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Unformatted text preview: ANT3514 Exam 2 Animalia (Kingdom), Metazoa (Sub-Kingdom), Chordata (Phylum), Craniata (Sub-Phylum), Mammalia (Class), Archonta (Super-Order), Primates (Order) Primates (Order), Haplorhini (Sub-Order), Catarhini (Infra-Order), Hominoidea (Super- Family), Hominidae (Family), Homininae (Sub-Family), Hominini (Tribe), Homo (Genus), Sapiens (Species) Primate Characteristics: Generalized Body Plan (Good for changing Environment), Clavicle + Rib Cage ~ 190 species of non-human primates Primitive traits- generalized dentition, pentadactyly, tetrapod Derived traits- reduced dentition, big brains relative to body size, stereoscopic vision, reduced muzzle (reduced olfaction), petrosal bulla*, nails (instead of claws), postorbital bar/closure * skeletal casing of middle ear; remains the single identified trait which occurs in all living primates to the exclusion of other mammals Reproduction —single offspring w/extended ontogeny (except for 2 species—Callitrichids have twins and prosimians) Tendency to form social groups and associate w/others. Glade vs. Clade Grade—similar levels of development (i.e. reptiles) Clade—actual or inferred phylogenetic relationships based on shared, derived features from a common ancestor (i.e. tetrapods) New World Primates (North + South America) vs. Old World P rimates (Asia + Africa) [ TRAD I T IONAL TAXONOMY ] Anthropoids Prosimians- fused frontal and mandible- unfused frontal and symphisis- postoribital closure- lack of closure- larger brain- grooming claw/tooth comb- nails 1. Anthropoids—Monkeys + Apes- “turned nose”—looks like a dog’s nose- larger brain and body size- reduced olfaction- different female reproductive anatomy- increase in color vision- longer gestation/maturation periods- enclosed orbits- fused mandible Strepsirhines Lemurs, Lorises- most “primitive” of primates- reliance on olfaction; rhinarium—“wet nose”—enhances sense of smell- laterally placed eyes-unfused mandible- shorter gestation and maturation periods- t riangular, high, sharp molars- dental comb- postorbital bar- grooming claw- longer snout and whiskers 1. Lemurs- Madagascar- Endemic mammals—very diverse 2. Lorises- Asia + Africa- Galagos (fast, VCL, “Bush Babies”) vs. Lorises (very slow) Haplorhines Tarsiers, Platyrhines (NWM), Catyrhines (OWM + Apes) 1. Tarsiers- SE Asia- 1 genus, 4-6 species- rat-sized, big eyes (orbits)- specialized tarsal bones- VCL- nocturnal, insectivorous (most carnivorous of primates)- lacks tapetum lucidum (eye shine)—size of eyes captures appropriate light (evidence that...
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This note was uploaded on 10/05/2009 for the course ANT 3514c taught by Professor Staff during the Summer '08 term at University of Florida.
- Summer '08