Ant3514C Exam 2 Review Sheet

Ant3514C Exam 2 Review Sheet - ANT3514 Exam 2...

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ANT3514 Exam 2 Animalia (Kingdom), Metazoa (Sub-Kingdom), Chordata (Phylum), Craniata (Sub-Phylum), Mammalia (Class), Archonta (Super-Order), Primates (Order) Primates (Order), Haplorhini (Sub-Order), Catarhini (Infra-Order), Hominoidea (Super- Family), Hominidae (Family), Homininae (Sub-Family), Hominini (Tribe), Homo (Genus), Sapiens (Species) Primate Characteristics: Generalized Body Plan (Good for changing Environment), Clavicle + Rib Cage ~ 190 species of non-human primates Primitive traits- generalized dentition, pentadactyly, tetrapod Derived traits- reduced dentition, big brains relative to body size, stereoscopic vision, reduced muzzle (reduced olfaction), petrosal bulla*, nails (instead of claws), postorbital bar/closure * skeletal casing of middle ear; remains the single identified trait which occurs in all living primates to the exclusion of other mammals Reproduction —single offspring w/extended ontogeny (except for 2 species—Callitrichids have twins and prosimians) Tendency to form social groups and associate w/others. Glade vs. Clade Grade—similar levels of development (i.e. reptiles) Clade—actual or inferred phylogenetic relationships based on shared, derived features from a common ancestor (i.e. tetrapods) New World Primates (North + South America) vs. Old World Primates (Asia + Africa) [ TRADITIONAL TAXONOMY ] Anthropoids Prosimians
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- fused frontal and mandible - unfused frontal and symphisis - postoribital closure - lack of closure - larger brain - grooming claw/tooth comb - nails 1. Anthropoids—Monkeys + Apes - “turned nose”—looks like a dog’s nose - larger brain and body size - reduced olfaction - different female reproductive anatomy - increase in color vision - longer gestation/maturation periods - enclosed orbits - fused mandible Strepsirhines Lemurs, Lorises - most “primitive” of primates - reliance on olfaction; rhinarium—“wet nose”—enhances sense of smell - laterally placed eyes -unfused mandible - shorter gestation and maturation periods - triangular, high, sharp molars - dental comb - postorbital bar - grooming claw - longer snout and whiskers 1. Lemurs - Madagascar - Endemic mammals—very diverse 2. Lorises - Asia + Africa - Galagos (fast, VCL, “Bush Babies”) vs. Lorises (very slow) Haplorhines Tarsiers, Platyrhines (NWM), Catyrhines (OWM + Apes) 1. Tarsiers - SE Asia - 1 genus, 4-6 species - rat-sized, big eyes (orbits) - specialized tarsal bones - VCL - nocturnal, insectivorous (most carnivorous of primates)
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