Descartes_DiscourseOnTheMethod

Descartes_DiscourseOnTheMethod - 62 Distram’s rte la...

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Unformatted text preview: 62 Distram’s rte la métltorle CINQUIEME PARTIE L'ordre des questions dc physique 1. Je semis bieu aise de poursuivre, ct lle fairc voir ici toute la chaine des autres vérités que j'ai déduites deces premieres. Mats. it cause que, pour cet effet, il serait maintenant besom que yo parlasse de pllnsicurs questions. qui sont en controverse entre les doctes. avec lesquc 3.16 in: desire point me brouiller. je crots qu'tl sera mtenx que ye m .a'bsttcnnc. et que je disc senlemeut en general quelleselles sont. afin de pulser Juge: aux plus sages s'il serait uttlc que le public en fut plus panic? teremen informé. Je suis [40-41] toujours demeureCferme en la reso‘ution qple j'avais prise. de me supposer aucun autre printerpe quehcelut dont 1e Viens e me servir pour démontrer l'exustence de Dteu et de lame. et de ne lrccevmr aucune chose pour vraie, qui no me semblat plus clalrc ct plus‘certatne que n'avaient fail anparavanl lcs demonstrations (lcs géontélrcs. I'll neann’tonis j'ose dire que, non seuletnent j'ai .trOuvé tnoyen do me satisfatre en pen tic temps, touchant toutes les printetpales dtt‘ftcnltes dent on a L‘ftlllll‘tl'lc u: trailer en la philosophic. Innis anssr quc _| at rentarquc ccittttttps‘lots, .quc Dien a tellement établies en la nature. ct dont ii a unprune dc lcllcs‘ttottons‘ en nos times. qu‘apres y avoir fan assez dc rcflexron, nous no sauttons douter qu'elles ne soient exactement ohserveest en tout cc qut est ou‘qnlbfi fait dans le monde. Puis. en considérant la suite de ces 1015. ll me sent avoir découvert plusieurs vérités plus uttlcs'ct'pl'ns nnporlantcs quc tonl Le que j'avais appris auparavant, ou meme espcre d apprendre. . ‘ I ' d. 2. Mais parce quc j‘at tficlie denlexphquer lcs prtltClp‘d cs‘ arts Inn traité, que quelques considerations in ctnpecltent dc pithltcr, Jc tic saurais mieux faire connaitre, qu'en disant tCt somtnatrcmcnt qut contient. J‘ui en dessein d'y comprendre tout cc qnc’ 1c pcnsats savon’, .avant que de l'écrire. tonchant la nature’des choscs 'tnatcnel'les. lviaits. tout dc méme que les peintres, ne pouvant Icgalcmcnt htcn reprcsetttcr i‘ans Ill: tableau plat tontes Ics diverses faces dun corps soltde, en cherish-scat: des principales qu'ils mettent seule vers it: your. et ombrageant es: |‘ I: r autres. no [es font paraitre qu'en tant qu on lots pent votr en la irrigation . ainsi. craignant do he pouvoir mettre en mon discours tout cc quc j dvats e: la pcnsée, j'cntrepris settlement dy cxposcr bicn amplemcnt cc quc j Discourse on the Method 63 PART FIVE The Order of the Questions of Physics I. I would be quite glad to continue, and to show here the whole chain of other truths that l have deduced from these first ones. But, because, in order to do this, it would now be necessary that I were to speak about many questions that are in a state of contwversy among the teamed, with whom I do not at all desire to quarrel, i believe that it will be better that I would abstain therefrom. and that I would say only generally which these questions are, in order to permit the more wise to judge whether it would be useful that the public were more particularly informed of them. I have always remained firm in the resolution that I had made not to suppose any principle other than the one of which I have just made use in order to demonstrate the existence of God and of the soul, and not to accept anything as true that were not to seem to me more clear and tnore cenain than the detnonstratimis of the geometch had previously seemed. And I dare to say. nonetheless. not only that I have found a means of satisfying myself in a short time regarding all the principal difficulties of which one is accustomed to treat in phiIOSOphy, but also that l have noticed certain laws that God has so established in nature, and of which he has impressed such notions in our souls. that, after having engaged in enough reflection thereupon, we could not doubt that they be exactly observed in all that which is or which occurs in thevworld. Moreover, in considering the consequences of these laws, 1 seem to me to have discovered many truths more useful and more important than all that which I had previously learned, or even hoped to learn. 2. llut. because I have tried to explain the principal ones of these truths in a treatise that certain considerations prevented me from publishing, I could not better make them known than by summarily saying hen: what it contains. I had had the plan of including in it all that which I thought that I knew, before writing it down, concerning the nature of material things. But, just as painters, not being able to represent equally well on a flat surface all the various sides ofa solid body. by choosing one of the principal ones, which they place alone facing the light. and shading the others. make the latter appear only in so far as one can see them by regarding the former: just so. being afraid of not being able to put into my discourse all that which I had in my thought. I undertook merely to give in it quite an ample exposition of that of which I had conceived with respect :14. 5 .;.. z :- 64 Discours de (a métltade concevais dc la luniietc; puis, a son occasion. d‘y ajoutcr qnclquc chum dn .soleil et des étoiles fixes. a cause qu'ellc en proccdc presquc toutc; dcs cieux, a cause qu'ils Ia transrnettent; dcs planctes, des cometes et do In tons, a cause qu'elles la font réfléchir; et en parttcnher de tous les corps'qut sont sur la terre, a cause qu'ils sent on colorés,_ou transparents. on luminous; et . cnfin de l'homme. a cause qu'il cu est le spectatcur. Meme, pour outbragcr . un peu toutes ces choses. ct pouvoir dire plus l'ibrcment ce que J an Jugcais: sans étre oblige dc suivre ni de réluter lcs opinions out sont recues cnlrc lcs doctes, je me révsolus de laisser'tout at; month: ICI a Ieurs disputes. ct’dc 'parlervseulement de ce qui arriverait dans un .nouveau, SI Dtcu errant maintenant quclquc part. dans lcs espaccs unagtnalrcs, assez dc mattcrc pour le composer, et‘qu'ilvagitfit diversement ethsans ordrc lcs iltvcrscs parties decettc matiere, en sorte qu'ilven composat un. chaos ausst cottfus .qugtcs poems en p‘uissent feindrev.‘ et que. par apresstl nc lit antre'chosc. que'préter son concours ordittaire a la natures et [a latsser agtr sutvant [cs lois qu'il a établies. Ainsi,‘ premtérement. 1c decnvts cctte mattére. cl ’ tachai de la representer telle qu'il n‘y a man an mofindeucc' me semblc, de plus clair in plus intelligible. excepté cc qut a t‘antot etc (“1'th Dicu ct dc l'fimcz' car meme 'jc supposai. expressémcnt, qu ll [42-43] a y avatt cn clic aucune'deces forlncs'ou qualités donton dispute darts lcs éculcs. Ill generalement aucune chose, dont la conttaissancc nc f at St naturcllc a nos times. qu'on’ ne pt’i't pas méme I’eindre de l'ignorcr. Dc plus,‘Jc its volr V quelles étaient les lois de la nature; et, sans appuycr mesraisons-suf aucuh autre principe ’que sur vies perfections mimics dc Dtcu, 1c tacluu a . démontrer toutescelles dout on cut pu avonr quclquc doute, cl :1 lane voln I qu'elles'sont te'iles. qu'encore que Dieu aurait créé pliiStcurs mondcs. ll n y en saurait avoir aucun on elles manquassent d'étre observecs. Apres cola, ..je montrai crimment la plus grande part de la matterc de Ce chaos dcvaitr en ‘.'