Chapter 17 Notes

Chapter 17 Notes - Chapter 17 Chemical Kinetics 17.1...

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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 17 1 Chapter 17 Chemical Kinetics • 17.1 Reaction Rates • 17.2 Rate Laws: An Introduction • 17.3 Determining the Form of the Rate Law • 17.4 The Integrated Rate Law • 17.5 Rate Laws: A Summary • 17.6 Reaction Mechanisms • 17.7 The Steady-State Approximation • 17.8 A Model for Chemical Kinetics • 17.9 Catalysis
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 17 2 Chapter 17 Objectives 17.1: Discuss the basic approaches to kinetics including rate laws, experimental design, kinetic plots, and mathematical considerations. 17.2: Emphasize the role of kinetics for elucidating reaction mechanisms with a a strong emphasis on systems at equilibrium. 17.3: Introduce the kinetic-molecular theory, and the Arrhenius equation. 17.4: Conclude the semester with a discussion of catalysis and inhibition processes in chemical reactions.
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Reaction Mechanisms Most reactions proceed not through a single step but through a series of steps Each Step is called an elementary reaction Types of elementary reactions 1. Unimolecular (a single reactant) E.g., A B + C (a decomposition) 2. Bimolecular (most common type) E.g., A + B products 3. Termolecular (less likely event) E.g., A + B + C products
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 17 4 • Reaction Mechanism – is a detailed series of elementary steps and rates which are combined to yield the overall reaction – One goal of chemical kinetics is to use the observed rate to chose between several possible reaction mechanisms.
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8/10/09 5 To measure rates we could monitor the disappearance of reactants or appearance of products e.g., NO 2 + CO NO + CO 2
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 17 6 To measure rates we could monitor the disappearance of reactants or appearance of products e.g., 2NO 2 + F 2 2NO 2 F
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 17 7 Generalized Reaction aA + bB cC + dD NO 2 + CO NO + CO 2
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 17 8 Order of a Reaction A decomposition k ” is called a Rate constant and is f (temperature) An “n th order” reaction
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9 “zeroth order” reaction “first order” reaction “second order” reaction n does not have to be an integer n = 3/2 “three halves order” reaction Note that “n” does not necessarily equal the coefficient (“a”) of the reactant. It is related to the reaction mechanism and determined experimentally.
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 17 10 Overall reaction order = m th order in [A] n th order in [B]
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Example: At elevated temperatures, HI reacts according to the chemical equation 2HI H 2 + I 2 at 443°C, the rate of reaction increases with concentration of HI, as shown in this table. Data [HI] Rate Point (mol L -1 ) (mol L -1 s -1 ) 1 0.005 7.5 x 10 -4 2 0.01 3.0 x 10 -3 3 0.02 1.2 x 10 -2 a) Determine the order of the reaction with respect to HI and write the rate expression b) Calculate the rate constant and give its units c) Calculate the instantaneous rate of reaction for a [HI] = 0.0020M Determining the Form of the Rate Law
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8/10/09 GT 6e Zumdahl Chapter 17 12 Data [HI] Rate Point (mol L -1 ) (mol L -1 s -1 ) 1 0.005 7.5 x 10 -4 2 0.01 3.0 x 10 -3 3 0.02 1.2 x 10 -2 a) Determine the order of the reaction with respect to HI and write the rate expression
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This note was uploaded on 10/06/2009 for the course CHEM 1101 taught by Professor Bottomley during the Fall '08 term at Georgia Tech.

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Chapter 17 Notes - Chapter 17 Chemical Kinetics 17.1...

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