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Unformatted text preview: Zoroastrianism & Ancient Judaism Early Middle Eastern Monotheisms WORLD POPULATION 6.1 BILLION BY 2050 MUSLIMS SHOULD OUT NUMBER NON-MUSLIMS SECOND LARGEST FAITH IN THE # OF ADHERENTS CHRISTIANITY 2 BILLION 33% ISLAM 1.4 BILLION 22% HINDUISM 900 MILLION 15% BUDDHISM 360 MILLION 6% U.S. HAS BETWEEN 2 AND 6 MILLION MUSLIMS (POLITICAL QUESTION) MIDDLE EASTERN RELIGIONS: Zoroastrianism Judaism Christianity Islam ~150,000 ~14 million ~2 billion ~1.4 billion Avesta(s) w/ Gathas Torah New Testament Quran Druze Baha'ism ~1 million ~5 million 30+ manuscripts above, plus leaders' writings TERMS Polytheistic Monotheistic Orthodoxy Orthopraxy Proselytizing Exoteric (Zahir) Esoteric (Batin) Ex) <Get out!> Ancient Iranian Society: Persis Tribal structure with large city centers Focus on human endeavors in harmony w/ nature Part of Silk Road, commerce & security key Solar calendar, seasonal holidays No Rouz at Vernal Equinox (March 21) Persis (Greek) = Persia Successful Dynasties Median 728-550 BCE Achaemenid 550-330 BCE Sassanid Empire 224-651 BCE ZOROASTRIANISM Zarathustra is the prophet (around 2000 BCE) Wrote Gathas, which are in the Avesta(s) Charity is returned two fold by Ahura Mazda <Good thoughts, good words, good deeds> [Yasna 0:4] No Satan yet, but spirit Ahrimana= "Bad Mind" / temptation Good prevails over evil in the end Proselytized at first, no longer do, but some reconsidering it Religious Coexistence Cyrus the Great [590-530] (Achaemenid) Enforced "human rights" "Do No Harm" Zoroastrian king, endured polytheism as depicted in Gilgamesh and early ancient Hebrews forming practices among others The Magi who visit Jesus in Bethlehem likely Zoroastrians Huge empires required peace and harmony at social and civic levels Religion of Persia until Islamic conquest; 651CE Achaemenid Empire 559-330 BCE Sassanid Empire 224-651 CE Zoroastrian Influences on Later Monotheisms God Heaven and Hell Messiah will come to deliver humanity Resurrection and Judgment Day Free will of humans to do right or wrong One Zoroastrian Tenets Fire = Symbol of Ahura Mazda Faravahar is symbol of guardian angel Major temples have perpetual fires; not public places Five daily prayers, many rites and rituals India, Iran, ...and Los Angeles are centers Mubids are dying, so too the religion Ancient Judaism Ancient Mesopotamian movement Abraham migrates to Canaan, Egypt Nebulous monotheism at first YHWH had consort Ashtoreth, golden calves, sacrificial altars rival temple in Jerusalem, etc. 1250 BCE Moses gets Law on Mt. Sinai People then with a Covenant with God Israelites in Canaan/ Israel/ Palestine Kingdom of David 1013-973 BCE First Temple by Solomon built 970s Judean King Josiah (639-609 BCE) 1st Temple destroyed, Babylonian exile 587 BCE 539 BCE Cyrus' laws of restitution Second Temple built 516 BCE Greeks 331BCE ; Romans 63BCE Second Temple destroyed by Romans, 70CE Diaspora JEWISH SCRIPTURES Judaism is text-centered, not person centered Torah = Hebrew Bible Must be hand written scrolls Synagogue houses them Reading scripture is rite of passage Mishnah = Oral Traditions and lore Talmud = commentaries on the Mishnah Pray toward Jerusalem Solar calendar with seasonal holidays Jewish Denominations Reformed 1750s most liberal Conservative 1820s middle ground Orthodox most traditional, few new things Hasidic 12th, 17th century revivalism This is the strictest in interpretation Shuns modified Jewish practices Smallest community in numbers, but vociferous Political Movements Zionism of Theodore Herzl 1857 Jews need their own "national home" free from persecution Alias to Palestine (Ottoman district) World War I 1933-1945 More Alias to British Mandate Palestine 1948 War, Israel declares itself a state ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course TRAD 101 taught by Professor Weiner during the Spring '08 term at Arizona.
- Spring '08