Ch006 - Chapter 6: Some Alternative Investment Rules 6.1 a....

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6: Some Alternative Investment Rules 6.1 a. The payback period is the time that it takes for the cumulative undiscounted cash inflows to equal the initial investment. Project A: Cumulative Undiscounted Cash Flows Year 1 Cumulative Undiscounted Cash Flows Year 2 Payback period = $4,000 = $4,000 +$3,500 = $4,000 = $7,500 =2 Project A has a payback period of two years. Project B: Cumulative Undiscounted Cash Flows Year 1 Cumulative Undiscounted Cash Flows Year 2 Cumulative Undiscounted Cash Flows Year 3 = $2,500 = $2,500 = $2,500+$1,200 = $3,700 = $2,500+$1,200+$3,000 = $6,700 Project B’s cumulative undiscounted cash flows exceed the initial investment of $5,000 by the end of year 3. Many companies analyze the payback period in whole years. The payback period for project B is 3 years. Project B has a payback period of three years. Companies can calculate a more precise value using fractional years. To calculate the fractional payback period, find the fraction of year 3’s cash flows that is needed for the company to have cumulative undiscounted cash flows of $5,000. Divide the difference between the initial investment and the cumulative undiscounted cash flows as of year 2 by the undiscounted cash flow of year 3. Payback period = 2 + ($5,000 - $3,700) / $3,000 = 2.43 Since project A has a shorter payback period than project B has, the company should choose project A. b. Discount each project’s cash flows at 15 percent. Choose the project with the highest NPV. Project A = -$7,500 + $4,000 / (1.15) + $3,500 / (1.15)2 + $1,500 / (1.15)3 = -$388.96 Project B = -$5,000 + $2,500 / (1.15) + $1,200 / (1.15)2 + $3,000 / (1.15)3 = $53.83 The firm should choose Project B since it has a higher NPV than Project A has. 6.2 a. Find the payback period for the project. Since the cash inflows are constant, divide the initial investment by the annual cash inflow to determine the payback period. Payback Period = Initial Investment / Annual Cash Inflow = $1,000,000 / $150,000 = 6.67 B-92 The payback period is 6.67 years. Since the payback period is shorter than the cutoff period of ten years, the project should be accepted. b. Find the number of years needed for the discounted cash inflows to equal the initial investment of $1 million. Apply the annuity formula, discounted at 10 percent, to find the approximate discounted payback period. The approximate discounted payback period is the year in which the PV of the initial investment is surpassed. Since the discounted payback period will always be greater than the undiscounted payback period when there are positive cash inflows, start the approximation at year 7. Cumulative Discounted Cash Flows Year 7 = $150,000 A70.1 = $730,262.82 Cumulative Discounted Cash Flows Year 8 = $150,000 A80.1 = $800,238.93 Cumulative Discounted Cash Flows Year 9 = $150,000 A90.1 = $863,853.57 Cumulative Discounted Cash Flows Year 10 = $150,000 A100.1 = $921,685.07 Cumulative Discounted Cash Flows Year 11 = $150,000 A110.1 = $974,259.15 Cumulative Discounted Cash Flows Year 12 = $150,000 A120.1 = $1,022,053.77 The cumulative discounted cash flows exceed the initial investment of $1,000,000 by the end of year 12. Many companies analyze the payback period in whole years. The payback period for the project is 12 years. The discounted payback period is 12 years. c. Apply the perpetuity formula, discounted at 10 percent, to calculate the PV of the annual cash inflows. NPV = -$1,000,000 + $150,000 / 0.1 = $500,000 The NPV of the project is $500,000. 6.3 a. The average accounting return is the average project earnings after taxes, divided by the average book value, or average net investment, of the machine during its life. The book value of the machine is the gross investment minus the accumulated depreciation. Average Book Value = (Book Value0 + Book Value1 + Book Value2 + Book Value3 + Book Value4 + Book Value5) / (Economic Life) = ($16,000 + $12,000 + $8,000 + $4,000 + $0) / (5 years) = $8,000 Average Project Earnings = $4,500 Divide the average project earnings by the average book value of the machine to calculate the average accounting return. Average Accounting Return = Average Project Earnings / Average Book Value = $4,500 / $8,000 = 0.5625 = 56.25% The average accounting return is 56.25%. B-93 b. The average accounting return uses accounting data rather than net cash flows. 2. The average accounting return uses an arbitrary firm standard as the decision rule. The firm standard is arbitrary because it does not necessarily relate to a market rate of return. 3. 