# lec10-2 - The Permission Schema Four-Card...

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The Permission Schema & Four-Card Problem ------- Introduction to Inductive Reasoning Psychology 355: Cognitive Psychology Winter Quarter 2009 3/10/2009

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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 2 Outline • Permission Schema and the Four Card Problem • Inductive Reasoning – What is it? • The Availability Heuristic Next: Concrete & Abstract Versions of 4 Card Problem
P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 3 Abstract and Concrete Versions of the Four Card Problem • Abstract Rule: Which cards must you turn over to decide whether they satisfy the rule: If a card has a vowel on one side, then it has an even number on the other side. • Concrete Drinking Rule: If a person is drinking beer, then he or she must be over 19 years old. (Florida drinking age = 19 at time of experiment) Which persons need to have their ID's checked (by a police officer)? E K 4 7 Beer Soda 24 years old 16 years old Next: Permission Schema – What Is It?

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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 4 Permission Schema – Explains Why Concrete Versions are Easier • According to Cheng and Holyoak, the concrete versions are easier because they invoke a "permission schema" that people already have. The permission schema leads them to make the right answers. Permission Schema: If a person satisfies condition A, then this person can do action B without breaking the rules. Example: If a person is over 19 years of age (condition A), he or she can drink beer without breaking the rules (action B). Next: Test Whether Invoking Permission Schema Facilitates 4 Card Perf
P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 5 Invoking the Permission Schema Facilitates Conditional Reasoning • You are an immigration officer at an airport in the Phillipines. You must check Form H for each passenger. • Rule: If Form H says "Entering" on one side, then it must list "cholera" among the diseases on the other side. • Condition 1 (No Permission Rationale): Make sure that the rule is obeyed. • Condition 2 (Permission Rationale): The list of diseases indicate the diseases against which the passenger has been innoculated. Passengers who are "entering" must be inoculated against cholera. o Passenger needs cholera inoculation to have "permission" to enter the country. Form H: Entering Form H: Transient Typhoid Cholera Hepatitus Typhoid Hepatitus Next: Results of Experiment

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6 Invoking the Permission Schema Facilitates Conditional Reasoning • Rule: If Form H says "Entering" on one side, then it must list "cholera" on the other side. • No Permission condition: 62% correct • Permission condition: 91% correct • Invoking the permission schema improves performance on 4-card problem. Form H:
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lec10-2 - The Permission Schema Four-Card...

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