ANT3620 Exam 1 Notes

ANT3620 Exam 1 Notes - ANT3620, Language &Cultu re Exam 1...

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LECTURE 1 Language vs. Speech Ferdinand de Saussure: Langue vs. parole—arbitrariness of signs Language - knowledge- phonemes, morphemes, syntax Speech - action- entails creativity Phonology Phoneme - the range of sounds that speakers understand as the same- the basic unit of sound • meanings change due to substitution: pin vs. bin • Sapir: Psychological reality of the phoneme • Phonemic vs. Phonetic i.e. Aspiration of | p | English: pin (phin) vs. rip Korean: pul vs. p h ul Morpheme - the smallest sequence of sound to carry meaning; meanings change due to contiguity i.e. | p | + | i | + | n | = pin | s |= “plural” semiotic - means of significance Allomorphs : books/buks, dogs/dogz, glasses/glasez Syntax - the rules that govern the arrangement of morphemes into sensible sentences Generative Grammar- determination of rules that predict grammatical sense Chomsky’s method - determining grammatically through intuition Do you drive to school? OR Do to school you drive? Limits analysis to native language. Linguists vs. Linguistic Anthropology Chomsky : Competence (i-language) vs. performance (e-language) - emphasis on i-language - language is governed by universal, cognitive rules Contemporary Linguistic Anthropologists - - emphasis on e-language - language is entwined in culturally-specific rules
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Conclusions Language includes three sets of rules that govern our communication: 1. phonology 2. morphology 3. syntax LECTURE 2 “Language is a social tool and speaking is a cultural practice” (Duranti) Linguistic Anthropology views language as a “form of action that presupposes and at the same time brings about ways of being in the world.” Key Concepts Performance: Indexicality Competence vs. Performance the context dependency of speech Performance verbs language is context-dependent Creativity Participation: the repertoire of cultural practices associated w/speech What is the origin of the word “culture”? (Culture’s Etymology) 100-500 Latin Cultura, Colere Cultivation of land and plants; improvement of the faculties; observance of religious rites 1100-1400 Anglo-Norman Culture Cultivating land and plants; formation or training; worship 1500-1800 English Culture Cultivation or development of language, literature, etc. ; mental development; intellectual and artistic conditions of a society 1800-Present German Kultur English Culture Ideas and customs of a society or
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group French Culture Modern Definitions: 19 th Century Immanuel Kant Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View (1978) : Anthropology studies the source of wisdom, practical philosophy, and beliefs (as an alternative to theology) E.B. Taylor , Primitive Culture (1871) : “Culture of civilization is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, laws, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.” Modern Definitions: 20
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This note was uploaded on 10/05/2009 for the course ANT 3620 taught by Professor Collings during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.

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ANT3620 Exam 1 Notes - ANT3620, Language &Cultu re Exam 1...

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