6.4 1. The average accounting return does not consider the timing of cash flows. Hence, it does not consider the time value of money. Determine the average book value of the investment. The book value is the gross investment minus accumulated depreciation. Gross Investment Less: Accumulated Depreciation Net Investment Purchase $2,000,000 Year 1 $2,000,000 Year 2 $2,000,000 Year 3 $2,000,000 Year 4 $2,000,000 Year 0 $2,000,000 0 $2,000,000 400,000 $1,600,000 800,000 $1,200,000 1,200,000 $800,000 1,600,000 $400,000 2,000,000 $0 Average Book Value = ($2,000,000 + $1,600,000 + $1,200,000 + $800,000 + $400,000 + $0) / (6) = $1,000,000 Next, calculate average annual net income. Net Income Year 1 Net Income Year 2 Net Income Year 3 Net Income Year 4 Net Income Year 5 = $100,000 = $100,000 (1.07) = $100,000 (1.07)2 = $100,000 (1.07)3 = $100,000 (1.07)4 Average Net Income = ($100,000+$107,000+$114,490+$122,504+$131,080) / 5 = $115,015 = $107,000 = $114,490 = $122,504 = $131,080 The average accounting return is the average net income divided by the average book value. Average Accounting Return = Average Net Income / Average Book Value = $115,015 / $1,000,000 = 0.115 = 11.5% Since the machine’s average accounting return, 11.5%, is below the company’s cutoff of 20%, the machine should not be purchased. 6.5 First determine the average book value of the project. The book value is the gross investment minus accumulated depreciation. Gross Investment Less: Accumulated Depreciation Net Investment Purchase Date $8,000 Year 1 $8,000 Year 2 $8,000 Year 3 $8,000 0 $8,000 4,000 $4,000 6,500 $1,500 8,000 $0 B-94 Average Book Value = ($8,000 + $4,000 + $1,500 + $0) / (4 years) = $3,375 Remember to use the after-tax average net income when calculating the average accounting return. Average After-tax Net Income = (1 – Tc) Annual Pre-tax Net Income = (1 – 0.25) $2,000 = $1,500 The average accounting return is the average after-tax net income divided by the average book value. Average Accounting Return = $1,500 / $3,375 = 0.44 = 44% The average accounting return of the machine is 44%. 6.6 The internal rate of return is the discount rate at which the NPV of the project’s cash flows equals zero. Set the project’s cash flows, discounted at the internal rate of return (IRR), equal to zero. Solve for the IRR. IRR(Project A) 0 IRR = C0 + C1 / (1+IRR) + C2 / (1+IRR)2 = -$3,000 + $2,500 / (1+IRR) + $1,000 / (1+IRR)2 = 0.1289 IRR(Project B) 0 IRR = C0 + C1 / (1+IRR) + C2 / (1+IRR)2 = -$6,000 + $5,000 / (1+IRR) + $1,000 / (1+IRR)2 = 0.1289 Note that since Project B’s cash flows are two times those of Project A, the IRR’s of both projects are the same. The IRR of both Project A and Project B is 12.89%. 6.7 a. The internal rate of return is the discount rate at which the NPV of the project’s cash flows equal zero. Set the project’s cash flows, discounted at the internal rate of return (IRR), equal to zero. Solve for the IRR. IRR 0 IRR = C0 + C1 / (1+IRR) + C2 / (1+IRR)2 + C3 / (1+IRR)3 = -$8,000 + $4,000 / (1+IRR) + $3,000 / (1+IRR)2 + $2,000 / (1+IRR)3 = 0.0693 The IRR is 6.93%. b. No. An investing-type project is one with a negative initial cash outflow and positive future cash inflows. One accepts a project when the IRR is greater than the discount rate. Similarly, one rejects the project when the IRR is less than the discount rate. The project should not be accepted because the IRR (6.93%) is less than the discount rate (8%). B-95 6.8 Set the project’s cash flows, discounted at the internal rate of return (IRR), equal to zero. Solve for the IRR. IRR(Project A) 0 IRR = C0 + C1 / (1+IRR) + C2 / (1+IRR)2 + C3 / (1+IRR)3 = -$2,000 + $2,000 / (1+IRR) + $8,000 / (1+IRR)2 + $8,000 / (1+IRR)3 = 1.88 IRR(Project B) 0 IRR = C0 + C1 / (1+IRR) + C2 / (1+IRR)2 + C3 / (1+IRR)3 = -$1,500 + $500 / (1+IRR) + $1,000 / (1+IRR)2 + $1,500 / (1+IRR)3 = 0.362 The IRR for Project A is 188% and the IRR for Project B is 36.2%. 6.9 a. Set the project’s cash flows, discounted at the internal rate of return (IRR), equal to zero. Solve for the IRR. IRR 0 IRR = C0 + C1 / (1+IRR) + C2 / (1+IRR)2 + C3 / (1+IRR)3 + C4 / (1+IRR)4 = $5,000 - $2,500 / (1+IRR) - $2,000 / (1+IRR)2 - $1,000 / (1+IRR)3 - $1,000 / (1+IRR)4 = 0.1399 The IRR is 13.99%. b. This problem differs from previous ones because the initial cash flow is positive and all future cash flows are negative. In other words, this is a financing-type project while previous projects were investing-type projects. For financing situations, accept the project when the IRR is less than the discount rate. Reject the project when the IRR is greater than the discount rate. IRR Discount Rate = 13.99% = 10% IRR > Discount Rate Reject the offer when the discount rate is less than the IRR. c. IRR Discount Rate = 13.99% = 20% IRR < Discount Rate Accept the offer when the discount rate is greater than the IRR. d. Calculate the NPV when the discount rate is 10 percent. NPV = $5,000 - $2,500 / (1.1) - $2,000 / (1.1)2 - $1,000 / (1.1)3 - $1,000 / (1.1)4 = -$359.95 When the discount rate is 10 percent, the NPV of the offer is -$359.95. Reject the offer. Calculate the NPV when the discount rate is 20 percent. NPV = $5,000 - $2,500 / (1.2) - $2,000 / (1.2)2 - $1,000 / (1.2)3 - $1,000 / (1.2)4 = $466.82 B-96 When the discount rate is 20 percent, the NPV of the offer is $466.82. Accept the offer. e. 6.10 Yes, the decisions under the NPV rule are consistent with the choices made under the IRR rule since the signs of the cash flows change only once. a. Set the project’s cash flows, discounted at the internal rate of return (IRR), equal to zero. Solve for the IRR. IRR(Project A) 0 IRR = C0 + C1 / (1+IRR) + C2 / (1+IRR)2 = -$5,000 + $3,500 / (1+IRR) + $3,500 / (1+IRR)2 = 0.2569 The IRR of project A is 25.69%. IRR(Project B) 0 IRR = C0 + C1 / (1+IRR) + C2 / (1+IRR)2 = -$100,000 + $65,000 / (1+IRR) + $65,000 / (1+IRR)2 = 0.1943 The IRR of project B is 19.43%. b. Choose project A because it has a higher IRR than project B. c. The difference in scale was ignored. Project B has a substantially larger initial investment than project A has. Thus, the simple IRR calculation may not lead to the best decision. d. Calculate the incremental IRR. The incremental IRR is the IRR on the incremental investment from choosing the larger project instead of the smaller project. The incremental cash flows are the differences between the cash flows of project B and those of project A. Always subtract the project with the smaller initial cash outflow from the project with the larger initial cash outflow. In this way, the initial incremental cash flow will be negative. Project B Cash Flows Project A Cash Flows B –A Year 0 -$100,000 -5,000 -$95,000 Year 1 $65,000 3,500 $61,500 Year 2 $65,000 3,500 $61,500 Next, find the IRR of those incremental cash flows. IRR(B – A) 0 IRR = C0 + C1 / (1+IRR) + C2 / (1+IRR)2 = -$95,000 + $61,500 / (1+IRR) + $61,500 / (1+IRR)2 = 0.191 The incremental IRR is 19.1%. e. For investing-type projects, accept the larger project when the incremental rate of return is greater than the discount rate. Therefore, choose project B since the incremental IRR (19.1%) is greater than the 15 percent discount rate. B-97 f. Calculate the NPV of each project. NPV(Project A) = -$5,000 + $3,500 / (1.15) + $3,500 / (1.15)2 = $689.98 The NPV of project A is $689.98. NPV(Project B) = -$100,000 + $65,000 / (1.15) + $65,000 / (1.15)2 = $5,671.08 The NPV of project B is $5,671.08. Since the NPV of project B, $5,671.08, is greater than the NPV of project A, $689.98, choose project B. 6.11 a. Apply the growing perpetuity formula to find the PV of stream A. The perpetuity formula values the stream as of one year before the first payment. Therefore, the growing perpetuity formula values the stream of cash flows as of year 2. Next, discount the PV as of the end of year 2 back two years to find the PV as of today, year 0. PV(A) = [C3 / (r – g)] / (1+r)2 = [$5,000 / (0.12 - 0.04)] / (1.12)2 = $49,824.62 The PV of stream A is $49,824.62. Apply the perpetuity formula to find the PV of stream B. The perpetuity formula discounts the stream back to year 1, one period prior to the first cash flow. Discount the PV as of the end of year 1 back one year to find the PV as of today, year 0. PV(B) = [C2 / (r)] / (1+r) = [-$6,000 / (0.12)] / (1.12) = -$44,642.86 The PV of stream B is -$44,642.86. b. Streams A and B are combined to form project C. Project A = [C3 / (r – g)] / (1+r)2 Project B = [C2 / (r)] / (1+r) Project C = Project A + Project B = [C3 / (r – g)] / (1+r)2 + [C2 / (r)] / (1+r) Set the new project’s cash flows, discounted at the internal rate of return (IRR), equal to zero. Solve for the IRR. Use a graphing calculator to perform the calculation. IRR(Project C) 0 IRR = [C3 / (IRR – g)] / (1+IRR)2 + [C2 / (IRR)] / (1+IRR) = [$5,000 / (IRR - 0.04)] / (1+IRR)2 + [-$6,000 / (IRR)] / (1+IRR) = 0.1465 The IRR for project C is 14.65%. B-98 c. 6.12 The correct decision rule for an investing-type project is to accept the project if the discount rate is below the IRR. Since there is one IRR, a decision can be made. At a point in the future, the cash flows from stream A will be greater than those from stream B. Therefore, although there are many cash flows, there will be only one change in sign. When the sign of the cash flows change more than once over the life of the project, there may be multiple internal rates of return. In such cases, there is no correct decision rule for accepting and rejecting projects using the internal rate of return. False. The statement is false. If the cash flows of project B occur early and the cash flows of project A occur late, then for a low discount rate the NPV of A can exceed the NPV of B. Observe the following example. Project A Project B C0 -$1,000,000 -2,000,000 C1 $0 2,400,000 C2 $1,440,000 0 IRR 0.20 0.20 NPV @ 0% $440,000 400,000 However, in one particular case, the statement is true for equally risky projects. If the lives of the two projects are equal and the cash flows of project B are twice the cash flows of project A in every time period, the NPV of project B will be twice the NPV of project A. 6.13 a. The profitability index, PI, is the ratio of the present value of the future expected cash flows after the initial investment to the amount of the initial investment. PI(A) = [C1 / (1+r) + C2 / (1+r)2 + C3 / (1+r)3] / (Initial Investment) = [$300 / (1.1) + $700 / (1.1)2 + $600 / (1.1)3] / ($500) = 2.6 The profitability index for project A is 2.6. PI(B) = [C1 / (1+r) + C2 / (1+r)2 + C3 / (1+r)3] / (Initial Investment) = [$300 / (1.1) + $1,800 / (1.1)2 + $1,700 / (1.1)3] / ($2,000) = 1.5 The profitability index for project B is 1.5. b. Greenplain should accept both projects A and B. The NPV of a project is positive whenever the profitability index (PI) is greater than one. 6.14 Although the profitability index (PI) is higher for project B than for project A, project A should be chosen because it has the greater NPV. Confusion arises because project B requires a smaller investment than project A requires. Since the denominator of the PI ratio is lower for project B than for project A, B can have a higher PI yet have a lower NPV. Only in the case of capital rationing could Global Investments’ decision have been incorrect. 