Lec07-1 - Introduction to Categorization Psychology 355 Cognitive Psychology Winter Quarter 2009 Outline • Categorization – what is it • The

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Introduction to Categorization Psychology 355: Cognitive Psychology Winter Quarter 2009 2/17/2009
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 2 Outline • Categorization – what is it? • The definitional theory of categorization • Problems with the definitional theory of categorization • Prototype and exemplar theories of categorization Time permitting, prototype theory will be explained today. Exemplar theory will be explained tomorrow. Next: Some Examples of Categorizations
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 3 Categorization – Examples • Categorize objects in the physical world. E.g., tables, chairs, cars, dogs, cats, trees, water, etc. • Categorize types of people. o E.g., policemen, teachers, students, politician, etc. o E.g., friend, enemy, helpful, inconsiderate, smart, talkative, etc. o E.g., white, black, asian, . ..., catholic, muslim, hindu, . ..., • Abstract categories. o "___ is a crime", e.g., theft is a crime; complaining is not a crime. o "___ is a relative of mine." (Kinship is an abstraction.) o "credit" in the financial sense is an abstraction. Next: Inferences with Categorizations
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 4 Examples of Inferences with Categories Draw an inference from a property of one category to a possible property of another category. A friend tells me that fluorescent light can wreck a cd that contains data . I think to myself, I wonder if the same thing is true of dvd's? Draw an inference from a categoriza- tion to other properties of the object. A friend tells me, "I have a collie," and I think to myself, "Hope she doesn't mind dog hair on her clothes." Categorize an object (put it into a category) I see a dog and say, "That's a mammal/dog/collie." Type of Inference Example of Reasoning with Categories Next: Definition of Categorization
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 5 Categorization – What is it? • Goldstein book: Categorization "is the process by which things are placed into groups called categories ." This is an incomplete definition. Below is a better definition. • The psychology of categorization has to do with: o how we assign objects or events to categories; o the structure of knowledge that we use to organize our knowledge of categories (category structure); o the inferences that we draw when we learn what categories an object or event belongs to; o how we learn new categories as children or adults. Next: Distinction Btwn Concepts & Categories
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 6 • Categories are related to concepts. If I have a category of "cat" then I also have a concept of a cat.
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This note was uploaded on 10/05/2009 for the course PSYCH 355 taught by Professor Miyamoto during the Winter '08 term at University of Washington.

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Lec07-1 - Introduction to Categorization Psychology 355 Cognitive Psychology Winter Quarter 2009 Outline • Categorization – what is it • The

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