lec06-4 - Eyewitness Memory & (separately) The...

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Eyewitness Memory The Recovered Memory Controversy Psychology 355: Cognitive Psychology Winter Quarter 2009 2/12/2009
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 2 Outline •E y ew i t n e s s m em o r y • Misinformation effect • Guidelines for improving eyewitness memory
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 3 Eyewitness Testimony • Basic source of evidence in the Anglo-American legal system. • Historically more trusted than circumstantial evidence. • Wells and Olson (2003) sampled 100 imprisoned people whose DNA did not match the biological sample taken from the scene of the crime. More than 75% had been pronounced guilty because of eyewitness testimony. Next: Sources of Error in Eyewitness Testimony
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 4 Sources of Error in Eyewitness Testimony • Misleading familiarity Example: o You are a witness to a crime. o There is a man who wanders through your neighborhood who you have never paid attention to. o When shown this man, you mistakenly identify him as the criminal because he seems familiar. o Example of a source monitoring error . • Cross-racial identification • Line ups versus show ups. o Line up: Did one of these men do it? (People tend to respond as if the question is, who in this group looks the most like the person you saw?) o Sequential show up: Did Man A do it? Did Man B do it? etc. (Surprisingly less biased) • Verbal Overshadowing: Witness's verbal description can impair subsequent visual memory. • Post-event misinformation can bias memory (next) Next: Misinformation Paradigm
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 5 Misinformation Experimental Paradigm Subject sees a video, or a slide sequence, or reads a story. Usually, the video/slides/story describe a meaningful sequence of events. I'll call this "the video." • After the video is over, the subject is asked questions about the events. For some subjects, the questions contain misinformation (false assumptions). • Subjects receive a memory test. A misinformation effect is found if subjects who heard the misleading questions remember the video in a way that is consistent with the question and not the video. Next: Introduce Loftus, Miller & Burns Experiment
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 6 Misinformation Effect: http://www.learnmem.org/cgi/content/full/12/1/1 Slides show a traffic accident: Car A runs a stop sign and hits Car B.
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lec06-4 - Eyewitness Memory & (separately) The...

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