Lecture 7 - Lecture 7 Sleep& Cognition Creativity Lecture 7 Sleep& Cognition Creativity • Sleep& Creativity I Societal Anecdotes •

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Unformatted text preview: 9/18/2009 Lecture 7 Sleep & Cognition: Creativity! Lecture 7 Sleep & Cognition: Creativity • Sleep & Creativity I: Societal Anecdotes • Sleep & Creativity II: Examples from Science • Sleep & Creativity III: Empirical, scientific studies Lecture 7 Sleep & Cognition: Creativity • Sleep & Creativity I: Societal Anecdotes The Beatles [London in 1965 filming Help!]. McCartney was staying in a small attic room of his family's house on Wimpole Street. One morning, in a dream he heard a classical string ensemble playing, and, as McCartney tells it: “Yesterday” - Beatles "I woke up with a lovely tune in my head. I thought, 'That's great, I wonder what that is?' There was an upright piano next to me, to the right of the bed by the window. I got out of bed, sat at the piano, found G, found F sharp minor 7th -- and that leads you through then to B to E minor, and finally back to E. It all leads forward logically. I liked the melody a lot, but because I'd dreamed it, I couldn't believe I'd written it. I thought, 'No, I've never written anything like this before.' But I had, which was the most magic thing!" 1 9/18/2009 Lecture 7 Sleep & Cognition: Creativity • Sleep & Creativity I: Societal Anecdotes Elias Howe: Inventor of the sewing machine (1845). He had the idea of a machine with a needle, but he couldn't figure out exactly how it would work. Tried using a needle that was pointed at both ends, with an eye in the middle- failed. “One night, in a dream I was taken prisoner by a group of natives. They were dancing around me with spears. As I saw them move around me, I noticed that their spears all had holes near their tips…” The Sewing Machine Woke up and realized the dream had brought the solution to his problem – locate a hole at the tip of the needle, the thread could be caught after it went through cloth. Lecture 7 Sleep & Cognition: Creativity • Sleep & Creativity I: Societal Anecdotes Jack Nicklaus: New Golf Swing in a Dream In 1964, Nicklaus was in a bad slump and routinely shooting in the high seventies. After suddenly regaining top scores he reported: A new swing… "Wednesday night I had a dream and it was about my golf swing. I was hitting them pretty good and I realized I wasn't holding the club the way I've been holding it lately. I've been having trouble collapsing my right arm taking the club head away from the ball, but I was doing it perfectly in my sleep. So when I came to the course yesterday morning I tried it the way I did in my dream and it worked. I shot a sixty-eight yesterday and a sixtyfive today." Source: Jack Nicklaus, San Francisco Chronicle, 27 June 1964 Lecture 7 Sleep & Cognition: Creativity • Sleep & Creativity I: Societal Anecdotes Thomas Edison: Inventor extraordinary: Devised a method for using sleep, and particularly in sleep-onset dreams (hypnagogic images) to aid in his creative thinking: Creative inventions… “To prevent myself from crossing all the way over the "genius gap" into deep sleep, I nap with my hand propped up on my elbow while clutched a handful of ball-bearings. I drift off to sleep, knowing that my subconscious mind would take up the challenge of the problem and provide a solution. As soon as I went into too deep a sleep, my hand would drop and the ball-bearings would spill noisily on the floor, waking me up again. I would then write down whatever was in my mind” 2 9/18/2009 Lecture 7 Sleep & Cognition: Creativity • Sleep & Creativity I: Societal Anecdotes • Sleep & Creativity II: Examples from Science • Sleep & Creativity III: Empirical, scientific studies Lecture 7 Sleep & Cognition: Creativity • Sleep & Creativity II: Scientific Examples Friedrich August Kekulé: "Structure Theory” in organic chemistry: Kekulé discovered the tetravalent nature of carbon in the benzene ring, (opening the field of organic chemistry) in a dream...: Organic Chemistry “My mental eye, rendered more acute by the repeated visions of the kind, could now distinguish larger structures of manifold conformation; long rows sometimes more closely fitted together all twining and twisting in snake-like motion. But look! What was that? One of the snakes had seized hold of its own tail, and the form whirled mockingly before my eyes. As if by a flash of lightning I awoke; and this time also I spent the rest of the night in working out the consequences of the hypothesis.” Lecture 7 Sleep & Cognition: Creativity • Sleep & Creativity II: Scientific Examples Otto Loewi : Discoverer of neurochemical transmission Easter Saturday 1920: Dreamt of an experiment to prove nerve impulses were chemical, not electrical. He woke up, scribbled down the experiment and went back to sleep. The next morning he woke very excited but found, to his horror, that he couldn't read his midnight scribbles. That day, he said, was the longest day of his life, as he tried, without success, to remember his dream. Nerve cell communication That night, he had the same dream. This time, he got up, went to the lab, did the experiment, and by dawn, he believed he had evidence of chemical cleft communication. 