-suite de ces lois, se disposer et s'arranger'd'une certaine facon qu: la I'rendait scmblable a nos cieux; comment, cependant, (tuelques-uiies de ses parties devaient composer une terre, et quclqucs—u‘nes des planetes ct dcs .. cometes, ct quelqucs autres utisolcil‘ct Ides étorlcs Itxcs. Hist Ici, mctendant _. sur lc sajet de la lumiere,j'expliqua_1 bten aug'long quellc ctatt cellc qua so devait trouve'r dans Ie soleil et les étoilcs, ct comment de la clle traversatt ‘ .en un instant Iles inunenses espaces dcs cicux. ct comment cllc so réfléchissait des' planetcs et des cométes vers in tone. l‘y ajoutai auss: ' plusieurschoscs, touchant la substance, la Situation. les nlo‘uvcments ct toutes les diverses qualités de ces cicux et de ces astres: en sorte _que 1:: pensais en dire assez, pour faire connaitrevqu'tl ne se ternarqueh nen en .ceux dc cc Inonde, qui ne dfit, on do moins qut he put, paraltre tout Discourse on tin” titer/tad 65 to light; then. on the right'occasion. to add something about the sun and the ‘ fixed stars, because light proceeds almost totally from them: something about the heavens, because they transmit light; about the planets. the comets and the earth, because they canse light to reflect; and, in particular, about "all terrestrial bodies, because they are either colored, or transparent, or luminous; and, finally. about man, because he is the observer thereof. All V the same. in order to shade all these things a bit. and to be able to say more freely that which I judged of them withoutbeing obligedeither to follow or to refute the Opinions that are accepted among the teamed,.l.resolve(l to ' leave this'Wholc world here to their disputes, and to speak only of that which would happen in a ncw'world. ifGod now" created enough matter to compose it,- sOmcwh'cre in '_inutginary spaces. and if he were‘to agitate in various ways and without order the different partsof this matter, so that he * were'to compose of it in chaos as confused as the poets could feign with ' respect to it. and that. at terwards,‘ he were not to do anything other than to ‘ lend his ordinary concurrence to nature.‘and to let it act in accordance with the laws that: he has established. Thus,,first; l describedthis matter and tried to represent it in such a way thatthcre is nothing in the world more clear and more intelligible. it seems to me, except for that which has already been said about (End and the soul: for I even supposed, expressly. that there was in this matter none of tltosefonns or qualities about which one disputes in the schools. nor generally anything the knowledge of which were not so natural to our souls that one were not even able topretend to * be ignorant of it. "Moreover.'l showed-which were tltcjlawsof nature; and, "Vwithout supporting my rcasonings on any other principle than the infinitc ' "perfectiuns of God. I‘tricd to demonstrate all thosclaws about which one might have been able" to have any doubt, and to show that they are such that; even if God had created many worlds. there could not be any of them in 'which these laws failed who observed, After that, 'I'showed how. as a consequence Of these laws. the greater part of thematter of thisichaos had "toibc disposed and arranged in a certain fashion, which rendered it similar to our heavens; how. at the same time, some of its parts had to compose an ' earth, and'bthers, planets ahdcornels. and still Iothers, a sunaudfixed stars. And here. dwelling on the subject of light, [ explained at some length which was that light which had to be foundin the sunand the stars, and how from thence it traversed in an instant the immense spaces of the ’ heavens.‘and howit was reflected fromthe planetsand the comets toward the earth. To this i also added many things concerning the substance, the position, the movements and all the various qualities of these heavens and these stars; as a result, I thoaght that I had said enough about these things to make it known that there is nothing to be observed in those of this world which were not to have to. or at‘lcast which were not to be able to, appear 66 Discours (11’ la métlmde semblable en ceux du monde [43-44l que je décrivais. De la je vins a parler particulierement de la terre: comment, encore que j'eusse expressément suppose que Dieu n'avait mis aucune pesantcur en la matiere dont elle était composée, toutes ses parties ne laissaient pas de lendre exactement vers son centre; comment. y ayant de l'eau et de l'air sur sa superficie, la disposition des cieux et des astres, principalement de la lune, y devait causer un flux et reflux, qui fut sernblable, en toutes ses circonstances, a celui qui se remarque dans,nos mers; et outre cela un certain cours, tant de l'eau que de l'air, du levaut vers le coucltant, tel qu'on le remarque aussi entre les tropiques; comment les montagnes, les mers, les foutaines et les riviéres pouvaient naturcllement s'y former, et les métaux y venir dans les mines, et les plantes y croitre dans les campagnes, et généralement tous les corps qu'ou nomme mélés ou composes s'y engendrer. Et entre autres choses, a cause qu'aprés les astres je ne connais rien au monde que le feu qui produise de la lumiere, je m'étudiai a faire entendre bien clairement tout ce qui appartient a sa nature, comment il se fait, comment il se nourrit; comment il n'a quelquefois que de la chaleur sans lumiere, et quelquefois que de la lumiere sans chaleur; comment il peut introduire diverses couleurs en divers corps, et diverses autres qualités; comment il en fond quelques—uns, et en durcit d'autres; comment il les peut consumer presque tous, ou convertir en cendres et en fumée; et enfin, comment de ces cendres, par la settle violence de son action, it forme du verre; car cette transmutation de [44-45] cendres en verre me'semblant étre aussi admirable qu'aucune autre qui se fasse en la nature, je pris particulierement plaisir a la décrire. ‘ 3. Toutefois, je ne voulais pas inférer, de toutes ces choses, que ce monde ait été créé en la facon que je proposais; car il est bien plus vraisemblable que, dés le commencement, Dieu l'a rendu tel qu'il devait étre. Mais il est certain, et c'est une opinion communément recue entre les théologiens, que l'action, par laquelle maintenant il le conserve, est toute la méme que celle par laquelle il l'a créé; de facon qu'encore qu'il ne lui aurait point donné, au commencement, d'autre l'orme que celle du chaos, pourvu qu'ayant établi les lois de la nature, il lui prétat son concours, pour agir ainsi qu'elle a de coutume, on peut croire, sans faire tort au miracle de la creation, que par cela seul toutes les choses qui sont purcment matérielles auraient pu, avec le temps, s'y rendre telles que nous les voyons a présent. Et leur nature est bien plus aisée a concevoir, lorsqu'on les voit naitre peu a peu en cette sorte, que lorsqu'on ne les considere que toutes faites. 4. De la description (165 corps inanimés et des plantes, je passai it celle des animaux et paniculierement a celle (les hommes. Mais parce que je n'en avais pas encore assez de connaissance pour en parler du meme style que du reste, c'est—a-dire en demontrant les effets par les causes, et faisant Discourse (m the Method 67 totally similar in those of the world that l have described. From there, 1 went on to speak in particular of the earth: how, althouglt I had expressly supposed that God had not posited arty gravity in the matter out of which it was composed, all its pans did not cease to tend exactly toward its center; how, there being water and air on its surface, the disposition of the heavens and of the stars, principally of the moon, had to cause there an ebb and a flow that were similar, in all respects, to that which is observed in our seaS‘ and, besides that, a certain coursing, as much of water as of air, from east to west, such as one also observes between the tropics; how mountains, seas, springs and rivers could naturally be formed there, and how metals could get into mines there, and how plants could grow in the fields there and generally how all those bodies which one calls "mixed" or "composed': could be engendered there. And, among other things, because over and above the stars 1 know of nothing else in the world that would produce light except fire, I made an effort to make very clearly understood all that which pertains to its nature: how it is generated, how it is fueled; how it possesses sometimes only heat without light, and sometimes only light wrthout heat; how it can produce different colors, and different other qualities, in different bodies; how it melts some of them, and hardens others; how it can consume almost all of them, or convert them into ashes and smoke; and, finally, how from these ashes, solely by the force of its action, it forms glass; for, this transmutation of ashes into glass seeming to me to be as wonderful as any other that were to occur it] nature, I took particular pleasure in describing it. 3. Yet I did not want to infer front all these things that this world had been created in the fashion in which 1 proposed; for it is much more likely that God has, from the beginning, rendered it such as it had to be. But it is certain, and it is an opinion commonly accepted among theologians, that the action by means of which he is now conserving it is just the same as the act by means of which he has created it; so that, even if he had, in the beginning, given the world no other form at all but that of a chaos, provided that he has established the laws of nature, and he were to lend it his concurrence in order for nature to operate thus as it is accustomed to do, one can believe, without finding fault with the miracle of creation, that by this means alone all the things that are purely material could have been rendered, in the course of time, such as we see them at present. And their nature is much easier to conceive of when one sees them cornittg to be little by little in this manner than when one considers them only as totally finished. 