6.15 a. The profitability index, PI, is the ratio of the present value of the future expected cash flows after the initial investment to the amount of the initial investment. PI(A) = [C1 / (1+r) + C2 / (1+r)2] / (Initial Investment) = [$70,000 / (1.12) + $70,000 / (1.12)2] / ($100,000) = 1.183 The profitability index for project A is 1.183. B-99 PI(B) = [C1 / (1+r) + C2 / (1+r)2] / (Initial Investment) = [$130,000 / (1.12) + $130,000 / (1.12)2] / ($200,000) = 1.099 The profitability index for project B is 1.099. PI(C) = [C1 / (1+r) + C2 / (1+r)2] / (Initial Investment) = [$75,000 / (1.12) + $60,000 / (1.12)2] / ($100,000) = 1.148 The profitability index for project C is 1.148. b. = -$100,000 + $70,000 / (1.12) + $70,000 / (1.12)2 = $18,303.57 NPV (A) The NPV of project A is $18,303.57. = -$200,000 + $130,000 / (1.12) + $130,000 / (1.12)2 = $19,706.63 NPV(B) The NPV of project B is $19,706.63. = -$100,000 + $75,000 / (1.12) + $60,000 / (1.12)2 = $14,795.92 NPV(C) The NPV of project C is $14,795.92. c. Accept projects A, B, and C. Since the projects are independent, accept all three projects because their respective profitability indices are greater than one. d. Accept project B. Since the projects are mutually exclusive, choose the project with the highest PI, while taking into account the scale of the project. Because projects A and C have the same initial investment, the problem of scale does not arise when comparing the profitability indices. Based on the profitability index rule, project C can be eliminated because its PI is less than the PI of project A. Because of the problem of scale, one cannot compare the PIs of projects A and B. However, one can calculate the PI of the incremental cash flows of the two projects. Project B–A C0 -$100,000 C1 $60,000 C2 $60,000 PI 1.014 When calculating incremental cash flows, remember to subtract the cash flows of the project with the smaller initial cash outflow from those of the project with the larger initial cash outflow. This procedure insures that the incremental initial cash outflow will be negative. The PI calculation is: PI(B – A) = [$60,000 / (1.12) + $60,000 / (1.12)2] / ($100,000) = 1.014 Amaro should accept project B since the PI of the incremental cash flows is greater than one. e. Project B has the highest NPV. Project A has the next highest NPV. Therefore, accept projects B and A. B-100 6.16 The PV of the cash inflows subsequent to the initial investment can be calculated using the sevenyear annuity formula, discounted at 15 percent. Divide the PV of those cash flows by the initial investment to find the profitability index, PI. Bill should accept the project if the PI is greater than one. PI = [C1 ATr] / (Initial Investment) = [$40,000 A70.15] / ($160,000) = 1.04 Bill should accept the project since it has a profitability index greater than one. 6.17 a. The payback period is the time it takes to recoup the initial investment of a project. Accept any project with a payback period equal to or shorter than the company’s standard payback period. Reject all other projects. b. The average accounting return (AAR) is defined as the average project earnings divided by the average book value of the investment. Accept projects for which the AAR is equal to or greater than the firm’s standard average accounting return. Reject all other projects. c. The internal rate of return (IRR) is the discount rate that makes the net present value (NPV) of a project equal to zero. The acceptance and rejection criteria are: If C0 < 0 and all future cash flows are positive, accept the project if the internal rate of return is greater than or equal to the discount rate. If C0 < 0 and all future cash flows are positive, reject the project if the internal rate of return is less than the discount rate. If C0 > 0 and all future cash flows are negative, accept the project if the internal rate of return is less than or equal to the discount rate. If C0 > 0 and all future cash flows are negative, reject the project if the internal rate of return is greater than the discount rate. If the project has cash flows with more than one change in sign, there is likely to be more than one positive IRR. In that situation, there is no valid IRR accept/reject rule. d. e. 6.18 The profitability index (PI) is the present value of the cash flows subsequent to the initial investment divided by the initial investment. Accept any project for which the profitability index is greater than or equal to one. Reject any project that has a PI less than one. The net present value (NPV) is the sum of the present values of all project cash flows. Accept those projects with NPVs that are greater than or equal to zero. Reject projects with negative NPVs. a. Payback period for the New Sunday Early Edition: Use the payback