ismchapter14edition4

# ismchapter14edition4 - Chapter 14 Astrophysics and...

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321 Chapter 14 of Modern Physics 4/e is available through the Freeman Physics Web site at www.whfreeman.com/modphysics4e. Chapter 14 ! Astrophysics and Cosmology 14-1. = 4 km/s. Assuming Sun’s rotation to be uniform, so that , then = 2 km/s. Because v = 2 B r/T, or 14-2. The Sun’s luminosity 14-3. The fusion of 1 H to 4 He proceeds via the proton-proton cycle. The binding energy of 4 He is so high that the binding energy of two 4 He nuclei exceeds that of 8 Be produced in the fusion reaction: 4 He + 4 He 6 8 Be + ( and the 8 Be nucleus fissions quickly to two 4 He nuclei via an electromagnetic decay. However, at high pressures and temperatures a very small amount is always present, enough for the fusion reaction: 8 Be + 4 He 6 12 C + ( to proceed. This 3- 4 He fusion to 12 C produces no net 8 Be and bypasses both Li and B, so their concentration in the cosmos is low. 14-4. The Sun is 30,000 c A y from Galactic center = radius of orbit

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Chapter 14 ! Astrophysics and Cosmology 322 14-5. Observed mass (average) . 1 H atom/m 3 = 1.67 × 10 ! 27 kg/m 3 = 10% of total mass 500 < /cm 3 = 500 × 10 6 < /m 3 , so the mass of each < would be or 14-6. 14-7. (a) See Fig. 14-14. 1 AU = 1.496 × 10 11 m. R = 1 pc when 2 = 1", so or (b) When 2 = 0.01", R = 100 pc and the volume of a sphere with that radius is . If the density of stars is 0.08/pc 3 , then the number of stars in the sphere is equal to stars. 14-8. Thus,
! Astrophysics and Cosmology 323 (Problem 14-8 continued) Because 14-9. (a) (b) (c) R - M º R = " M º Similarly, (d) . Similarly, 14-10. Angular separation 14-11. Equation 14-18: . , , . Energy required: . Equation 14-19:

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ismchapter14edition4 - Chapter 14 Astrophysics and...

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