4. From the description of inanimate bodies and of plants 1 passed on to that of animals and in particular to that of men. But, because I did not yet have sufficient knowledge of them to speak of them in the same manner as of the rest, that is to say, by demonstrating the effects from the 68 Discom's de la méthode voir dc quelies sentences. et en quelle faqon, la nature les doit protluire, it: me contentai de supposer que Dieu tortnfit 1c corps d'un hornnte, entiérement semblahlc it [4540] l'un des noties, taut en In figure extérienrc de ses tuentbres qu'en la conformation interieure dc ses organics, sans le composer tl'autre maticrc que tle celle quc j'avais decrite. et suns n'tettre en lui. au corutncneement. aucurte {one raisoonalile. ni aocuue autre chose pour y servir d‘iitne végétante on sensitive. sinon qu'il excitat err-son coenr un tie ces fen): sans lun'iiet‘e, que j'avais (léjz'l expliqués,-et que je ne concevais point tl‘tuttre nature que celui qui échattl‘l‘e le foin. lorsqu'on l‘a rcnferme avant qu'il fill sec, on qui l'ait bouillirllcs vins nouvcatts, lorsqu'on Ics laisse enver sat in rape. Car, exatninant les functions qui ponvaient en suite de eela étre en etc-corps, j‘y-trouvais exactement toutcs celles qui peuvent Eire en nous sans que nous y pensions, ni par consequent quc notre time, c'est-a-dire cette panic distincte du corps clout it a été tlit ci-dessus que la nature n'est que de penscr, y contrihue, et qui sont toutes les mémes en quoi on pent dire que les animaux sans raison nous ressemhlcnl: sans que j’y en posse pour eels trouver aucune tic celles qui. étant dependantes tie in pensee, sont les seules qui nous appariienncnt en taut qu'luunnies, an licu qne lie lets y trouvais toutcs par apres. ayant suppose quc Dicu créat ttttc {tine misonnable. ct qu'il la joignit-it. cc corps en certaine facon que je décrivais. 5. Mats, al'm qu'on puisse voir en quellc snrte j'y ttaitais ccttt: ntaticre. je veils nicttre ici l'cxplication du nttmvcment do coeur et ties arteries, qui, étant lc premier et lc plus general qn'on observe dans Ics animaus, on juget'a fttcilelnelll tic lul cc qtt'on (loil 146—47] poltset' tie tons les-autres. Et afin qu'on ait moins dc difficulté it ententh‘e ce que j’en tiit‘a‘t, je vourirais que cent; qui rte sout point vet'sés dens l'anatontie prissent la peitte, avant que dc lire eeel. de faire cooper (lcvant eux le coeur de quelque grand animal qui ait {les-potuuons, car it est- en tous asses semblable a celui de l‘honune, et; qn'ils se fisseut monitor les deux chambres on concavites qui y sont, Premieretnent. celle qui est thins son cote droit, it laquelle répottdent deux tuyaux fort larges: s savoir la veine cave, qui est-lo principal receptacle du sattg. et'eotnme letrouc de l'arhrc dont {flutes les autres veincs tlu corps sout les lu'anches. ct la seine artérieuse, qui it etc ainsi inst nouunée, paree que c'est en ei‘l'et one amino, laquellc. prenaut son origine tlu coeur, sc divise, apres en etre sortie. en plusieurs branches qui se vont i'tipantlre |Jill'l0ul daus lcs pouutous. 'Puis. celle qui est dans sou cfité gauche, it laquelle répondcnt en rnctue facon (leux tuyaux. qui soul outant en plus larges que les precedents: ft savoir Discourse on the Mel/tor! 69 causes. and by showing from which seeds and in what fashion nature must produce them. 1 contented myself with supposing that God were to form the body of a man. entirely similar to one of our own as much in the external shape of its members as in the internal arrangement of its organs Without composing it of any material other than of that which I had descrilxed. and without positing, in it, in the beginning, any rational soul or any other thing to serve there as a vegetative or sensitive soul. but rather that he were to kindle in its heart one of those fires without light which I had-already explained, autliwltich l (lid not at all conceive to be of a nature other than that which heats hay when one has enclosed it before it were dry. or which makes new wines boil when one leaves them to ferment from the crashed grapes. For, examining the functions that could, as a result of tins, be in this body, I fountl there precisely all those which can be in without our thinking of them, autl,'a's a Consequence, without our soul that is tolstty. that part, distinct frotn the body. of which it has been said above that its nature is only to think. contributing to them. and which are all the same funenons in which one can say that the animals 'without reason [LCSCIllhltt tts:- ' but I could not fo'r'lllal reason find there. any of those functions which. beings, dependent on thought, are the only ones that pertain to us as men. although I did find all these later on. Itaviue supposed that (rod were to create a rational soul and that he were to join if to this body in a particular fashion that 1 described. ' ' I 5. lint, in order that one might he able to see in which manner ] there il'l‘ElICLl‘llf this matter. i want to place here the explanation of the movement ot the heart and of the arteries; this being the first and the most general movement that one observes in animals, on the basisof it one-will easily Judge that which one ought-t0 think about all the others. And in order that one were to have less difficulty in understandino that which i shall say about this movement. 1 would like those who are not at all versed IIi anatomy to take the trouble. hefore'reatliug this, to have dissected before them the heart of some large animal that had lungs, for such a hcatt is in all respects sufficiently similar to that of a man. and to let themselves be shown the two chamhers or cavities that are in it. First. there is the chamber or cavity that is on the right side of the heart. to which correspond two very large tithes: namely, the-Venn cava. which is the prtnctpa! receptacle of the blood. and which is like the trunk of a tree of which all the other veins of the hotly are the branches; anti the arterial vein, which has thus lteen badly named, because it is, in effect. an artery one which. taking its origin front the heart, divides, after havirqI left it‘ into many branches that go on to spread themselves all thronoh this lungs: then. there is the chamber or cavin that is on the left side ofhthc heart to which correspond, in the same fashion, two tubes that are as large as‘or larger titan the preceding ones: namely, the venous artery, which has also 70 Discours de la mélltode l'ar‘tére veineuse, qui a été aussi mal nominee, it cause qu'elle n‘est autre chose qu'une veine, laquelle vient des poumons, on elle est divisee en plusieurs branches, entrelacées avec celles de la veine ar’térieuse, et celles de ce conduit qu'on nornme lc sifflet, par of: entre l'air de la respiration; et la grande artere, qui, sortant du coeur, envoie ses branches par tout Ie corps. .le voudrais aussi qu'on leur montrat soigneusernent les onze petites peaux, qui, comme autant de petites portes, ouvrent et ferment les quatre ouvertures qui sont en ces deux concavités: a sal47-48jvoir, trois a l'entree de la veine cave, or] elles sont tellernent disposées, qu'elles ne peuvent aucunernent empécher que le sang qu‘elle contient ne coule dans la concavité droite du coeur. et toutefois empéchent exacternent qu'il n‘en puisse sortir; trois a l'entrée de la veine artérieuse, qui, étant disposécs tout au contraire, pennettent bien au sang, qui est dans cette concavité, de passer dans les poumons, rnais non pas