing almest any sert ef seeial er pelitical pretest as the werk ef “fermless erganizatiens“ (ergeelsnst limpet heater-t) ef cemmunist sympathizers er__ as the result et' prevecatien by “remnants” ef the PKI. Warnings te remain en guard against cemmu- nism were typically expressed in the cemmand elves beheyn tnrert Plfl/ kemrtnisme (“beware ef the latent danger ef the PKl/cerrununism“), ren- dering “cemmunism” less a matter ef party affiliatien er intellectual pesi- tien than an invisible but inevitable aspect ef virtually any challenge te Suharte er his military regime.ll Labeur pretests, attempts at unieniza- ———-- - .-a.-..a-u.-.. ..- r "I - -- - ----—-—-np-r-u--I—I-II—n-—-——u—I-ra—_I.I-. - ._.. ..-.. _ . -_ .. .-- . . . ..n. '. -\.- l l 1 - tien er the fermatien ef pelitical parties, er the use ef disceurses ef “human rights“ te ceunter state centrel ef civil seciety - all were linked in state rheteric te the lurking threat ef cemmunism. The impertance placed en capitalist develepment by Suharte’s state alse shaped the center-rt inwhich memeries e-f vielence ceuld be articu- lated. Beginning in the 1970s, the New Order, with the assistance ef the Werld Bank, embarked en an ambitieus preject te build en celenial—era stereetypes‘ ef Bali as an ezetic, enchanted island paradise, as well as classic anthrepelegical representatiens ef Balinese values ef seeial har- meny and censensus, te make the island the natien’s premiere “cultural .‘fi‘r against an ever-present threat ef cemmunist diserdcr. Under Suharte, public debate ef the events was banned, and alternative analyses ef beth the alleged ceup and the vielence that fellewed were censered. Berrewr- ing frern medern biemedical imagery, these accused ef being “infected” ‘ by the dangereus virus ef cemmunism - these whe had ence been knewn as neighbeurs, relatives and friends — were stigmatized and secially alien- ated, painted in efficial pertrayals as shadewy, sadistic figures laying in wait fer a chance te centaminate the beleved natien, which needed te be pretected by a vigilant military and a pewerful system ef state surveil- -:|- 1'. -. I. .- it" . ._- I. ' 't. I. II 'a'u. _5 .‘Ir . .-:I '1;- I._.,_ . . :r I. :1 -'i'. ' It. :-:'. '.- 'l- . _ t .‘r " _'\. .. i, I-l ...-I I It. ' ..., . ._-:I. i; ._J .-""'|' ' 113 I. r... . _.!e :1' _'-I _'\.' - -! - ,. 1-H". ———-— —u-n-r -.-n-t.--u—.- I. .-n.-- -.. ... _. ._ .. . _. - _ '- _ . . . _ . - r _".""""'..u-=E1'E'_';"."_. ._._ I; . .'u -' I' 't- latte . ivs owvan not) saurixaama' - - -- - —-—-— —"-l—l'l'I-l—l—l- —-I-|--.--I F-mm tourism” destination. By the mid-r1990s, over 1,000,000 foreign tourists were visiting Bali each year. This tourism industry - upon which some 80 per cent of Balinese depend, directly or' indirectly, for their livelihoods — has simplified and commodified representations of a harmonious Bali, turning them into spectacular commercial displays used to advertise the island as an outpost of peaceful, pre-modern culture where life revolves around ancient, apolitical religious ritual and social relations are based on the avoidance of conflict.” Not only Bali but the Balinese themselves have been subjects of a representational regime that defines appropriate touristic subjectivity through government campaigns such'as Sepia Pe- sonrr, “The Seven Seductions”, which exhorted Balinese to be clean (ber- silt), friendly (rrmnrli), orderly (lei-rib), beautiful (forfeit). safe (rm-inn), preservationist (lesrnri) and memorable (kanangnn) in order to maintain their ability to attract tourists. Tourism attempted to cover up violence with layers of such symbolism, at the same time as it often literally cov- ered up traumatic history, as in the case of one five-star beachfront resort -' in Seminyalt, South Bali whosd lusth landscaped grounds are known by the local community {but not, of course, by the vast majority of its guests) to cover a mass grave containing bodies of victims of 1965/66.” It is important to recognize, however, that tourism is not merely a dis— ' course produced by Balinese for consumption by an outside audience. Tourism in Bali acts not only as an imagemproducing industry but, to bor- row a concept from Jacques Lacan, as an imaginary, a s...
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