period rule to calculate the number of years that it takes for the cumulative undiscounted cash inflows to equal the initial investment. Initial Investment Year 1 = $600 Year 2 = $600 + $550 Year 3 = $600 + $550 + $450 = -$1,200 = $600 = $1,150 = $1,600 B-101 The undiscounted cash flows exceed the initial investment of $1,200 by the end of year 3. Many companies analyze the payback period in whole years. The payback period for the project is 3 years. The New Sunday Early Edition has a payback period of three years. Companies can calculate a more precise value using fractional years. Calculate the fraction of year 3’s cash flow that is needed for the company to have cumulative undiscounted cash flows of $1,200. Find the difference between the initial investment and the cumulative undiscounted cash flows as of year 2, divided by the undiscounted cash flow of year 3. Payback Period = 2 + ($1,200 - $1,150) / $450 = 2.11 Payback period for the New Saturday Late Edition: Use the payback period rule to calculate the number of years that it takes for the cumulative undiscounted cash inflows to equal the initial investment. Initial Investment Year 1 = $1,000 Year 2 = $1,000 + $900 Year 3 = $1,000 + $900 + $800 = -$2,100 = $1,000 = $1,900 = $2,700 In year 3, the undiscounted cash flows exceed the initial investment of $2,100 by the end of year 3. Many companies analyze the payback period in whole years. The payback period for the project is 3 years. The payback period for the New Saturday Late Edition is three years. Companies can calculate a more precise value using fractional years. Calculate the fraction of year 3’s cash flows that is needed for the company to have cumulative undiscounted cash flows of $2,100. Find the difference between the initial investment and the cumulative undiscounted cash flows as of year 2, divided by the undiscounted cash flow of year 3. Payback Period = 2 + ($2,100 - $1,900) / $800 = 2.25 Using the whole number payback period, the projects are equally attractive. Using the fractional payback period calculation, the New Sunday Early Edition is more attractive because it has a shorter payback period than does the New Saturday Early Edition. b. New Sunday Early Edition IRR The internal rate of return is the discount rate at which the NPV of the project’s cash flows equals zero. Set the project’s cash flows, discounted at the internal rate of return (IRR), equal to zero. Solve for the IRR. IRR 0 IRR = C0 + C1 / (1+IRR) + C2 / (1+IRR)2 + C3 / (1+IRR)3 = -$1,200 + $600 / (1+IRR) + $550 / (1+IRR)2 + $450 / (1+IRR)3 = 0.1676 New Saturday Late Edition IRR B-102 The internal rate of return is the discount rate at which the NPV of the project’s cash flows equals zero. Set the project’s cash flows, discounted at the internal rate of return (IRR), equal to zero. Solve for the IRR. IRR 0 IRR = C0 + C1 / (1+IRR) + C2 / (1+IRR)2 + C3 / (1+IRR)3 = -$2,100 + $1,000 / (1+IRR) + $900 / (1+IRR)2 + $800 / (1+IRR)3 = 0.1429 The New Sunday Early Edition has a greater IRR than the New Saturday Late Edition. c. Find the IRR of the incremental cash flows. The incremental IRR is the IRR on the incremental investment from choosing the larger project instead of the smaller project. Incremental cash flows are defined as the New Saturday Late Edition’s Cash Flows minus the New Sunday Early Edition’s cash flows. Remember to subtract the cash flows of the project with the smaller initial investment from those of the project with the larger initial investment, so that the incremental initial investment is negative. Year 0 -$2,100 -1,200 -$900 Saturday Edition Sunday Edition Saturday – Sunday IRR 0 IRR Year 1 $1,000 600 $400 Year 2 $900 550 $350 Year 3 $800 450 $350 = C0 + C1 / (1+IRR) + C2 / (1+IRR)2 + C3 / (1+IRR)3 = -$900 + $400 / (1+IRR) + $350 / (1+IRR)2 + $350 / (1+IRR)3 = 0.1102 For investing-type projects, accept the larger project when the incremental rate of return is greater than the discount rate. Since the discount rate of 12% is greater than the incremental IRR of 11.02%, choose the new Sunday Edition. d. Average Accounting Return for the New Sunday Early Edition: First, determine the average book value of the project. The book value is the gross investment minus accumulated depreciation. Annual Depreciation = $1,200 / 3 = $400 Gross Investment Accumulated Depreciation Book Value Average Investment Year 0 $1,200 $0 $1,200 Year 1 $1,200 $400 $800 = ($1,200 + $800 + $400 + $0) / (4) = $600 Calculate the average annual income of the project. Average Income = ($400 + $350 + $300) / 3 = $350 B-103 Year 2 $1,200 $800 $400 Year 3 $1,200 $1,200 $0 Divide the average project earnings by the average book value of the machine to calculate the average accounting return. Average Accounting Return = (Average Income) / (Average Investment) = $350 / $600 = 0.583 The average accounting return for the New Sunday Early Edition is 58.3%. Average Accounting Return for the New Saturday Late Edition: First, determine the average book value of the project. The book value is the gross investment minus accumulated depreciation. Annual Depreciation = $2,100 / 3 = $700 Gross Investment Accumulated Depreciation Book Value Average Investment Year 0 $2,100 $0 $2,100 Year 1 $2,100 $700 $1,400 Year 2 $2,100 $1,400 $700 Year 3 $2,100 $2,100 $0 = ($2,100 + $1,400 + $700 + $0) / (4) = $1,050 Calculate the average annual income of the project. Average Income = ($800 + $700 + $600) / 3 = $700 Divide the average project earnings by the average book value of the machine to calculate the average accounting return. Average Accounting Return = (Average Income) / (Average Investment) = $700 / $1,050 = 0.667 The average accounting return for the New Saturday Late Edition is 66.7%. 