lec09-4 - Schema Abstraction in Analogical Reasoning &...

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Schema Abstraction in Analogical Reasoning Psychology 355: Cognitive Psychology Winter Quarter 2009 3/5/2009
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 2 Outline • Analogical encoding – noticing common structural relationships in different problems. • Schema abstraction – abstracting a common structure from several problems. o Analogical encoding and schema abstraction are very similar, or perhaps identical ideas. • Analogical reasoning in real-world problem solving contexts. • Expertise in problem solving.
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 3 Analogical Encoding • Story: Two sisters fight over the last orange. They decide to split it. o It turns out that one sister wanted the orange peel to flavor a cake. The other sister wanted to eat the orange. o Tradeoff solution: One sister gets the peel, the other sister gets body of orange. • Story: An author and publisher argue over the author's royalty (rate) for his book. Author wants 18%; publisher is willing to pay 12%. o Contingent payoff solution: if sales are less than 20,000, author gets 12%; if sales are 20,000 – 40,000, author gets 14%; if sales are 40,000 – 80,000, author gets 16%; etc. • Gentner et al. (2003) studied analogical encoding . o Tradeoff Condition: Subjects study two negotiations – both have a tradeoff solution. o Contingency Condition: Subjects study two negotiations – both have a contingent payoff solution. o After studying solutions to these negotiations, all subjects had to propose a solution to a negotiation problem that had both a tradeoff and contingent payoff solution. o Question: Would subjects see the analogy between their training problems, and the final problem?
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 4 Results: Analogical Encoding • Subjects who studied negotiation
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This note was uploaded on 10/05/2009 for the course PSYCH 355 taught by Professor Miyamoto during the Winter '08 term at University of Washington.

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lec09-4 - Schema Abstraction in Analogical Reasoning &...

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