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Thermochap

# Thermochap - Thermodynamics 1 Thermodynamics is the study...

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1 Thermodynamics 1. Thermodynamics is the study of energy, heat, and work. Energy- is the ability to do work. work = Force x distance a. Two types- a. Potential – stored energy. b. Kinetic – motion b. Temperature – is directly related to the kinetic energy of the atoms of a substance. 1. Celsius, Fahrenheit 72 ° F ----- 22 ° C body temp 98.6 ° F ----- 37.0 ° C

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2 Δ ° F does not = Δ ° C, 1.8° F = 1.0° C Conversion a. ° F = 1.8(° C) + 32 b. ° C = F - 32)/1.8 ex. 6-1 . Convert 22° C to F. = 1.8( 22° C) + 32 = 72° F (forget add 32 for sig fig) ex. 6-2 . Convert 79° F to ° C. = ( 79° F – 32)/1.8 = 26° C 2. Kelvin-absolute zero. Boiling water Freeezing 212 o 32 o F 100 o 0 o C
3 - 273° C = 0 K no degree symbol Δ K = Δ ° C K = ° C + 273 ex. 6-3 . Convert 22.4 ° C to Kelvin. 22.4 ° C + 273 = 295.4 K 2. Heat Energy Units of heat 1. calorie (cal) – raise 1 g of water 1 ° C. Kcal = Cal 1000 cal = 1 Kcal 2. joule (J) 4.18 J = 1 cal 3. Spontaneous and non-spontaneous. Reactions that occur without any further energy input. Free energy Δ G = Δ H - T Δ S a) G = Gibbs free energy a minus sign means it is sponn. Rxn. b) H is the enthalpy of the rxn. Energy difference between the reactants and the products. Energy in Chemical Rxn. A + B C + heat exothermic minus Δ H heat + A + B C endothermic + Δ H

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4 Depends on whether the products are higher or lower in energy than the reactants. Ex. in book Endo 6.3 kcal + NH 4 NO 3(s) NH 4 NO 3(aq) Exo 2H 2(g) + O 2(g) 2H 2(g) + 242 KJ c) Δ S = entropy is the randomness of a reaction. Second law of thermodynamics means that universe spontaneously goes toward more randomness. Positive Δ S.
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Thermochap - Thermodynamics 1 Thermodynamics is the study...

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