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mid2c.a-key - File = E\p355\mid2c.a-key 1 John Miyamoto...

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File = E:\p355\mid2c.a-key.doc 1 John Miyamoto Email: [email protected] http://faculty.washington.edu/jmiyamot/p355/p355-set.htm Psych 355: Introduction to Cognitive Psychology Winter 2009 Midterm 2, Version C, ANSWER KEY 1. Which of the following is evidence that working memory includes a phonological loop that maintains representations of speech or speech-like sounds? a) Î Articulatory suppression eliminates the word-length effect. b) Self-generated associations are better memory cues than associations that were produced by someone else. c) Maintenance rehearsal is a less effective strategy for learning new material than is elaborative rehearsal. d) The average memory span for unrelated letters is about 7 letters. 2. In the Brown/Peterson task, subjects are shown three letters and a number. Subjects are required to remember the three letters while counting backwards by 3's from the given number. After a set period of time, e.g., 3 seconds or 18 seconds, subjects are asked to recall the letters. A standard result is that subjects achieve 75% correct after 3 seconds, but only 10% correct after 18 seconds. This finding is evidence for what hypothesis? a) Short-term memory has limited capacity. b) Î Active maintenance is needed to retain information in short-term memory. c) Retention in short-term memory depends on active monitoring by a central executive. d) Counting backwards interferes with retrieval of the three letters from long-term memory. 3. The Brown/Peterson task is described in Questions 2. Peterson and Peterson (1959), who pioneered the investigation of this task, hypothesized that the decrease in performance over longer delays was due to _____ but later research showed that it was actually due to _____. 4. Chase and Simon’s research compared memory of chess masters and novices for the position of game pieces on sample chess boards. They found that chess masters remembered positions better than the novices when the arrangement of the pieces was consistent with a real game but not when the pieces were randomly placed. The significance of this finding was that ... a) experts show larger primacy and recency effects than novices. b) expertise in an area increases a person’s increases the rate of transfer from short-term to long- term memory. c) expertise with some material reduces susceptibility to proactive interference with that material. d) Î chunking depends on the perception of familiar patterns or concepts. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Each of the next group of questions asks you to distinguish common features and differences between: (i) the concept of short-term memory (STM) as it was originally conceived; and
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File = E:\p355\mid2c.a-key.doc 2 (ii) the concept of working memory (WM).
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