ANT3514C Exam 3 Review Sheet

ANT3514C Exam 3 Review Sheet - Paranthropus = robust...

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Paranthropus = robust australopithecines - Late Pliocene- Early Pleistocene deposits (2.5 – 1 m.y.a.) - similar in size to Australopithecus - East and South Africa - massive molars/ broad flat faces/ Good, Round numbers are good finds. * Know species w/ these numbers + Lucy ANT3514 Exam 2 The Australopiths - found in limestone cave sites, preservation in breccia - taphonomic issues, relative dates The Gracile Australopithecines The Robust Australopithecines A. africanus * A. afarensis A. anamensis * A. bahrelghazali Generalized jaws and teeth * around the same time * P. robustus P. aethiopicus * P. boisei Specialized jaws and teeth * around the same time South Africa Australopithecus africanus - “Taung Child” - found in 1920s - gracile build - high forehead, no brow ridge, no diastema, flat orthognathic profile - “Ms. Ples” - found in 1947 - human-shaped neurocranium/ small canines/ big molars - brain > chimp but < human - bipedal P(A) robustus - small incisors, canines/ large molars/ chewing muscles Osteodentokeratic Culture (Bone/ Tooth/ Horn) - Dart believed the accumulations of bones in the south African caves were a result of hominid hunting activities - good explanation but there are other taphonomic explanations for broken bones found in caves i.e. animals drag kill to trees, bones fall into caves, etc. East Africa - Found in association with the Great Rift Valley - relatively recent discoveries (since 1959) - excellent preservation - established geological context and good absolute dates
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Louis Leakey - “Father of Paleoanthropology” - raised in Kenya, got degree in Great Britain, returned to Africa P(A) boisei – found in 1959 - “robust” australopithecine - O.H. (Olduvai Hominid) 5 - tiny canines and incisors/ massive molars and pre-molars - sexual dimorphism (female lacks saggital crest) - both male/female from Kenya P(A) aethiopicus —KNM-WT 17000—found in 1985 - the “Black Skull” - W. Turkana (Kenya) and Omo (Ethiopia) ~ 2.8-2.2 m.y.a. Marie Leakey Australopithecus anamensis - crania and postcrania looks like a human elbow more than a chimp elbow Donald Johansen —Hadar, Ethiopia A.L. 129 A.L. 288-1 -“Lucy”—discovered in 1974 - mature adult, 40% complete (47 out of 207 bones) - all one individual, 1 meter tall A.L. 333 - “The First Family”—discovered in 1975 - 13+ individuals—9 adults, 4 juveniles - “catastrophic” assemblage—200+ hominin fossils ~ 3.2 m.y.a.
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