a celui qui est dans les poumons d'y retoumer; et ainsi deux autres a l'entrée de l'artere veineuse, qui laissent couler le sang des poumons vers la concavité gauche du coeur, rnais s'opposent a son retour; et trois a l'entrée de la grande artére, qui lui pennettent de sortir du coeur, rnais l'empéchent d'y retourner. [it il n'est point besoin de chercher d'autre raison du nornbre de ces peaux, sinon que l‘ouverture de l'artere veineuse, étarrt en ovale a cause du lien or] elle se rencontre, peut étre comrnodément fermée avec deux, au lieu que les autres, étant rondes, le peuvent mieux étre avec trois. De plus. je voudrais qu'on leur fit considérer que la grande artere et la veine artérieuse sont d'une composition beaucoup plus dure et plus ferrne que ne sont l'artere veineuse et la veine cave; et que ces deux dernieres s'élargissent avant que d'entrer dans le coeur, et y font cornrne deux bourses, nominees les oreilles du coeur, qui sont cornposées d‘une chair semblable a la sienne; et qu'il y a toujours plus de chaleur dans le coeur qu'en aucun autre endroit du corps; et, enfin, que cette chaleur est capable de faire que, s'il entre quelque goutte de sang en ses concavités, elle s‘enfle prompternent et se [48-49l dilate, ainsi que font généralement toutes les liqueurs, lorsqu'on les laisse tomber goutte a goutte en quelque vaisseau qui est fort chaud. 6. Car, aprés cela, je n'ai besoin de dire autre chose pour expliquer le mouvernent du coeur, sinon que, lorsque ses concavités ne sont pas pleines de sang, il y en coule nécessairernent de la veine cave dans la droite. et de l'artére veineuse dans la gauche; d'autant que ces deux vaisseaux en sont toujours pleins, et que leurs ouvertures, qui regardent vers le coeur, ne peuvent alors étre bouche’es; mais que, sit6t qu'il est entré ainsi deux gouttes de sang, une en chacune de ses concavités, ces gouttes, qui ne peuvent étre que fort grosses, a cause que les ouvertures par on elles entrent sont fort larges, et les vaisseaux d'oit elles viennent fort pleins de sang, se raréfient et se dilatent, a cause de la chaleur qu'elles y trouvent, an rnoyen de quoi, faisant enfler tout le coeur, elles poussent ct ferment les Discourse 0n the Method 71 been badly named, because it is nothing other than a vein, one which comes from the lungs, where it is divided into many branches interlaced with those of the arterial vein artd with those of the conduit that one calls the “windpipe”, through which enters the air of respiration; and the great artery, which, leaving the heart, sends its branches all through the body. I would also like one carefully to show those not versed in anatomy the eleven little membranes which, like so many little doors, open and close the four openings that are in these two cavities: namely, three at the entrance to the vena cava, where they are so disposed that they cannot in any way prevent the blood that it contains from flowing into the right cavity of the heart, and yet they effectively prevent it from being able to leave it; three at the entrance to the arterial vein, which, being disposed totally to the contrary, readily permit the blood that is in this cavity to pass into the lungs, but do not permit the blood that is in the lungs to retum there; and, likewise, two others at the entrance to the venous artery, which let blood flow from the lungs into the left cavity of the heart, but block its return; and three at the entrance to the great artery, which permit blood to leave the heart, but prevent it from returning there. And there is no need at all to search for any other reason for the rmrnber of these membranes except that the opening to the venous artery, being oval because of the place where it is found, can conveniently be closed with two, while the other openings, being round, can better be closed with three. Moreover, I would like one to make those not versed in anatomy consider that the great artery and the arterial vein are of a much ltarder and firmer composition than are the venous artery and the vena cava; and that these latter two get larger before entering into the heart, and there form, as it were, two pouches, called the "auricles" of the heart, which are composed of a flesh similar to that of the heart; and that there is always more heat in the heart than in any other place in the body; and, finally, that this heat is capable of making it happen that, if a drop of blood enters into the cavities of the heart, the drop promptly expands and dilates, just as all liquids generally do when one pours them drop by drop into some vessel that is very hot. 6. Now, after this, I have no need of saying anything else in order to explain the movement of the heart except that, when its cavities are not full of blood, some blood necessarily flows from the vena cava into the right cavity, and from the venous artery into the left cavity, in as much as these two vessels are always full of blood, and their openings, which open toward the heart, cannot then be closed; but, as soon as two drops of blood have thus entered the heart, one into each of its cavities, these drops, which cannot but be very large because the openings through which they enter are very wide and the vessels from whence they come are quite full of blood, are rarefied and dilated lwcause ol' the heat that they find there, by means of which, making the whole heart expand, they push and close the five little 72 Discours de [a mérhode cinq petites portcs qui sont aux entrées dcs dcux vaisseaux d'oit cites viennent, empechant ainsi qu'il rte descende davantage de sang dans le coeur; cl continnant it so I'arél'ier dc plus en plus, elles poussent ct nuvmnt les six autres petites portes qui sont aux entrees dcs dcux autrcs vaisscaux par oh elles sortenl. l'aisant ettflcr par cc moyen lonlcs lcs branches dc la veine artérieuse et de la grands artere. quasi au meme instant que le cocur; lequel, incontinent apres, se désenfle, comme font aussi ces adores, a cause que le sang qui y est entré s'y refroidit, et Ieurs six petites portes se refennent, et les cinq de la veine cave et de I'ztrtere veineuse se rouvrent, et donnent pasaage it [49-50] deux autrcs gouttesde sang. qui font dercchef ‘ curler le cocur ct [es artéres, tout de meme que‘les précédentes. Et parce que le sang, qui entre ainsi dans le coeur. passe par ces deux bourses qu'on uomme ses oreillcs, do n vicnt que leur tnouvemcnt est contraire an sicn, ct- qu'elles se désenflent Iorsqu'il s'cnfle. Au reste, afin que ceux qui ne connaissent pas la force des demonstrations mathématiques, or no soul pas accoutumés a distinguer les vraies raisons de's vraisemblables. ne se hasardent pas de nier ce‘ci sans I‘examiner, je les veux avertir que ce monvement, que je viens'd'expliquer, suit aussi nécessaircment de la seulc ' disposition des organes q’u'on pent voir it l'oeil dans le coeur. et de la chaleur qu‘on y peut‘sentir avec les doigts, ct dc la nature du sang qu'ou pent counaitre par experience, que fail celui d'une horloge, de la force, de in situation et do In figure dc ses contrepoids ct dc ses mues. 7. Mais si on demande comment le sang des veincs rte s'épuise point. en coulant ainsi continuellement dans le coeur. et comment les artéres n'en sont point trop remfil‘ies’, puisque tout cclui qui passe par le cocur s'y va rendre. je n'ai pas bESOitt d'y répondre autre chose qnc ce qui a déja été écrit par un tnédecin d'Angletcrre. anquel il faut tlonner la lottangc d'avoir. rompu la glaee en cet endroit, ct d'étre le premier qui a enseigné qu'il y a plusieurs petits passages aux extrémités des artéres, par oi] le sang qu'elles receivent du coeur entre dans les petites branches des veines, d'ott iI se va rendre derechef vers le coeur, en'sorte que son cours n'est autvre chose qu'une circulaISO-Slhion 'perpétuelle. Ce qu'il pronve fort bicn, par l’expérience ordinaire des chirurgiens, qui ayant lie 16 bras médiocrement fort. au-dessus de l'endroit oil ils ouvrent la veinc. font que le sang en sort plus abondamment que s'ils ne l‘avaient point lié. 13! ll arriverait tout le contraire. s'ils le Iiaient alt-(lessons, entre la main et l‘ouvennre, ou bicn qu’ils le liassent tres fort au—dessus. Car il est manifesto que lo lien tnédiocnement serré. pouvant empécher que le sang qui est-déja dans le bras nc