solutionschap

solutionschap - Solutions: Solutions: consist of a solute...

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1 Solutions: Solutions: consist of a solute dissolved in a solvent . Solute is the lesser amount and solvent is the greater amount . 1. Solution – one substance dissolves in another, homogeneous. Dispersed evenly. solid ---- liquid liquid ------ liquid gas ---- liquid Solute –is dispersed evenly in solvent solvent – one in larger amount. 2. Solubility A) Covalent compounds. - dependent on inter-molecular forces (IMF). a. Likes dissolve likes- Like means polarity. Ethanol --- water ammonia---- water sugar ----- water polar polar polar polar polar polar C 5 H 12 ----- water C 5 H 12 ----- CF 4 non-polar polar non-polar non-polar b. Water. Properties 1. Polar- dissolves polar substances. 2. Hydrogen-bonding. must have a H directly attached to O,N, or F sometimes S. H H O δ δ + δ + H H O H H O H O H H O C C H H H H H H C C H H H H H H
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2 Weaker than a covalent or ionic bond. C H F F F no H-bond H 3 C O CH 3 no H-bond NH 3 H-bond CH 3 CH 2 OH H-bond H bonds important in DNA and enzymes. Physical properties of water. 1. High B.P. 2. High heat of vap. 3. High surface tension- water molecules are attracted to each other. 4. Viscosity- resistance to flow, higher more resistance. 5. Vapor pressure- amount of pressure exhibited by a liquid. B) Solubility of ionic compound in water-(water is polar)- If an ionic compound is water soluble it will dissociate into its individual ions. Look at solubility chart to recognize which ionic compounds are soluble. XY (s) H 2 O X - (aq) + Y + (aq) soluble XY (s) H 2 O XY (s) insoluble no ion formation in solution H H O H H O H H O Cl - H H O H H O H H O Na +
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3 Solvent Cage- effective radius of ion is larger.
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This note was uploaded on 10/07/2009 for the course CHEM 30a taught by Professor Harrison during the Fall '08 term at Rice.

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solutionschap - Solutions: Solutions: consist of a solute...

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