lec03-2 - Early & Late Selection Models of Attention...

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Psychology 355: Cognitive Psychology Winter Quarter 2009 1/21/2009
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 2 Outline • Early versus late selection models of attention • Effect of task load on early versus late selection Time permitting: • Divided attention • Automaticity Next: Review Issue of Early versus Late Selection
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 3 Some Initial Questions Attention performs at least two functions: 1. Select some part of the information for high quality processing; 2. Neglect or exclude other parts of the information in order to focus on the selected information. Main question addressed by the early and late selection models of attention: At what stage in the perceptual process does selection occur? I.e., does selection occur near the sensory periphery, or does it occur only after higher processes like meaning-extraction and pattern recognition have begun to take place? Next:Broadbent’s Filter Model - Diagram
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 4 Broadbent's (1958) Filter Model Is an Early Selection Model . Messages Sensory Store Filter Detector To Memory Selection Occurs Here
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 5 Problems with Broadbent's Filter Model • Fact: People remember hearing their own name if it is presented in the unattended ear (unattended channel). Moray's cocktail party phenomenon. 9 Dear Aunt Jane 7 6 "Dear Aunt Jane" experiment (Gray & Wedderburn, 1960) Subject is told to attend to left ear – Report what you hear in your left ear. Correct response: "Dear, 7, Jane" Typical response: "Dear Aunt Jane" If Broadbent's filter is all-or-none, then subjects should give correct response. Conclusion: Subjects extract some meaning from the message in the unattended ear. Broadbent's filter must leak! Next: Treisman’s Attenuator Model
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 6 Treisman's Attenuation Model • Early selection occurs in two-stages. • The attenuator (stage I) analyzes incoming information in terms of (a) physical characteristics and (b) linguistic form, e.g., sentence structure. • The attenuator intensifies the attended information stream, and weakens (attenuates) the unattended information streams. • Dictionary Unit (stage II) detects words according to importance, e.g., my name has high importance for me; other names have lower importance. Words in the attended channel automatically get a boost in importance, but unattended channels can still get through if words in these channels have sufficient importance. Messages Sensory Store Attenuator Dictionary Unit To Memory Next: Same Diagram with Arrows Showing Where Selection Occurs in Attenuator Model
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7 Treisman's Attenuation Model Messages Sensory Store Attenuator Dictionary Unit To Memory Next: . Selection
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This note was uploaded on 10/05/2009 for the course PSYCH 355 taught by Professor Miyamoto during the Winter '08 term at University of Washington.

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lec03-2 - Early & Late Selection Models of Attention...

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