retourne vers le coeur par les veincs, n’empéche pas pour cela qn'il n'y Discourse on the Method 73 doors that are at the entrances to the two vessels from whence they come. thusprcventtng arty more blood from descending into the heart; and continuing to become more attd more rarefied, they push and open the six. other little doors, which are at the entrances to the other two vessels by which they leave. causing to expand, by this means, all the branches of’the arterialvein and of the great artery. almost at the same instant as the heart- immediately afterward, the heart contracts, as do these arteries, too. because the blood that has entered them gets cold there. and their six little doors close again, and-the five doors of the vena cava and of the venous artery open again, and grant passage to two other drops of blood, which immediately make the heart and the arteries expand, just tlte same as the preceding ones did. And. because the blood that thus enters into the heart passes through the two pouches that one calls its "auricles". from thence does it follow that their Inevement is contrary to that of the heart. and that they contract, while it expands. As for the rest, in order that those who do not know the force of mathematical demonstrations, and who are not accustomed to distinguishing true reasons from probable ones. should not venture to deny this withom examining it. l want to advise them that this movement which l have just explained follows just as necessarily from the mere disposition of the organs, which one can see in the heart with the eye and from the heat. which one can sense there with the fingers, and from the nature of the blood, which one can know through observation as the movement of a clock does from the force, the position and the shape of its counterweights and of its wheels. - " 7. But. it” one asks how it is that the blood in the veins does not at all get exhausted. in flowing thus continually into the heart; and how it is that the arteries are not at all too full of blood, since all the blood that passes through the heart is going-to return to them, tothis I do not need to‘ answer anything but that which-has already been written by a physician of England: to whom it is neccssary to give the credit for having broken the tee to this area, and for being the first who has taught that there are many small passages at the extremities of the arteries, through which the blood that they receive from the heart enters into the small branches of the veins from where it is going to retunt immediately toward the heart, so that its course is nothing other than a perpetual circulation. This he very elfecttvely proves from the ordinary experience of surgeons. who. having bound an arm moderately tightly above the spot where they are opening the vent. cause the blood to flow out of it more abundantly than if they had not bound the arm at all. And just the opposite would happen if they bound the arm below. between the hand and the opening, or even if they were to bind it very tightly above. FOr it is manifest that the tourniquet, moderately tight, being able to prevent the blood that is already in the arm front returmng toward the heart through the veins, does not for that reason 74 Diseours de la méthode en vienne toujours de nouveau par les artéres, a cause qu'elles sont situees au-dessous des veines, et que leurs peaux, étant plus dures. sont morns aisécs a presser, et aussi que le sang qui vient tlu coeur tend avec plus de force a passer par elles vers la main, qu'il ne fall a retourner de la vers le coeur par les veines. lit, puisque ce sang sort du bras par louverture qui est en l'une des veines, il doit nécessairement y avorr quelques passages‘au- dessous du lien, c'est-a—dire vers les extrémités du bras, par ou il y pursse venir des arteres. ll prouve aussi fort biep ce qu'il dit du cours du sang, par certaines petites peaux, qui sont tellernent disposées en divers 'heux le long des veines, qu'elles ne lui permettent pornt d'y passer du’ nnheu du corps vers les extrémités, rnais seulernent dc retourner des CXerttlllCS vers le coeur; et, de plus, par l'expériencequi montre que tout celui qur est dans le corps en peut sonir en fort peu de temps par une’ seule artere, lorsqu elle est coupée. encore meme qu'elle rm étrortement hee fort proche du coeur, et coupée entre lui et le lien, en sorte qu'on [51-52) neut aucun quet d'imaginer que le sang qui en sortirait vint d'arlleurs. ‘ . 8. Mais i1 y a plusieurs autres choses qut temorgnent que la vrate cause de ce mouvement du sang est celle que j'ai dite. Corinne, premierement, la difference qu'on remarque entre celui quiuson des ’veines et celui qui sort des arteres, ne peut procéder que de ce qu etant rarefie, et comme distillé, en passant par le coeur, il est plus subttl et plus vtf et‘plus chaud incontinent aprés en étrc sorti, c'est-it—dire. étant dans les arteres, qu'il n'est un peu devant que d'y entrer, c'est—ajdire, étant dans les .vetnes. Et, si on y prend garde, on trouvera que cette’dtfférence ne parart bien que vers le coeur, et non point tant aux lieux qui en sont les plus elorgries. Puts la dureté des peaux, dont la veine artérieuse et la grande artere sont composées, montre assez que le sang bat contre elles avec plus de force que contre les veines. Et pourquoi la concavité gauche du coeur et lagrande artere seraient—elles plus amples et plus larges que la concavrté drotte et’la veine artérieuse? Si ce n'était que le sang de l'artére vei‘neuse, n'ayant ete que dans les poumons depuis qu'il a passe par le coeur, est/plus subtil et se raréfie plus fort et plus aisément que celur qut vtent immediaternent de la veine cave. Et qu'esbce que les médecins peuvent devrner, en tatant le pouls, s'ils ne savent que, selon que le sang change de nature, tl peut etre raréfié par la chaleur du coeur plus ou moms fort, et plus ou moms .vne qu'auparavant? Et si on examine comment cette chaleur se cornrnurnque aux autres membres, ne faut-il pas avouer que c'est [52—531 par le rnoyen du sang, qui, passant par le coeur, s'y réchauffe. et se répand de 1;] par tout Discourse on the Method 75 prevent any new blood from continuing to come in through the arteries. because they are situated below the veins, and their membranes, being harder. are less easy to press. and also because the blood that comes frotn the heart tends to pass through the arteries toward the hand with greater force than it does in returning from there toward the heart through the veins. And. since this blood leaves the arm through the opening that is in one of the veins, there must necessarily be some passages below the tourniquet, that is to say, toward the extremities of the arm, through which it could come frotn the arteries. That which the physician of England says about the course of the blood he also proves quite effectively by means of certain small membranes that are so disposed in various places on the length of the veins that they do not at all permit the blood to pass from the middle of the body toward the extremities. but only pennit it to return from the extremities toward the heart; and, moreover, by means of the experiment that shows that all the blood that is in the body can flow out of it in a very short time through a single artery when it is cut open, even if the artery were tightly bound quite close to the heart and cut open between the heart and the tourniquet, so that one had no reason to imagine that the blood that would flow out of it were to come from elsewhere. 