Lecture 2 - 8/28/2009 Lecture 2 Sleep Basics What | When |...

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Unformatted text preview: 8/28/2009 Lecture 2 Sleep Basics What | When | How (…do we measure it) Lecture 2 What is Sleep? • Phenomenology • Behavior • Physiology Lecture 2 What is Sleep? • Phenomenology • Behavior • Physiology 1 8/28/2009 Lecture 2 What is Sleep? • Phenomenology Loss of external awareness Disconnected thoughts Disorientation in time & space Images and dreams Lecture 2 What is Sleep? • Phenomenology • Behavior • Physiology Lecture 2 What is Sleep? • Behavior Circadian timing (day-night) Horizontal position Low muscle tone Non-responsive (but reversible) Sleep rebound after deprivation 2 8/28/2009 Lecture 2 What is Sleep? • Phenomenology • Behavior • Physiology *the gold standard Lecture 2 How do we measure Sleep? • Phenomenology • Behavior • Physiology Changes in the brain Changes in the body Lecture 2 How do we measure Sleep? Three Critical Measures: 2. Electrooculogram (EOG) 3. Electromyogram (EMG) Polysomnography Polysomnography (PSG) 1. Electroencephalogram (EEG) 3 8/28/2009 Lecture 2 How do we measure Sleep? 1 Electroencephalogram (EEG): Measures electrical activity of the brain i.e. BRAIN WAVES Lecture 2 How do we measure Sleep? 2 Electrooculogram (EOG): An electrode placed near the eye will record a change in voltage as the eye moves. i.e. EYE MOVEMENTS Lecture 2 How do we measure Sleep? 3 Electromyogram (EMG): Measures electrical activity of the muscles, usually recorded from under the chin. i.e. MUSCLE TENSION 4 8/28/2009 Lecture 2 How do we measure Sleep? Polysomnography Lecture 2 What is Sleep? SLEEP STAGES Sleep NonNon-Rapid Eye movement sleep (NREM) NREM) Rapid Eye movement sleep (REM) REM) Deeper Sleep StageStage-1 NREM StageStage-2 NREM StageStage-3 NREM StageStage-4 NREM “Slow“Slow-Wave Sleep (SWS) NREM/REM only discovered in 1953 (Nathaniel Kleitman & Eugene Aserinsky) (Nathaniel Aserinsky) Lecture 2 REM sleep paralysis 5 8/28/2009 Lecture 2 REM sleep paralysis All nerve connections to your skeletal body muscles are inhibited, causing paralysis Lecture 2 When does Sleep occur? The Architecture of Sleep (“Hypnogram”) (“Hypnogram”) Lecture 2 When does Sleep occur? The Architecture of Sleep (“Hypnogram”) (“Hypnogram”) AWAKE REM Sleep Stages REM NREMNREM -1 St.3&4 NREM (SWS) NREMNREM -2 NREMNREM -3 NREMNREM -4 St.2 NREM 12am 1am 2am 3am 4am 5am 6am 7am Time • NREM REM sleep cycle ~90min in humans NREM 6 8/28/2009 Lecture 2 But What do sleep recordings really look like? Lecture 2 But What do sleep recordings really look like? 2. Electrooculogram (EOG) 3. Electromyogram (EMG) Polysomnography Polysomnography (PSG) 1. Electroencephalogram (EEG) Lecture 2 What does Sleep look like? EYES AWAKE EOGEOG-L EYES: Open with blinks EOGEOG-R EEGEEG-1 BRAIN WAVES: High frequency (fast 1515- EEGEEG-3 BRAIN EEGEEG-2 Low amplitude (small) 30 times/sec or 15-30Hz) 15- Desynchronized MUSCLE EEGEEG-4 MUSCLE: EMG Strong muscle tone 30 seconds 7 8/28/2009 Lecture 2 What does Sleep look like? EYES Stage 2 NREM EYES: EOGEOG-L Eye movements stop (slowly roll in Stage-1 Stage- EOGEOG-R NREM) BRAIN EEGEEG-1 BRAIN WAVES: EEGEEG-2 6-10 times/sec or 6 -10Hz) 6- Lower frequency (slower Higher amplitude (larger) EEGEEG-3 More synchronous Special events: K-complex K- MUSCLE EEGEEG-4 and Sleep Spindles MUSCLE EMG Lowered muscle tone 30 seconds Lecture 2 What does Sleep look like? Stage 4 NREM (SWS) EYES EYES: EOGEOG-R (contamination from EEG) EEGEEG-1 BRAIN EOGEOG-L BRAIN WAVES: No eye movements V. low frequency (SLOW 11- EEGEEG-2 4 times/sec or 1 -4Hz) 1V. high amplitude (LARGE) EEGEEG-3 Synchronous brain waves MUSCLE EEGEEG-4 MUSCLE: EMG Lowered muscle tone 30 seconds Lecture 2 What does Sleep look like? REM EYES EYES: EOGEOG-L Eyes closed…BUT Horizontal movements - EOGEOG-R back and forth BRAIN EEGEEG-1 BRAIN WAVES: EEGEEG-2 more than 10 times/sec High frequency (fast or 10 Hz) EEGEEG-3 Low amplitude (small) Desynchronized MUSCLE EEGEEG-4 (like awake) EMG Absent muscle tone 30 seconds 8 8/28/2009 Lecture 2 First recordings of Sleep First REM recording Lecture 2 First recordings of Sleep Brain Right Eye Left Eye Muscle Early paper-trace recordings paper- Lecture 2 Lecture 2 - Summary • Sleep: 1) Phenomenon 2) Behavior 3) Physiology Sleep: • Physiology: 3 key measures Physiology: EEG (Electroencephalography) - BRAIN EMG (Elctromyogram) - MUSCLE EOG (Electrooculogram) - EYES • Two main types of sleep: sleep: ~ NREM sleep: 4 sub-stages (NREM 1-4) sub1~ REM sleep • Sleep Cycle: Cycle: ~ 90 min NREMREM cycle (humans) NREM ~ More deep NREM (SWS) early, more REM late 9 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/05/2009 for the course PSYCH 133 taught by Professor Mathewwalker during the Fall '09 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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