6.19 a. Discounted Payback Period for Deepwater Fishing: Find the number of years that it takes for the discounted cash inflows to equal the initial investment of $600,000. The approximate discounted payback period is the year in which the PV of the initial investment is surpassed. Cumulative Discounted Cash Flows Year 1 = $270,000 / (1.15) = $234,782.61 Cumulative Discounted Cash Flows Year 2 = $270,000 / (1.15) + $350,000 / (1.15)2 = $499,432.89 Cumulative Discounted Cash Flows Year 3 = $270,000 / (1.15) + $350,000 / (1.15)2 + $300,000 / (1.15)3 = $696,687.76 B-104 The cumulative discounted cash flows exceed the initial investment of $600,000 by the end of year 3. Many companies analyze the payback period in whole years. The payback period for the project is three years. The discounted payback period for deepwater fishing is three years. Discounted Payback Period for New Submarine Ride: Find the number of years that it will take the discounted cash inflows to equal the initial investment of $1,800,000. The approximate discounted payback period is the year in which the PV of the initial investment is surpassed. Cumulative Discounted Cash Flows Year 1 = $1,000,000 / (1.15) = $869,565.22 Cumulative Discounted Cash Flows Year 2 = $1,000,000 / (1.15) + $700,000 / (1.15)2 = $1,398,865.78 Cumulative Discounted Cash Flows Year 3 = $1,000,000 / (1.15) + $700,000 / (1.15)2 + $900,000 / (1.15)3 = $1,990,630.39 The cumulative discounted cash flows exceed the initial investment of $1,800,000 by the end of year 3. Many companies analyze the payback period in whole years. The payback period for the project is three years. The discounted payback period for the submarine ride is three years. According to the payback period rule, the projects are equally desirable. b. Deepwater Fishing IRR: Set the project’s cash flows, discounted at the internal rate of return (IRR), equal to zero. Solve for the IRR. IRR 0 IRR = C0 + C1 / (1+IRR) + C2 / (1+IRR)2 + C3 / (1+IRR)3 = -$600,000+ $270,000 / (1+IRR) + $350,000 / (1+IRR)2 + $300,000 / (1+IRR)3 = 0.243 The IRR of the deepwater fishing project is 24.3%. Submarine Ride IRR: Set the project’s cash flows, discounted at the internal rate of return (IRR), equal to zero. Solve for the IRR. IRR 0 IRR = C0 + C1 / (1+IRR) + C2 / (1+IRR)2 + C3 / (1+IRR)3 = -$1,800,000 + $1,000,000 / (1+IRR) + $700,000 / (1+IRR)2 + $900,000 / (1+IRR)3 = 0.2146 The IRR of the submarine ride is 21.46%. Based on the IRR rule, the deepwater fishing project should be chosen because it has the higher IRR. c. Calculate the IRR of the incremental cash flows, defined as the New Saturday Late Edition’s Cash Flows minus the New Sunday Early Edition’s cash flows. Then calculate the IRR of the incremental cash flows. Remember to subtract the cash flows of the B-105 project with the smaller initial investment from those of the project with the larger initial investment, so that the incremental initial investment is negative. Submarine Ride Deepwater Fishing Submarine - Fishing IRR 0 IRR Year 0 -1,800,000 -600,000 -$1,200,000 Year 1 1,000,000 270,000 $730,000 Year 2 700,000 350,000 $350,000 Year 3 900,000 300,000 $600,000 = C0 + C1 / (1+IRR) + C2 / (1+IRR)2 + C3 / (1+IRR)3 = -$1,200,000 + $730,000 / (1+IRR) + $350,000 / (1+IRR)2 + $600,000 / (1+IRR)3 = 0.1992 For investing-type projects, accept the larger project when the incremental IRR is greater than the discount rate. Since the incremental IRR, 19.92%, is greater than the required rate of return, 15%, choose the submarine ride project. Note that the choice in part (c) differs from the choice in part (b). The choice in part (b) is flawed because there is a scale problem. That is, the submarine ride has a greater initial investment than does the deepwater fishing project. This problem is corrected only by calculating the IRR of the incremental cash flows. d. NPV(Deepwater Fishing) = -$600,000 + $270,000 / (1.15) + $350,000 / (1.15)2 + $300,000 / (1.15)3 = $96,687.76 The NPV of the deepwater fishing project is $96,687.76. NPV(Submarine Ride) = -$1,800,000 + $1,000,000 / (1.15) + $700,000 / (1.15)2 + $900,000 / (1.15)3 = $190,630.39 The NPV of the submarine ride project is $190,630.39. Since the NPV of the submarine ride project is greater than the NPV of the deepwater fishing project, choose the submarine ride project. The NPV rule is always consistent with the incremental IRR rule. 6.20 a. The project involves three cash flows: the initial investment, the annual cash inflows, and the abandonment costs. The mine will generate cash inflows over its 11-year economic life. To express the PV of the annual cash inflows, apply