lec06-1 - Encoding, Retrieval, and Advice on How to Study...

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Encoding, Retrieval, and Advice on How to Study Psychology 355: Cognitive Psychology Winter Quarter 2009 2/9/2009
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 2 Outline • Recommendations from Memory Theory: About How to Study Effectively • Organize the Information that You Want to Remember • The Spacing Effect: Distributed Practice is More Effective than Massed Practice Next: Goldstein’s Recommendations for Effective Study
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 3 Goldstein’s Recommendations for Effective Study Habits RECOMMENDATIONS: How to build strong memories of studied material. • Organize the material in a meaningful way • Associate the material with other things you know or are interested in • Take breaks o Contrary advice: Make your studying variable (e.g., location, interpretations, examples) • Very useful website on how to study effectively: http://www.oberlin.edu/psych/studytech/ (Patricia de Winstanley) Next: Elaboration & Generation at Encoding Enhances Retrieval
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 4 • Elaborative rehearsal is more effective than maintenance rehearsal • Deeper processing at encoding generally produces more effective retrieval. • Generation Effect (next) Next: The Generation Effect
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 5 Generation Effect Generation effect: You are more likely to remember information that you retrieve or generate (during study) than information that you simply receive and attempt to “memorize.” Intuitive idea: If you do the mental work of finding relationships between what you are studying and other knowledge and concepts, . .. you will remember better than if someone else points out the relationships for you. Aside: Socratic method should be more effective than lectures. Next: Joint Effects of Depth of Processing & Generation
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 6 Slamecka & Graf’s Experiment PAD – S -- Generate rhyme of 1 st word that starts with “S”. UNHAPPY – S -- Generate synonym of 1 st word that starts with “S”. “Generate” Condition PAD – SAD Does 2 nd word rhyme with 1 st word? UNHAPPY – SAD
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lec06-1 - Encoding, Retrieval, and Advice on How to Study...

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