8. But there are many other things that attest thereto that the true cause of this movement of the blood is that which I have said. For, first, the difference that one notices between the blood that leaves the veins and the blood that leaves the arteries can proceed only therefrom that, being rarefied, and. as it were, distilled, in passing through the heart, the blood is thinner, livelier and warmer just after having left it, that is to say. being in the arteries, than it is a little before entering it, that is to say, being in the veins. And, if one takes note of it, one will find that this difference manifestly appears only toward the heart. and not at all so much in those places which are the furthest removed therefrom. ’lhen, the hardness of the membranes of which the arterial vein and the great artery are composed shows well enough that the blood strikes against them with more force than against the veins. And why would the left cavity of the heart and the great artery be larger and wider than the right cavity and the arterial vein — if it were not that the blood of the venous artery, having been only in the lungs after it has passed through the heart, is thinner and is more strongly and more easily rarefied than that which comes immediately from the vena cava? And what can physicians divine, in taking the pulse, if they do not know that, according to how the blood changes its nature. it can be rarefied by the heat of the heart more or less strongly and more or less quickly than before? And, if one examines how this heat is communicated to the other members. is it not necessary to admit that it is by means of the blood, which, passing through the heart, is there warmed again, and is spread, from there, all through the body? l’rom whence it comes that, if 76 Discours (1c la métltodc le corps? D'oit vient que, si on file le sang de quelque partie, on en ()te par meme moyen la chaleur; et encore que le coeur flit aussi ardent qu'un fer cmbrasé, il ne suffirait pas pour réchauffer les picds et les mains tant qu'il fait, s'il n'y envoyait continuellernent de nouveau sang. l’uis aussi on connait de la que le vrai usage de la respiration est d'apporter assez d'air frais dans le pournon, pour faire que le sang, qui y vient de la concavité droite du coeur, ou il a été raréfié et cornme changé en vapeurs, s'y épaississe et convertisse en sang derechef, avant que (le retomber dans la gauche, sans quoi il ne pourrait étre propre a se‘rvir de nourriture au feu qui y est. Ce qui se confinne, parce qu'on voit que les animaux qui n'ont point de pouruons n'ont aussi qu'une seule concavité dans le coeur, ct que les enfants, qui n'en peuvent user pendant qu'ils sout renfermés au ventre de leurs meres, out true ouverture par ou il coule du sang de la veine cave en la concavité gauche du coeur, et un conduit par oi] il en vient de la veine artérieuse en la grande artere, sans passer par le poumon. l’uis la coction, comment se ferait-elle en l'estomac, si le coeur n'y envoyait de la chaleur par les artéres, et avec cela quelques—unes des plus coulantes parties du sang, qtti aident a dissoudre les viandes qu'on y a mises? lit l'action qui convertit le suc de ces viandes en sang n'est—elle pas aisée a connaitre, si on considere qu'il se distille, en passant et repassant par le coeur, peut-etre par plus de cent ou deux cents fois en chaque jour? lit qu'a-t»on besoin d'autre chose, [53-54] pour expliquer la nutrition, et la production des diverses humeurs qui sont darts le corps, sinon de dire que la force, dont Ie s'ang en se raréfiant passe du coeur vers les extrémités des arteres, fait que quelques-unes de ses parties s'arrétent entre celles des rnembres ou elles se trouvent, ct y prennent la place de quelques autres qu'elles en cltassent; et que, selon la situation, ou la figure, ou la petitesse des pores qu'elles rencontrent, les unes se vont rendre en certains lieux plutOt que les autres, en meme facon que chacun peut avoir vu divers cribles qui, étant diversernent percés. servent a séparer divers grains les nus des autres'.’ lit enfin ce qu‘il y a de plus rernarquable en tottt eeci, e'est la generation des esprits artirnaux, qui sont cornrne un vent tres subtil, on plutot cotnrne tine flarnme trés pure et tres vive, qui, montant continuellement en grande abondance du coeur dans le cerveatt, se va rendre de la par les nerfs dans les muscles, et donne le mouvement a tous les membres; sans qu'il faille irnaginer d'autre cause, qui fasse que les parties du sang qui, étarit les plus agitées et les plus pénétrantes, sont les plus propres a composer ces esprits, se vont rendre plutOt vers le cerveatt que vers ailleurs; sinon que les arteres, qui les y portent, sont celles qui viennent du coettr le plus en ligne Discourse on the Method 77 one removes the blood from some part of the body, one removes from it by the saute means, the heat; and, even if the heart were as hot as a glowin" Ir()ll,.ll would not suffice to warm again the feet and the hands to the exterif that it does, if it did not continually send new blood to them. Then too from this one knows that the true function of respiration is to bring etfougli fresh air into the lungs to cause the blood, which comes tltere front the right cavity of the heart, where it has been rarefied and, as it were changed into vapors, immediately to thicken and again to be converted into blood, before returning to the left cavity — without which the blood could not be fit to serve as nourishment for the fire that is in the heart This is conftnned because one sees that the animals that do not have any lungs also have only a single cavity in their hearts, and that those children who cannot use their lungs while they are enclosed within their mother's womb have an operung through which blood flows from the vena cava into the left cavit of the heart, as well as a conduit through which blood comes frotn lb: arterial vein into the great artery without passing through the lungs How would digestion take place in the stomach, then, if the heart did not send heat there through the arteries, and, together with it, some of the most tlutd parts of the blood, which help to dissolve the food that one has put there? And is it not easy to understand the action that converts the juice of tlus food into blood, if one considers that the blood is distilled, in passing and repassing through the heart, perhaps more than one or two hundred timescach day? And does one need to say anything else in order to explain nutrition, and the production of the various hutnors that are in the body except that the force with which the blood, in being rarefied, passes from the heart toward the extremities of the arteries causes some parts of the blood to stop in those parts of the members where they are found and there to take the place of other parts of the blood that they expel 'from there; and that, according to the situation or tlte shape or the smallness of the pores that they encounter, some parts of the blood are going to go to certain places rather than other parts of the blood, in the same fashion as anyone can have seen, as various sieves, which, being differently perlorated. serve to_separate out different grains one from another? And finally, that wluch IS tnost remarkable in all this is the generation of the antntal spirits, which are like a very subtle wind, or, rather, like a very pure and very lively flame, which, rising continually in great abundance from the heart into the brain, is going to go frorn there through the nerves into the muscles. arid gives movement to all the members; not that for the fact that-the parts of the blood that, being the most agitated and the most penetrating, are the ruost fit to compose these spirits are going to go toward the brain rather than elsewhere, it be necessary to imagine any other reason than that the arteries that carry these parts of the blood there are those which come from the heart in the straightest line of all, and that, 78 Discount de lo mc’lltorle droite dc toutes. et que, selon les regles des mécaniques, qut soot les memes ~ quc cellos de la nature. lorsque plusieurs choscs tcndcnt ensemble a. niouvoir vers un métuc coté, on it n'y a pas assoc dc place pour looks: aims: que les parties do sang qui sortcnt de la concavrtc gauche ‘du coirur tuluqcn. vent to cefiivcau, |54~55| les plus foibles ct moms agttecs LII we dc’tournéeg'par les plus fortes, qui par ce-ntoyen s y vont rcudre sen ‘ I 9. ll'avais cxpliqué assez parttcphérement'toutes ces choses. ans he traité que‘j'avais eu ci-devant desseln dc pubher. [it ensmle (le twp]: montré quelle' doit étre la fabrlqtte'des nerfs et (les esl' fu co (rite ltutttain, pour faire que les esprits annnaux, étant dcdans, atutt orccn mouvoir s'es membrcs: ainsi qu‘on volt que les tetes, un peu aprfis cue coupées. sé' rcmuent encore, et mordcnl la lc'rrc, nonobstant esflnc soient plus animées; quels changetncnts sc dorvcut latte dans t. czrvctltu, pour causer la veille, at it: somtneil, et les songes; comment ill/illlnl tc,. es sons, les odcurs, lcs gofits, la chalcur, ct toutes les autres qualttcs de‘s Ol‘lelf extérieurs y peuvent imprimer dlverses tdees‘parlenuemtse dcs comment In faint. in soil, et les antics passrons mtenemcs, y pcuvcnt envoycr lcsflcurs; cc qui ‘doit y étrc prts pour le sens countnunxottccs It. soul request pour la métnoire, qut lcs censcrvc: ct pour la fantatstc, our cs pent divé’i’sement Changer et en composer dc nouvcllcs, el par Illellllt‘: moyen, distribuant lcs esprits animaux dans les muscles. fattermouvol‘r membrcs dc ce corps en autant dc diverses falcons, cl autiant‘a plopos 1( cs objets qui se présentenl a ses sens, et des passmos intertclurcs qt: lui. que lés nfitres se puissant mouvotr, sans que la volonte esbcon [,vers qui ne seinblera nullement étrange a ceux qui, sachant com 10!] u. £51 561 automates, on machines mouvantes, l’mtdusme dcs honnnes peult‘ [ I- I faire, sans y employer que fort peu de pieces, a comparatson‘de 3 grante muliitude des 03, (188 muscles, ties nerfs. des arteres. des vemeshelt’ e lettltcs les autres parties qui sont dans le corps dc chaque animal: Icon: eIrJeron est: corps comme une machine, qur, ayant ete fatte'des mams e ten]? 