Chapter 13 Lecture Notes - Chapter 13 Applications of...

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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 13 1 Chapter 13 Applications of Aqueous Equilibria 13.1 Solutions of Acids or Bases Containing a Common Ion 13.2 Buffered Solutions 13.3 Exact Treatment of Buffered Solutions (skip) 13.4 Buffer Capacity 13.5 Titrations and pH Curves 13.6 Acid-Base Indicators 13.7 Titration of Polyprotic Acids (skip) 13.8 Solubility Equilibria and the Solubility Product 13.9 Precipitation and Qualitative Analysis (skip) 13.10 Complex Ion Equilibria (skip)
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 13 2 Chapter 13 Objectives 13.1: Discuss the role of the common ion with regard to acid-base chemistry and the significance for buffer preparation 13.2: Provide a qualitative and quantitative discussion of buffer with an emphasis on the functioning of buffers and the corresponding calculations 13.3: Emphasize the laboratory role of titrations and include a discussion of titration-based calculations and briefly introduce polyprotic titrations. 13.4: Explain how acid-base indicators function and the criteria for selecting an appropriate indicator. 13.5: Introduce the solubility product constant as another application of equilibrium and include the influence of pH and common ions.
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 13 3 Applications of Aqueous Equilibrium The Common Ion Effect HF ( aq ) H + ( aq ) + F - ( aq ) K a = 7.2 x 10 -4 What happens to H + concentration , if some extra F - is added, from a common ion from another source? Recall Le Chatelier’s principle A general effect that applies to weak acids, weak bases and solubility of salts when a common ion is added to the equilibrium reaction Source of F HF is less acidic with added common ion, less H + produced, thus pH increases relative to pH with no common ion see Example 13.1
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 13 Applications of Aqueous Equilibrium The Common Ion Effect on Solubility E.g., If a solution and a solid salt to be dissolved in it have an ion in common , then the solubility of the salt is depressed . General equation AB (s) A + ( aq ) + B - ( aq ) K sp = [A + ][B - ] What happens to AB (s) solubility , if some extra A + is added, from a common ion from another source? Recall Le Chatelier’s principle What happens if some extra B is added? Will return to solubility in section 13.8
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 13 5 Buffer Solutions: contain a common ion and are important in biochemical and physiological processes Organisms (and humans) have built-in buffers to protect them against large changes in pH. Buffers any solutions that maintain an approximately constant pH despite small additions of acids or bases Applications of Aqueous Equilibrium Buffered Solutions Human blood is a buffered solution The Common Ion Effect on Buffering
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6 The Person Behind the Science Lawrence Henderson (1878-1942) Highlights m Physiologist, chemist, biologist, philosopher, and sociologist.
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This note was uploaded on 10/06/2009 for the course CHEM 1101 taught by Professor Bottomley during the Fall '08 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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Chapter 13 Lecture Notes - Chapter 13 Applications of...

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