the growing annuity formula, discounted at the IRR and growing at eight percent. PV(Cash Inflows) = C1 GATIRR, g * = $100,000 GA11IRR, 0.08 * The notation GATr, g represents a growing annuity consisting of T payments growing at a rate of g per payment, discounted at r. At the end of 11 years, the Utah Mining Corporate will abandon the mine, incurring a $50,000 charge. Discount that charge back 11 years at the IRR to express its PV. PV(Abandonment) = C11 / (1+IRR)11 = -$50,000 / (1+IRR)11 Solve the expression that equates the cash flows, discounted at the IRR, with zero. Solve for the IRR. Use a graphing calculator. B-106 IRR 0 0 IRR = -Initial Investment + PV(Cash Inflows) – PV(Abandonment) = C0 + C1 GATIRR, g - C11 / (1+IRR)T = -$600,000 + $100,000 GA11IRR, 0.08 - $50,000 / (1+IRR)11 = 0.185565 The IRR of the mining project is approximately 18.56%. b. Yes. Since the mine’s IRR exceeds the required return of 10%, the mine should be opened. The correct decision rule for an investment-type project is to accept the project if the discount rate is above the IRR. Anytime there is a second change in sign, there is a possibility for multiple IRRs. By using a graphing calculator, one can determine that in this problem, there is only one IRR. Therefore, a decision can be made. B-107 6-21 a) Worst Case Period Cash Flow PV 12% (CF) 0 $ (250,000) = CF (250,000) 1 0 = CF/1.12 0 2 0 = CF/(1.12)2 0 3 0 = CF/(1.12)3 0 4 0 = CF/(1.12)4 0 5 250,000 = CF/(1.12)5 141,857 NPV ($180,143) The worst case NPV is –$108,143 and will occur when the project has no cash flows until year five, when it returns $250,000. b) The best case NPV can be an infinite amount. This is because payback period only tells you when you recover your investment. However, the cash flows are not limited to five years and could go on forever. 6.22 a) Payback period for Project A is at year 3.25 and for Project B is at year 1.5. Therefore, Totally Electric should select Project B because of the shorter payback period. b) B-108 Avg Net Income Avg Investment AAR Project A $37,500 $75,000 .50000 Project B $13,250 $40,000 .33125 Totally Electric should select Project A because it has the highest average accounting return. c) Project A Period Cash Flow PV 10% (CF) Project B Cash Flow 0 $(150,000) = CF (150,000) $ (80,000) 1 15,000 = CF/1.1 13,636 60,000 2 35,000 = CF/(1.1)2 28,926 40,000 3 50,000 = CF/(1.1)3 37,566 20,000 4 200,000 = CF/(1.1)4 136,603 13,000 = CF = CF/1.1 = CF/(1.1)2 = CF/(1.1)3 = CF/(1.1)4 (80,000) 54,545 33,058 15,026 8,879 NPV of Project A is $66,730 and of Project B is $31,509, so Totally Electric should select Project A because it has a higher NPV. NPV $66,730 PV 10% (CF) $31,509 d) Project A PV IRR = CF = CF/IRR = CF/(IRR)2 = CF/(IRR)3 = CF/(IRR)4 (CF) (150,000) 12,206 23,174 26,939 87,681 $0 Project B PV IRR = CF = CF/IRR = CF/(IRR)2 = CF/(IRR)3 = CF/(IRR)4 (CF) (80,000) 44,983 22,483 8,428 4,107 $0 IRR of Project A is 22.9% and of Project B is 33.4%, so Totally Electric should select Project B because it has a higher IRR. IRR 22.9% IRR 33.4% 6.23 Period Cash Flow Plasma 1 1,000 2 600 3 300 PV 10% (CF) HDTV 0 $(1,000) = CF (1,000) $(2,200) = CF (2,200) = CF/1.1 909 700 = CF/1.1 636 = CF/(1.1)2 496 1,100 = CF/(1.1)2 909 = CF/(1.1)3 225 2,200 = CF/(1.1)3 1,653 Cash Flow PV 10% (CF) Sum of Cash Flow Profitability Index NPV $1,630 1.63 $630 $3,198 1.45 $998 B-109 a) HDTV has a PI of 1.63 and Plasma has a PI of 1.45, therefore, Pinnacle should invest in HDTV technology. b) HDTV has a NPV of $630 and Plasma has a NPV of $998, therefore, Pinnacle should invest in Plasma technology. c) Incremental Period 0 1 2 3 Cash Flow PI NPV Plasma-HDTV Cash Flow $(1,200) $(300) $500 $1,900 PV 10% (CF) = CF = CF/1.1 = CF/(1.1)2 = CF/(1.1)3 (1,200) (273) 413 1,427 $1,568 1.31 $368 The profitability index, like the IRR, is a ratio and therefore limited by the problem of scale. Because these investments are mutually exclusive, the Plasma investment should be selected because it has a higher NPV and the incremental PI is greater than 1. 6.24 a) Payback period for Board game is in year 1 and for CD-Rom is at year 1.5, so Mario Brothers should select Board game. b) 0 1 2 3 $(300) 400 100 100 = CF = CF/1.1 = CF/(1.1)2 = CF/(1.1)3 (300) 364 83 75 CD-Rom Cash Flow $(1,500) 1,100 800 400 PV 10% (CF) = CF = CF/1.1 = CF/(1.1)2 = CF/(1.1)3 (1,500) 1,000 661 301 From the analysis, NPV of Board game is $221 and of CD-Rom is $462, so Mario Brothers should select CD-Rom. Board game Period Cash Flow PV 10% (CF) NPV $221 $462 c) Board game = CF = CF/IRR = CF/(IRR)2 = CF/(IRR)3 (300) 242 36 22 $0 2 3 CD-Rom PV IRR (CF) = CF = CF/IRR = CF/(IRR) = CF/(IRR) (1,500) 846 473 182 $0 From the analysis, IRR of Board game is 65.6% and of CD-Rom is 30.1%, so Mario Brothers should select Board game. PV IRR (CF) IRR 65.6% IRR 30.1% d) CD-Rom Cash flow $(1,200) $700 $700 $300 PV IRR (CF) (1,200) 571 466 163 Because the incremental IRR is 22.6% (>20% required IRR), the CD-Rom project should be selected. 