Lecture 3 - Lecture 3 Sleep Basics Phylogeny(Who does it...

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Unformatted text preview: 8/28/2009 Lecture 3 Sleep Basics Phylogeny (Who does it, how do they do it, and how much?) Lecture 3 Who Sleeps? • Insects • Birds • Reptiles, Amphibians, Fish • Mammals Lecture 3 Who Sleeps? • Insects 1 8/28/2009 Lecture 3 Who Sleeps? • Insects Lecture 3 Sleep habits, places, & postures Insects…do they sleep? Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster) • Reduced muscle tone • Non-responsive but reversible • Circadian rhythm • Sleep rebound after deprivation Lecture 3 Sleep habits, places, & postures Insects…do they sleep? Honey Bee (Apoidea family) • Reduced muscle tone • Non-responsive but reversible • Circadian rhythm • Sleep rebound after deprivation Barrett Klein 2 8/28/2009 Lecture 3 Sleep habits, places, & postures Insects…do they sleep? Honey Bee (Apoidea family) • Reduced muscle tone • Non-responsive but reversible • Circadian rhythm • Sleep rebound after deprivation Lecture 3 Sleep habits, places, & postures Insects…do they sleep? Honey Bee (Apoidea family) • Reduced muscle tone • Non-responsive but reversible • Circadian rhythm • Sleep rebound after deprivation Lecture 3 Sleep habits, places, & postures Insects…do they sleep? Honey Bee (Apoidea family) • Reduced muscle tone • Non-responsive but reversible • Circadian rhythm • Sleep rebound after deprivation 3 8/28/2009 Lecture 3 Sleep habits, places, & postures Insects…do they sleep? Lecture 3 Who Sleeps? • Insects • Birds • Reptiles, Amphibians, Fish • Mammals Lecture 3 Who Sleeps? • Birds • Physiological measures possible in birds • Birds have identifiable cycles of NREM and REM sleep – appeared in this evolutionary step? • Unlike Mammals, striking short: • NREM sleep episodes ~2.5 min • REM sleep episodes ~8 seconds • Most birds do not lose muscle tone during REM sleep as consistently as mammals do (…understandable) 4 8/28/2009 Lecture 3 Who Sleeps? • Birds • NREM sleep (not REM) can be uni-hemispheric! • Sleep with ½ brain – takes turns • Sleep with one eye shut • Also have 9 second power naps! • Can help with migration (transoceanic flights – 3,000 miles 3 weeks) • Underscored importance of sleep i.e. strong pressure to sleep, plus amazing number of accommodations and circumstances, to allow it to occur. Lecture 3 Who Sleeps? • Insects • Birds • Reptiles, Amphibians, Fish • Mammals Lecture 3 Who Sleeps? Reptiles, Amphibians, Fish • Amphibians, Fish, Reptiles - show deep brain electrical activity indicative of NREM sleep (but difficult to equate to birds and mammals). • Most studies failed to find REM sleep in Amphibians and Fish (Arguable REM-like brain activity in reptiles). 5 8/28/2009 Lecture 3 Who Sleeps? Reptiles, Amphibians, Fish ...a clue to when REM sleep evolved? • Birds (have REM sleep) believed to have evolved from reptiles. • Implication…REM sleep evolved independently in birds and mammals to satisfy some function (?)... common to both (?), but not to reptiles. Lecture 3 Who Sleeps? Reptiles, Amphibians, Fish • Birds and mammals regulate body temperatures differently than reptiles: - REM for thermoregulation? (see lectures on Sleep Deprivation) • Birds and mammals also increase their metabolic rates to maintain a constant body temperature in the cold - reptiles cannot: - REM for metabolic regulation? (see lectures on Sleep Deprivation) Lecture 3 Who Sleeps? • Insects • Birds • Reptiles, Amphibians, Fish • Mammals 6 8/28/2009 Lecture 3 Who Sleeps…how much? Mammals Domestic cat Roe deer Rat Pilot whale Man Baboon Lion Giraffe Little brown bat Eastern chipmunk Asiatic elephant Lecture 3 How Much Sleep? Mammals Domestic cat 25 Total Daily Sleep Time (in hours) Roe deer Man Baboon 15.8 15 8 13.5 9.4 5.3 5 Lion 12.5 13 10 1.9 3.0 3.1 Asiatic elephant Pilot whale 20 Roe deer Hours of Sleep 19.9 Rat Asiatic elephant Little brown bat Eastern chipmunk Rat Lion Domestic cat Man Baboon Giraffe Little brown bat Eastern chipmunk Pilot whale 0 Giraffe Lecture 3 Who Sleeps? • Insects • Birds • Reptiles, Amphibians, Fish • Mammals - Humans (how do we sleep?) 7 8/28/2009 Lecture 3 Sleep habits, places, & postures Humans The !Kung (Kalahari Desert) • Sleep on ground or hard pallets • Covered with thin cloth • No pillows • Minimal bedding avoids insects Lecture 3 Sleep habits, places, & postures Humans The Efe (Ituri Forest, Zaire) “One may routinely find two adults, a baby, another child, a grandparent, and perhaps a visitor sleeping together in the small space.Two or three sleep along the back of the hut, one on either side of the fire, and another one or two around the edges. Degree of physical contact is high, with full body contact and frequent entwining of appendages of two or three sleepers, along with periodic arousals associated with rearrangement movement of others, noises (cries, sniffs, snores, etc.), and traffic associated with staggered bedtimes and occasional elimination.” Worthman & Melby (2002) In: Adolescent Sleep Patterns: Biological, Social, and Psychological Influences, M.A. Carskadon, ed. pp 69-117. Lecture 3 Sleep habits, places, & postures Humans The Gabra (Northern Kenya) • Sleep as a collective, including oats, camels, sheep next to tents 8 8/28/2009 Lecture 3 Sleep habits, places, & postures Humans Monophasic or Biphasic sleep? …NAPPING Lecture 3 Sleep habits, places, & postures Humans Monophasic or Biphasic sleep? …NAPPING • • • • • Cross-cultural Usually in the afternoon Kung and Gabra – 15-30 min common Efe – only when sick Western cultures … Lecture 3 Sleep habits, places, & postures Humans Metronaps Inc [metronaps.com] 9 8/28/2009 Sleep habits, places, & postures Humans Wakeup time: • !Kung and Efe have no bed/wake time • Western cultures … Lecture 3 Lecture 3 - Summary • Sleep (like) appears to be present in all species studied - Insects, Fish, Reptiles, Amphibians, Birds and Mammals • Suggests that sleep is a fundamental, biological necessity for living organisms (active/passive states even seen in bacteria!) Rousseau - Sleeping Gypsy Lecture 3 Lecture 3 - Summary • Sleep (like) appears to be present in all species studied - Insects, Fish, Reptiles, Amphibians, Birds and Mammals • Suggests that sleep is a fundamental necessity for living organisms (active/passive states even seen in bacteria!) • Most species display NREM activity, but REM appeared with the evolutionary emergence of Birds and Mammals – functional clues? • Humans: Sleep ‘behavior’ is very diverse, but in non-industrialized circumstances, it appears to be a social activity, no defined waking times, and with the possibility of a biphasic cycle (long at night, short nap during day) 10 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/05/2009 for the course PSYCH 133 taught by Professor Mathewwalker during the Fall '09 term at Berkeley.

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