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Unformatted text preview: Paranthropus = robust australopithecines- Late Pliocene- Early Pleistocene deposits (2.5 – 1 m.y.a.)- similar in size to Australopithecus- East and South Africa- massive molars/ broad flat faces/ Good, Round numbers are good finds. * Know species w/ these numbers + Lucy ANT3514 Exam 2 The Australopiths- found in limestone cave sites, preservation in breccia- taphonomic issues, relative dates The Gracile Australopithecines The Robust Australopithecines A. africanus * A. afarensis A. anamensis * A. bahrelghazali ↓ Generalized jaws and teeth * around the same time * P. robustus P. aethiopicus * P. boisei ↓ Specialized jaws and teeth * around the same time South Africa Australopithecus africanus - “Taung Child”- found in 1920s- gracile build - high forehead, no brow ridge, no diastema, flat orthognathic profile- “Ms. Ples”- found in 1947- human-shaped neurocranium/ small canines/ big molars- brain > chimp but < human- bipedal P(A) robustus- small incisors, canines/ large molars/ chewing muscles Osteodentokeratic Culture (Bone/ Tooth/ Horn)- Dart believed the accumulations of bones in the south African caves were a result of hominid hunting activities- good explanation but there are other taphonomic explanations for broken bones found in caves i.e. animals drag kill to trees, bones fall into caves, etc. East Africa- Found in association with the Great Rift Valley- relatively recent discoveries (since 1959)- excellent preservation- established geological context and good absolute dates Louis Leakey- “Father of Paleoanthropology”- raised in Kenya, got degree in Great Britain, returned to Africa P(A) boisei – found in 1959- “robust” australopithecine- O.H. (Olduvai Hominid) 5 - tiny canines and incisors/ massive molars and pre-molars- sexual dimorphism (female lacks saggital crest)- both male/female from Kenya P(A) aethiopicus —KNM-WT 17000—found in 1985 - the “Black Skull”- W. Turkana (Kenya) and Omo (Ethiopia) ~ 2.8-2.2 m.y.a. Marie Leakey Australopithecus anamensis- crania and postcrania looks like a human elbow more than a chimp elbow Donald Johansen —Hadar, Ethiopia A.L. 129 A.L. 288-1-“Lucy”—discovered in 1974- mature adult, 40% complete (47 out of 207 bones)- all one individual, 1 meter tall A.L. 333- “The First Family”—discovered in 1975- 13+ individuals—9 adults, 4 juveniles- “catastrophic” assemblage—200+ hominin fossils ~ 3.2 m.y.a....
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This note was uploaded on 10/05/2009 for the course ANT 3514c taught by Professor Staff during the Summer '08 term at University of Florida.
- Summer '08