Lecture 9 - Lecture 9 Sleep& Cognition III...

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Unformatted text preview: 10/1/2009 Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition III: Memory [Declarative – Facts] Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory • Sleep & Memory I: Sleep to retain facts • Sleep & Memory II: SWS and reactivating learned facts • Sleep & Memory III: SWS stimulation to boost fact memory Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory Brain State Memory Types Wake Declarative Episodic Memory Stages Acquisition/ Encoding REM Phasic Semantic Consolidation Tonic Non-Declarative NREM Association / Integration Procedural Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Implicit Recall / Recognition Non associative Reconsolidation Conditioning Erasure 1 10/1/2009 Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory • Sleep & Memory I: Sleep to retain facts 10 9 # Syllables recalled 8 Subject H - sleep Subject Mc - sleep 7 Subject H - wake Subject Mc - wake 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 4 8 Hours since learning Jenkins JG, Dalenbach KM. Am Jrnl Psych. (1924) Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory • Legacy of their conclusion: “The results of our study as a whole indicate that forgetting is not so much a matter of the decay of old impressions … it is a matter of interference…of the old by the new” • Translation: - Sleep not better, but Wake is worse - i.e. Sleep is passive, does not actively “fixate” memories Jenkins JG, Dalenbach KM. Am Jrnl Psych. (1924) Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory Task: Word-pair learning no interference version STUDY A window highway B baseball carpet D E L A Y TEST A window highway ? ? ? Sleep fixates memories! – Ellenbogen et al. Curr Biol (2006) 2 10/1/2009 Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory Task: Word-pair learning Interference version STUDY A STUDY B window highway baseball carpet D E L A Y A C window highway notebook picture TEST A ? window highway ? ? Sleep fixates memories! – Ellenbogen et al. Curr Biol (2006) Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory Experimental Design: no interference version A-B study W A K E (day) A-B test study S L E E P (night) test interference version A-C A-B study A-B W A K E (day) study test study S L E E P (night) study test Sleep fixates memories! – Ellenbogen et al. Curr Biol (2006) Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory * % Word-pairs Recalled 100 *** 80 Thus, sleep does not simply slow the decay of memory, but actively fixates and hence protects declarative memories (facts) from subsequent interference 60 40 20 0 Wake Sleep no interference Wake Sleep interference Sleep fixates memories! – Ellenbogen et al. Curr Biol (2006) 3 10/1/2009 Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory • Sleep & Memory I: Sleep to retain facts • Sleep & Memory II: SWS and reactivating learned facts • Sleep & Memory III: SWS stimulation to boost fact memory Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory Learning Consolidation Retrieval Order reactivation during sleep! – Rasch et al. Science (2006) Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory Learning Consolidation Retrieval TL‘99 W REM S1 S2 S3 S4 M 23:00 00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 Order reactivation during sleep! – Rasch et al. Science (2006) 4 10/1/2009 Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory The power of smell: “Retrieval Cue” Learning Consolidation Retrieval TL‘99 Order reactivation during sleep! – Rasch et al. Science (2006) Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory The power of smell: “Retrieval Cue” Learning Consolidation Retrieval TL‘99 Order reactivation during sleep! – Rasch et al. Science (2006) Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory Retrieval Cue during Sleep Learning Consolidation Retrieval TL‘99 Order reactivation during sleep! – Rasch et al. Science (2006) 5 10/1/2009 Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory Retrieval Cue during Sleep Learning Consolidation Retrieval TL‘99 Order reactivation during sleep! – Rasch et al. Science (2006) Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory Experimental Design: Order reactivation during sleep! – Rasch et al. Science (2006) Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory Experimental Design: Order reactivation during sleep! – Rasch et al. Science (2006) 6 10/1/2009 Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory Experimental Design: Order reactivation during sleep! – Rasch et al. Science (2006) Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory Learning... Order reactivation during sleep! – Rasch et al. Science (2006) Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory Sleeping... Order reactivation during sleep! – Rasch et al. Science (2006) 7 10/1/2009 Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory 1. Memory for card pairs was enhanced after odor presentation during SWS. Results: *** % recalled card pairs % 100 90 80 0 Placebo Odor +SWS +SWS Order reactivation during sleep! – Rasch et al. Science (2006) Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory Control experiment: Learning Consolidation Retrieval TL‘99 Order reactivation during sleep! – Rasch et al. Science (2006) Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory Control experiment: Learning Consolidation Retrieval TL‘99 Order reactivation during sleep! – Rasch et al. Science (2006) 8 10/1/2009 Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory Results: Main Exp. % recalled card pairs % *** 1. Memory for card pairs was enhanced after odor presentation during SWS. Control Expt % 100 90 90 80 2. The enhancing effect depends on the presence of the odor during learning. 100 80 0 3. Odor during REM did not benefit memory, nor did odor during wake. 0 Placebo Odor +SWS +SWS Placebo Odor +SWS +SWS Order reactivation during sleep! – Rasch et al. Science (2006) Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory Results: Main Exp. % recalled card pairs % *** Control Expt % 100 100 90 90 80 80 0 • Thus, sleep appears to be (re)processing / “reactivating” recently learned facts during SWS, thereby consolidating them. • Moreover, this consolidation process can be amplified by “triggering” or cueing the reactivation of memories at night based, on the context of learning from the prior day. 0 Placebo Odor +SWS +SWS Placebo Odor +SWS +SWS Order reactivation during sleep! – Rasch et al. Science (2006) Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory • Sleep & Memory I: Sleep to retain facts • Sleep & Memory II: SWS and reactivating learned facts • Sleep & Memory III: SWS stimulation to boost fact memory 9 10/1/2009 Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory Learning Consolidation Retrieval TL‘99 W REM S1 S2 S3 S4 M SWS consolidation 23:00 00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 Boosting SWS boosts memory! – Marshall et al. Nature (2005) Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory How can you increase SWS? Direct Current Stimulation (DCS)! Boosting SWS boosts memory! – Marshall et al. Nature (2005) Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory mock simulation A-B Study PM S L E E P (night) A-B Test AM real simulation Experimental Design: A-B Study PM S L E E P (night) A-B Test AM Boosting SWS boosts memory! – Marshall et al. Nature (2005) 10 10/1/2009 Lecture 9 Sleep & Cognition: Memory mock simulation A-B Study PM S L E E P (night) A-B Test AM real simulation A-B Study PM S L E E P (night) A-B Test AM # recalled word-pairs Amplifying SWS in the prefrontal cortex significantly enhances the consolidation of declarative memories! Results: *** 6 4 2 0 mock real Boosting SWS boosts memory! – Marshall et al. Nature (2005) Lecture 9 Lecture 9 - Summary • Like procedural memories, declarative memories (facts) also benefit from sleep for consolidation and preservation • The benefit is different, however: preventing decay of facts (Ellenbogen et al.), rather than enhancement memory • Consolidation of declarative memory appears to take place during NREM SWS, where memories maybe reactivating or reprocessing (Rasch et al.) • This sleep benefit can be manipulated by boosting SWS, hence improving the retention of memory (Marshall et al.) 11 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/05/2009 for the course PSYCH 133 taught by Professor Mathewwalker during the Fall '09 term at Berkeley.

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