study.q's.ch11-12 - File =...

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File = E:\p355\final.study.q's.ch11-12.doc 1 John Miyamoto Email: jmiyamot@u.washington.edu http://faculty.washington.edu/jmiyamot/p355/p355-set.htm Psych 355: Introduction to Cognitive Psychology Winter 2009 Study Questions for Chapters 11 (problem solving) and 12 (reasoning and decision making) Ch 11: Problem Solving 1. The Gestalt approach to problem solving emphasizes the ideas of problem representation and the restructuring of the problem representation as a means toward solving a problem. * How does restructuring the problem help to solve the circle problem (discussed in lecture 9-1). * How does a false constraint make it difficult to solve the cheap necklace problem (lecture 9-1 and 9-2; this problem is called the chain problem in your textbook, p. 399)? 2. Metcalfe and Wiebe (1987) found that people could anticipate when they were close to solving an algebra problem, but they had less awareness of when they were close to solving an insight problem (the cheap necklace problem/chain problem). What was their evidence? 3. Functional fixedness and mental set a are two potential obstacles to problem solving. Describe these two aspects of problem solving behavior. a Mental set is called "situationally produced mental set" in your textbook (p. 403). 4. The information processing approach to problem solving tries to analyze problem solving as a series of small steps within a problem space. I won't expect you to know the details of this approach, i.e., you don't need to know the details of the approach described on pp. 404 (middle) to 408 (top), but it is worth understanding the basic ideas: * Every problem has an initial state and a goal state. * The problem lies in applying the operators (legitimate moves or transformations) to change the initial state to the goal state by moving through a series of intermediate states. See the Tower of Hanoi diagrams on p. 405 and 406. * Newell and Simon proposed a number of strategies for solving problems, like means-end analysis, but you don't need to know the details of these strategies. 5.
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study.q's.ch11-12 - File =...

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