Chapter 16 Notes

Chapter 16 Notes - Chapter 16 Electrochemistry 16.1...

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GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 16 1 8/10/09 Chapter 16 Electrochemistry 16.1 Galvanic Cells 16.2 Standard Reduction Potentials 16.3 Cell Potential, Electrical Work, and Free Energy 16.4 Dependence of the Cell Potential on Concentration 16.5 Batteries (skip) 16.6 Corrosion (skip) 16.7 Electrolysis (skip) 16.8 Commercial Electrolytic Processes (skip)
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GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 16 2 8/10/09 CHAPTER 16 OBJECTIVES 16.1: Discuss the fundamental processes of oxidation and reduction which drive electrochemical reactions. 16.2: Outline the types of electrochemical cells with a discussion of the features of each cell with the inclusion of cell notation. 16.3: Include a thorough overview of electrochemical calculations at standard and nonstandard states including calculations for galvanic and electrolytic cells. 16.4: In general provide an overview of applications of electrochemical cells, as time permits.
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GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 16 3 8/10/09 • Important Chapter - ties together several concepts from earlier in the course – Oxidation-Reduction – Electrochemical Cells – Acid-Base – Solubility – Equilibrium constants • Practical Importance – Energy storage – batteries – Energy conversion – solar cells – Chemical conversion • E.g., printed circuits – metal deposition • Corrosion • Corrosion prevention Chapter 16 Electrochemistry
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GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 16 4 8/10/09 Chapter 16 Electrochemistry • Review of Common Terms Review Chapter 4 for oxidation reduction and balancing redox reactions
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GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 16 5 8/10/09 Copper strip in Cu(NO 3 ) 2 solution Silver strip in Ag(NO 3 ) 2 Electrochemical Cells
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Electrochemical Cells Cu(s) + 2Ag + (aq) ˠ Cu ++ (aq) + 2Ag(s) Silver plates spontaneously Δ G f < 0 Called a galvanic or voltaic cell Oxidation Cu ˠ Cu ++ + 2e - Reduction Ag + + e - ˠ Ag
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GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 16 7 8/10/09 Cu(s) + 2Ag + (aq) ˠ Cu ++ (aq) + 2Ag(s) Oxidation occurs here at the anode Reduction occurs here at the cathode Chemical energy converted to Electrical Energy. This potential difference can be measured. Current = charge/time or I=Q/t Units: amperes = coulombs/sec.
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GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 16 8 8/10/09 Cu(s) + 2Ag + (aq) ˠ Cu ++ (aq) + 2Ag(s) Convention for this reaction Cu(s) | Cu +2 (aq) ¦¦ Ag+(aq) | Ag(s) Anode or Oxidation is always on the left Cathode or Reduction is always on the right
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GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 16 9 8/10/09 If an opposing electric force is applied the reverse reaction occurs, called an electrolytic cell Cu ++ (aq) + 2Ag(s) ˠ Cu(s) +2Ag + (aq) The electrodes are reversed Ag becomes the anode Cu becomes the cathode Note that the electron flow is still anode to cathode Ag + (aq) | Ag(s) ¦¦ Cu(s) | Cu +2 (aq)
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GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 16 10 8/10/09 Half-Cell Potentials Or Standard Half Cell Reduction
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GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 16 11 8/10/09 This section introduces Standard half cell reduction potentials Tables list half cell reactions as reductions . Note that these are all listed as reductions.
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