8 incomparablement micux ordounée, et a co s01 ties mouvlemfnts I admirablbs, qu'aucune dc cclles qui peuvcnl ctrc Invcntcespar cs minute's. 102." El je m'élais ici particuheremcnl arretc a font. VOIlf (pic, 2;] y avait (1e telles machines, qui eusscnt les organcs et la llgure if out smgc, on de quelQue autrc animal sans ratson, nous naurtons aucnn moycn pop; reconnaijre qu'elles ne sentient pas en tout de meme name qfle c . animaufi-au lieu que. Slil y en avalt qui eussent la ress‘em ance ‘e-‘lnlos corps efi-fifi'jtassetll autant nos actionsque moralement ll sera’itupossl‘l)I e, nous aurions loujotn‘s dcux tnoyctts lrcs ccl‘lallls pout teeonnat'll‘c (pi e cs no sentient point pour cela dc vrats homtnes. .Dont lc‘pti‘ttlllbl‘bbl‘ jamais cllcs ne pourraient uscr dc paroles. tn (tannins signe: :I C1} composant, eomme nous faisons pour declzu'er aux autrcs nos petitrcc Ilag“: on pent bien concevoir qu'une machtne sort tellclnent latte quc e p Discourse on the Method 79 according to the laws of mechanics. which are the same as the laws of nature, when ntany things tend together to move in a single direction, where there is not enough room for all of them, as the parts of the blood that leave the left cavity ofthc heart tend toward the brain, the weakest and least agitated of them must be pushed aside by the slt‘otggcst, which are. by this means, going to go there alone. 9. I had explained all these things in sufficient detail in the treatise that I had previously intended to publish. And then I had shown there what the fabric of the nerves and of the muscles of the human body must be in order that the animal spirits. being therein, might havegthc force to move its members — thus as one sees that heads, a little after bqiing severed, would still move about and would bite the dust, notwithstanding that they be no longer alive; 1 had shown which changes must take place in the brain in order to cause waking life, and sleep. and dreams; how light. sounds. odors, tastes, heat and all the other qualities of external objects can imprint various ideas there through the mediation of the senses; how hunger, thirst and the other internal passions can also send their ideas there; that which there must be taken for the common sense, where these :ideas are received; for the memory. which preserves them; and for the pliatltasy, which can change them in various ways, and compose of them 11er ideas, and, by the same means. distributing the animal spirits into the muscles, make the members of this body move in as numy different ways, imd in a tnanncr as appropriate to the objects that present themselves to itsisenses. and to the internal passions that are in it, as our members could move without the will guiding them. This will not seem strange at all to those who. knowing how many different atttorttata, or moving machines. the skill of man can make, without employing, in doing so, but very few parts, in comparison with the great multitude of bones, muscles, nerves, arteries. veins and all those other parts which are in the body of each animal, will consider this body as a machine that, having been made by the hands of God, is incomparany better ordered, and has in itself movements more wonderful, than any of those which can he invented by man. J0. And I had paused here in particular in ordiir to show that, if then: were such machines which were to ltave the organs and the shape of a monkey or of some other animal without reason. we would not have any means of recognizing that they would not in all respects be of the same nature as these animals; whereas. ifthere were any tnaclgines which were to bear a resemblance to our bodies and were to imitate our'iactions as far as it would be morally possible, we would always have two very certain means of recognizing that they would not at all for that reason be true men. The first of which is that such machines could never make use of words or of other signs by putting them together as we do in order to declare our thoughts to others. For one can well conceive ofa machine that be so made 80 Dixmmzr de la méfimde des paroles, et iiiéme qn'elle en profere quelques-unes a propos des actions corporelles qui causeront quelquc changement en ses orgaues: connne. si on In touche en quelque eiidroit, qu‘clle demande ce qu'on lui veut dire; si en un autre. qu‘clle crie qu'on lui fair mal, ct clioses semblablcs; niais non pas qu'elle les arrange diverseinent, pour ré[56-57]pondre au sens de tout cc qui se dira en sa presence, ainsi que les lioniincs les plus licbétés peuvent faire. Et le second est que, blen qu‘elles fissent plusieurs choses aiissi bien. on peut-étre mieiix qn'aucun de nous. elles manqueraient inraillibleiiient en quelques autres. par lesquelles on découvrirait qu‘elles n'agiraient pas par connaissancc, mais seulement par la disposition de leurs organes. Car, au * lieu que la raisen est un instrument universel, qui pent servir en toutes I sortes de rencontres, ces organesont besoln de quelque particuliére disposition pour chaque action paniculiere; d‘oii vient qu'il est moralement - impossible qu'il y en alt assez de divers en une machine pour la faire agir en toutes les occurrences de la vie. dc méine faeon que iiotre raison nous v/fait agir. ‘ v ~ ‘ ‘ 11. Or, par ces deux mémes moyens, on pent aussi connaitrc la 'dit‘férence qui est entre les liomnies et les bétes. Car c'est une chose bien , reniarquable, qu'il n'y a point d'liomines si hébétés etisi stupides, sans en ' ,excepter meme Ies insensés, qu'ils ne soient capablcs d'arranger ensemble diverses paroles, ct (Fen-composer un discours par lequel ils l‘asscnt entendre leurs pensécs; ct qu'au contraire, ll n'y a point d'aiitre animal, taut - parfait ct tant lieureusenient né qu'il puisse étre, qui lasso le semblable. Ce 1 gal n'arrive pas de ce qu'ils ont faute il'orgaiies, car on volt que les pics at - =lcs permquets peuyent proférer des paroles ainsi que nous, ct toutefois lie penvent parler ainsi que nous, c'est-a-dire 'en téinoignant qu'ils pensent cc qu'ils disent; au- lieu que les hommes qui, étant nés soards et muets, sont - privés des organes qui servent aux aulS7-58ltres pourparler, autant en plus que les bétes, ont coutume d'inventerd'eux—mémes quelques signes. par lesquels ils se font entendre ii ceux qui,>étant .ordinalremeiit avec eux. out loisir d'apprendre leur langue. [it ceei llC témoigne pas settlement title lcs -'bétcs out moins de raison que [es hommes. mats qu‘elles n'en out point do .tout. Car on volt qu‘il ii'en taut que. fort pcu pour savoir, parler; ct d'autant qu'on remarque de l'inégalité entre les animaux d'iine meme espece, ausai bien-qu'eiitre les lioiiiines,.et que Ics uiissont plus aisés ii dresser que les autrcs, ‘il-n'est pas croyable qii'uii singe on an perroquei, qui serait dcs plusparl’alts de son cspcee. ii‘égalftt en cela uu ent'ant des phis ‘ stupides, ou (in moins uii enfant qni auralt le cervean trouble, si lcurz‘nne v ’n'était d'une nature du tout différente de la none. lit on no doit pas ‘ confondre les paroles avec les inouvements naturels, qui témoignent les passions, ct peuvent étre iinités pardes machines aussi bicn que par les