3 9/18/2009 Lecture 7 Sleep & Cognition: Creativity • Sleep & Creativity II: Scientific Examples Dmitri Mendeleev : Discoverer of the period table of elements Studied everything that was known about the elements and looked for patterns in their properties, trying to understand the interrelationship between the elements of our universe. The building blocks of the universe He had spent three near continuous days trying to produce a scheme, feeling he was close but failed. Exhausted he slept and while sleeping dreamed of a column/row structure, grouping the known 63 elements in families based on their properties and on their increasing atomic weight. Lecture 7 Sleep & Cognition: Creativity • Sleep & Creativity I: Societal Anecdotes • Sleep & Creativity II: Examples from Science • Sleep & Creativity III: Empirical, scientific studies Lecture 7 Sleep & Cognition: Creativity • Sleep & Creativity III: Empirical, scientific studies Anagram puzzle task oosge goose atleb table elpse sleep ANAGRAM PROBLEM SOLVING – Walker et al. (2002) Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 14(3): 317-24 4 9/18/2009 Lecture 7 Sleep & Cognition: Creativity • Sleep & Creativity III: Empirical, scientific studies Experiment: NREM Awakening Test REM Awakening Test Sleep Stages AWAKE REM NREM-1 NREM-2 NREM-3 NREM-4 ANAGRAM PROBLEM SOLVING – Walker et al. (2002) Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 14(3): 317-24 Lecture 7 Sleep & Cognition: Creativity • Sleep & Creativity III: Empirical, scientific studies Result: +30% % Correctly Solved 60 No relationship (correlation) between REM anagram performance and WAKE anagram performance (was between NREM and WAKE) 50 40 30 Thus, REM sleep performance, while similar to WAKE, appeared to be achieved using a different mechanism! 20 10 0 WAKE NREM REM ANAGRAM PROBLEM SOLVING – Walker et al. (2002) Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 14(3): 317-24 Lecture 7 Sleep & Cognition: Creativity • Sleep & Creativity III: Empirical, scientific studies Lecture 4 Sleep Mechanisms Active WAKE Result: Quiet WAKE NREM REM ACh +30% 60 No relationship (correlation) between REM anagram performance + and WAKE ++ + ++ + + anagram performance + +(was Lecture 4 between NREM and WAKE) % Correctly Solved 5-HT NA 50 NA 5-HT 40 ACh 30 Functional Anatomy of REM sleep Em otional R egula tion (Ci ng ula te co rte x) Mov em ent Initiation (Mo to rc ortex) Logic al Re as oning (La te ral P re fron ta l L ob es ) Thus, REM sleep performance, while similar to WAKE, appeared to be achieved using a different mechanism! 20 10 0 C omple x Visual P roce ssing (Occi pital Co rte x) Me mory (Hi pp oca mpus) WAKE NREM REM Emotion (Amyg da la) Ar ea s A CTIVATE D during R EM slee p Ar ea s D E-ACTIVA TED during RE M slee p Visual, memory-filled emotional b rain… without logical reasoning! ANAGRAM PROBLEM SOLVING – Walker et al. (2002) Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 14(3): 317-24 5 9/18/2009 Lecture 7 Sleep & Cognition: Creativity • Sleep & Creativity III: Empirical, scientific studies 1 1 4 1 4 9 1 9 4 9 4 4 4 1 9 Experimental Design: train W A K E (day) test train W A K E (night) test train S L E E P (night) test SLEEP INSPIRES INSIGHT! – Wagner et al. (2004) Nature 427: 352 Lecture 7 Sleep & Cognition: Creativity • Sleep & Creativity III: Empirical, scientific studies 1 4 1 4 9 9 1 60% 40% 20% 0% 4 WAKE/ DAY WAKE/ NIGHT ZZZ ... 9 4 4 Improvement in speed (ms) % Subjects gaining insight 1 4 1 9 200 100 0 Non-solvers Solvers SLEEP INSPIRES INSIGHT! – Wagner et al. (2004) Nature 427: 352 Lecture 7 Lecture 7 – Summary • There are numerous anecdotal examples of sleep-creativity in everyday life stories, which span cognitive problems (music, technology, sports). • Moreover, an array of scientific revelations that change the course of human knowledge also emerged from dreams. • Recent cognitive neuroscience studies have begun to confirm such a sleep benefit, demonstrating that: • Flexible reasoning (anagram solving) is greater in REM sleep (state most associated with intense dreaming) than NREM sleep • Sleep to gain insight on a problem previously worked on – by three times as much! 6 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/05/2009 for the course PSYCH 133 taught by Professor Mathewwalker during the Fall '09 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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