LECTURE 03 Quantized Atom

# LECTURE 03 Quantized Atom - SUMMARY FROM LAST CLASS...

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Dr. P. Lucas U of A MSE 110 Quantization SUMMARY FROM LAST CLASS Duality wave/particle of light: light can and should be described as both a particle and a wave. Wave : Oscillating E field with wavelength, frequency, amplitude velocity, phase (all characteristics of a wave). Particle : Photons have no mass but carry an energy E=h υ and have momentum p=h/ λ . (all characteristics of a particle). Photoelectric effect demonstrates that energy is quantized: energy can only be transferred in packets (quanta). : photon energy (h υ ) transferred to the electron to extract it ( Φ ) and provide kinetic energy (½mv 2 ). : at the stopping voltage V s , no electron have enough kinetic energy to reach the cathode, the current=0. 2 2 1 v m h e + Φ = υ s e V e v m Δ = 2 2 1

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Dr. P. Lucas U of A MSE 110 De Broglie’s principle With the photoelectric effect, Einstein showed that light has both wave and particle characteristics. A photon of energy E=h υ has no mass however it has a momentum expressed as: WAVE MECHANICS c E c h h p = = = υ λ mv h p h = = De Broglie noted that even particle with mass m and velocity v (like electrons) seem to have wavelike characteristics. He extended the concept of wave/particle duality to all matter and showed that any moving body has an associated wavelength: For a particle of mass m the momentum is: p=mv
Dr. P. Lucas U of A MSE 110 De Broglie’s principle We can derive a wavelength for any moving object with a mass m and velocity v. WAVE MECHANICS mv h = λ λ is called the De Broglie wavelength. An electron accelerated in a field can be described as a wave or a particle. V + - e + Indeed, electron show wavelike behavior such as interference patterns which can not be explained by classical physics. This behavior is only significant when λ is close to the size of moving body. This relation summarized the fusion of opposite, correlate the wave

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LECTURE 03 Quantized Atom - SUMMARY FROM LAST CLASS...

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