lec07-3 - Network Models of Category Structure Psychology...

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Network Models of Category Structure Psychology 355: Cognitive Psychology Winter Quarter 2009 2/19/2009
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 2 Outline • Basic level of categorization (finish discussion) • Connectionist models (briefly)
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 3 Is there a basic level to cognitive representations? • Categories can often be arranged from higher-level superordinate categories (more inclusive) to lower-level subordinate categories (less inclusive; more specific). • Eleanor Rosch asked: Is there a basic level of categorization at which we habitually categorize the objects in our experience? Next: Basic Level Is Highest Level In Which Objects Share Many Features
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 4 Characteristics of the Basic Level of Categorization (Rosch) Hypothesis: The basic level is the highest level at which category members share many features. Example: List features that would be common to all or most objects in the category of (i) furniture, (ii) tables, (iii) kitchen tables. Next: Basic Level May Not Be the Same for Experts & Non-Experts
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 5 Tanaka and Taylor (1991): • Subjects were asked to name pictures: tools, clothing, 4 types of birds, . .. • For bird experts "robin", "sparrow", etc., are basic level categories. For the average person, "bird" is basic level. Next: There May Be Cultural Differences in Categorization
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 6 There can be systematic cultural differences in category knowledge • Medin et al. compared Native American (Menominee Indian) and Euro-American fish experts (fisherman). • Euro-American experts tended to sort fish into goal-related categories. • "Native American fish experts . .. tended to sort ecologically and were more likely to see positive and reciprocal ecological relations." Bottom Line: • Categorization typically uses a basic level of categorization. • Category structure can be different for different populations o Experts versus non-experts o People of different cultures Next: Outline of Network Models of Semantic
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 7 Outline of the Rest of the Lecture • Semantic network work models of categorization • Connectionist modeling • A few comments on the next midterm exam Next: Brief Overview of Semantic Network Theory
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P 355, Miyamoto, Winter '09 8 Introduction to Semantic Networks • Collins and Quillian spreading activation model Very influential idea in cognitive psychology. • Concepts are organized into networks, where linkages in the network
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This note was uploaded on 10/05/2009 for the course PSYCH 355 taught by Professor Miyamoto during the Winter '08 term at University of Washington.

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lec07-3 - Network Models of Category Structure Psychology...

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