aniinaux; ni penser, comme quelques anciens. que les bétes parlent, bicn que nous n'entendions pas leur langage: car s'il était vrai, pulsqu’elles out Discourse on the Method 8| that it bring forth words, and even that it bring forth words appropriate to the corporeal actions that will cause some change in its organs — as if one touch [I in one spot, it ask what one wants to say to it, and if in another it cry out that one is doing harm to it. and similar things; but not that. it arrange words differently in order to respond to the sense of all that which wall be said Ill its presence, as even the dullest men can do. And the second of which is that, although they were to do some things as well‘as or perhaps better than, any of us, such machines would inevitably fail in others, by means of which one would discover that they would be acting not through knowledge, but only through the disposition of their organs For, while rcasonis a universal instrument that can serve in all sorts Situations, these organs have needof some particular disposition for each particular action; from whenceit comes that it is morally impossible that _ there. would be enough different organs in a machine to make it act' in all the Circumstances of life in the same-way as our reason makes us act. 11.. blow by these same two means one can also know the difference that there is between men and beasts: For it is quite a remarkable thing , that there are no men at all so dull and so stupid, not excluding even the insane. that they not becapahle of arranging various words together. and of composing of thenra discourse by-nieans of’whicli tliey'inade their thoughts understood; and that, on-the other hand, there is no‘other animal V at all, however perfectly and however well brcd‘tliat it might be, that did _ the like. 'llus does not happen because they lack the orgaiis.‘f0r one sees that inagpies and parrots can bring fortirwords just as we can, and yet they cannot speak thus as we can. that is to say, by attesting thereto that they are thinking that which they are sayiu v; on the other hand, iiie‘n’Wh'o', being __born deaf and dumb, are deprived, as much as‘or more so than the beasts ‘ of the organs serving others in speaking are in" the habit“ of inventing for themselves various signs by means of which they make-themselves understood to those who, being ordinarily with them, have the‘leisure to learn their language. And this attests not merely thereto that beasts have less reason than men. but rather thereto that they'have no reason'at’all , l~or one sees that only very little reason is needed in order to be able to speak; and, in .as much as one notices an inequality among the animals of the same SIICCICS, as Well as among met], and some aninialsare easier to ' trautthan others, it is not believable that a'inonkey or a parrot Iliatworild I be theiiiost perfect of its specres were not to equal in this‘respect one of the most stupid children, or atleast a child who Would have a defective brain _ if their soul were not of a- nature totally differcu‘t‘t‘rom our'own; And one should not confuse words-With the natural movements that ‘attest'to the passions and that can be mutated by machines as well as'by animals; nor think, like some ancients, that beasts speak. although we”w0ulcl not understand their language — for, if that were true, since they have many 82 Discotu‘s (le [(1 métlmr/c plusieurs organes qui se rapportent aux Metres, ell'es pourraient aussi bien se faire entendre a nous qu'a leurs semblablesu Cest aussiaine chose floit retnarquable que. bien qu'il y ait plusreurs antmaux qui lClllOlgttilll‘l) us d'industrie que nous en quelques-unes de leurs actions. on .V()ll loute que les mémes n'en témoignent point du tout en beaiieoup dautre's.‘ ago: que ce qu'ils font mieux que nous ne prouve pas qu tls ont de9l esprit, car, . ce compte, ils en auraient plus qu aueun de nous et felS8I-5 Iratent mteux. en toute chose; tnais plutot qu'ils n'en ont pomt, et (jue'c est la naturequt agit en eux, selon la disposition de Ieurs organes: amsi qu on you qu nine horloge, qui n'est composée que de .roues et de ressorts, pent compter es heures, et tnesurer le temps, plus justement que nous avec toute notre prlecnlC; J'avais dc’crit, apres cela. l'fime raisotmable, et fait voir qu'ellc ne peut aucunetnent étre tirée de la. puts'sance de la niatiere, artist autres choses dont j'avais parlé, mats qu elle don expressement etre creec, et comment il ne suffit pas qu'elle soit lpgée dans le corps humam, Slllbl qu'un pilote en son navire, sin-on. peut-etre pour mouvoir ses intern ‘res, rnais qu'il est besoin qu'elle sort jomte et unte, plus etrouen‘i‘ent aveflc )lt‘l pour avoir, outre cela, des sentiments et des appetits set'nblalbles aux notrcjs, et ainsi composer un vrai homme. "Au reste. je me ‘SUIS tel un' pen etenfiu sur le sujet de l'z‘tme, a cause qutl est (les plus importants. car, l'erreur de ceux qui nient Dieu, laquelle je pense avotr ct—dessus adsscz réfutée, il n'y en a point qui éloigne plutot lesAesprtts laibles du ‘ roit chemin de la vertu, que d'imaginer que l'ame (les betes sort \de‘meme nature que la notre. et que, par consequent, nous navons rten a cramdte, [lulu espérer, aprés cette vie, non plus que‘ les mouches etiles fourmts, au I que, lorsqu'on sait combien elles different, on comprcnd beaucoup micu [ les raisons, qui prouvent que la notre est dune nature 'entierenlien) indépendante du corps et, par consequept, qu elle nest point sujet cud» tnourir avec lui; puis. d'autant [59-60] qu on tie ‘V0_It point d autres‘plausies qui la détruisent, on est naturellement porte a juger dc la quc e est immortelle. [)isc'uurse (m the Method 83 organs that correspond to ours, tltey could make themselves understood as well to us as to their fellows. It is also a vet'y remarkable thing that, although there might be many animals that show more skill in some of their actions than we do, one still sees that the same animals do not show any skill at all in many other actions — in such a way that that which they do better than we do does not prove that they have any mind; for. in that case, they would have more of it than any of us, and would do better in everything; rather does it prove that they do not have any mind at all, and that it is nature that acts in them according to the disposition of their organs — just as one sees that a clock, which is composed only of wheels and of springs. can count the hours and measure the time more accurately than we can with all our wisdom. 112‘. I had. after this, described the rational soul, and shown that it can in no way be derived from the potentialin of matter, thus as can the other things of which I had spoken, but rather that it must be expressly created; and how it does not suffice that it be thus lodged in the human body as a pilot in his ship. unless perhaps in order to move its members, but rather that it is necessary that it be more closely joined and united with the body, in order to have, in addition to this, feelings and appetites similar to ours, and thus to constitute a true man. As for the rest, I have here elaborated a little on the subject of the soul, because it is of the greatest importance; for, after the error of those who would deny God, which I think I have sufficiently refuted above, there is none at all that would keep weak minds further from the straight path of virtue than to imagine that the soul of the beasts be of the satne nature as ours. and that. as a consequence, we have nothing to fear or to hope for after this life, any more than do the flies and the ants; whereas, when one knows how much these souls differ. one understands much better the arguments that prove that our soul is of a nature entirely independent of the body, and. as a consequence, that it is not at all subject to die with it; then. in as much as one does not see any other causes at all that might destroy our soul, one is naturally led to judge from this that it is immortal. ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/07/2009 for the course PHIL LANG AND M taught by Professor Dennett during the Spring '09 term at Tufts.

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Descartes_DiscourseOnTheMethod - 62 Distram’s rte la...

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