22.6% $0 IRR Sum of Cash Flow Profitability Index NPV $39 3.89 $29 $90 4.48 $70 $126 4.21 $96 6.25 CDMA B-110 Period Cash Flow PV 10% (CF) G4 Cash Flow PV 10% (CF) Wi-Fi Cash Flow PV 10% (CF) a) 0 $(10) = CF (10) $(20) = CF (20) $(30) = CF (30) 1 25 = CF/1.1 23 20 = CF/1.1 18 20 = CF/1.1 18 2 15 = CF/(1.1)2 12 50 = CF/(1.1)2 41 40 = CF/(1.1)2 33 3 5 = CF/(1.1)3 4 40 = CF/(1.1)3 30 100 = CF/(1.1)3 75 G4 has a PI of 4.48, Wi-Fi has a PI of 4.21 and CDMA has a PI of 3.89. b) Wi-Fi has a NPV of $96, G4 has a NPV of $70 and CDMA has a NPV of $29. c) Combined 0 1 2 3 Cash Flow PI NPV $(30) $45 $65 $45 = CF = CF/1.1 = CF/(1.1)2 = CF/(1.1)3 (30) 41 54 34 $128 4.28 $98 Although the Wi-Fi investment has the single largest NPV, this is not the best investment for Hanmi group. Because these investments are independent, and not mutually exclusive, Hanmi can invest in both CDMA ($10 mil) and G4 ($20 mil) which has a combined NPV of $98 (>$96 for Wi-Fi) and still be within the $30 million investment budget. CDMA + G4 6.26 a) Period Cash Flow PV 10% (CF) Payback period for AZM is at year 1 and for AZF is at year 2, so project AZM should be taken. b) 0 1 2 ($200,000) 200,000 150,000 = CF = CF/1.1 = CF/(1.1)2 ($200,000) 181,818 123,967 AZF Cash Flow ($500,000) 200,000 300,000 PV 10% (CF) = CF = CF/1.1 = CF/(1.1)2 ($500,000) 181,818 247,934 From the analysis, NPV of AZM is $218,482 and of AZF is $155,147, so project AZM should be taken. AZM B-111 c) AZM Period Cash Flow PV 10% (CF) = CF = CF/IRR = CF/(RR)2 = CF/(IRR)3 ($200,000) 117,616 51,876 30,507 AZF PV IRR (CF) = CF = CF/IRR = CF/(IRR)2 = CF/(IRR)3 ($500,000) 159,105 189,858 151,037 From the analysis, IRR of AZM is 70% and of AZF is 26%, so project AZM should be taken. 3 150,000 = CF/(1.1)3 112,697 300,000 = CF/(1.1)3 225,394 SUM $218,482 $155,147 PV IRR (CF) $0 IRR 70% $0 IRR 26% d) Since both NPV and IRR favors project AZM, and AZM is a smaller investment to start out with, it is not necessary to conduct Incremental IRR analysis. 6.27. a) Payback period for Dry Prepreg is at year 2 and for Solvent Prepreg is at year 1, so project Solvent Prepreg should be taken. b) 0 1 2 3 ($1,000,000) 600,000 400,000 1,000,000 = CF = CF/1.10 = CF/(1.10)2 = CF/(1.10)3 ($1,000,0000) 545,455 330,579 751,315 Solvent Cash Flow ($500,000) 500,000 300,000 100,000 2 Prepreg PV 10% (CF) = CF = CF/1.10 = CF/(1.10) = CF/(1.10)3 ($500,000) 454,545 247,934 75,131 From the analysis, NPV of Dry Prepreg is $627,348 and of Solvent Prepreg is $277,611, so project Dry Prepreg should be taken. Dry Prepreg Period Cash Flow PV 10% (CF) B-112 c) Dry PV IRR (CF) = CF = CF/IRR = CF/(IRR)2 = CF/(IRR)3 Prepreg ($1,000,000) 429,218 204,698 366,084 $0 2 3 Solvent PV IRR (CF) = CF = CF/IRR = CF/(IRR) = CF/(IRR) Prepreg ($500,000) 335,122 134,768 30,109 ($0) From the analysis, IRR of Dry Prepreg is 40% and of Solvent Prepreg is 49%, so project Solvent Prepreg should be taken. SUM $627,348 $277,611 IRR 40% IRR 49% d) Since Solvent Prepreg has a higher IRR, but is relatively smaller in terms of investment and NPV, Incremental IRR analysis is required. Dry-Solvent Cash Flow ($500,000) 100,000 100,000 900,000 PV IRR (CF) ($500,000) 74,377 55,319 370,304 Because the incremental IRR is 34% (>30% min IRR req.), the Dry Prepreg project should be considered. $0 IRR 34% 6.28 NP-30 NX-20 Incremental NP30NX20 B-113 Period Cash Flow PV 15% (CF) PV IRR (CF) PI Cash Flow PV 15% (CF) PV IRR (CF) PI Cash Flow PV IRR (CF) 0 ($100,000) ($100,000) –$100,000 1 40,000 34,783 31,092 2 40,000 30,246 24,168 3 40,000 26,301 18,786 4 40,000 22,870 14,603 5 40,000 19,887 11,351 SUM IRR/PI $34,086 $0 ($30,000) ($30,000) –$30,000 20,000 17,391 11,559 23,000 17,391 7,683 26,450 17,391 5,107 30,418 17,391 3,394 34,980 17,391 2,256 $56,957 $0 ($70,000) ($70,000) 20,000 20,594 17,000 18,026 13,550 14,795 9,583 10,774 5,020 5,812 ($0) –3% Period Cash Flow PV 15% (CF) PV IRR (CF) PI Cash Flow PV 15% (CF) PV IRR (CF) PI Cash Flow PV IRR (CF) 0 ($100,000) ($100,000) –$100,000 1 50,000 43,478 38,085 2 50,000 37,807 29,010 3 40,000 26,301 17,678 4 30,000 17,153 10,099 5 20,000 9,944 5,128 SUM IRR/PI $34,682 $0 ($200,000) ($200,000) –$200,000 60,000 52,174 46,316 60,000 45,369 35,754 60,000 39,451 27,600 100,000 57,175 35,509 200,000 99,435 54,821 $93,604 $0 ($100,000) ($100,000) 10,000 7,776 10,000 6,047 20,000 9,404 70,000 25,595 180,000 51,178 $0 29% 1.34 73% 2.90 6.29 A B Incremental B-A Implications NPV IRR Incremental IRR PI Project B should be taken. Project A should be taken. Project B should be taken (29% > the minimum acceptable IRR of 25%) Project B should be taken. 31% 1.35 30% 1.47 29% 6.30 Period 0 1 2 SUM IRR/PI B Cash Flow ($200,000) 200,000 111,000 PV 20% (CF) ($200,000) 166,667 77,083 $43,750 PV IRR (CF) –$200,000 143,142 56,858 ($0) 40% PI 1.37 C Cash Flow ($100,000) 100,000 100,000 PV 20% (CF) ($100,000) 83,333 69,444 $52,778 PV IRR (CF) –$100,000 61,803 38,197 $0 62% PI 1.74 Incremental Cash Flow ($100,000) 100,000 11,000 B-C PV IRR (CF) ($100,000) 90,909 9,091 $0 10% Clearly, project A will not have a positive NPV and therefore is not a viable project. From the analysis, projects B and C will have the same payback period. However, project C will have a higher NPV and IRR, therefore it should be recommended. Use 20% discount rate for projects B and C since their risk are greater than the typical core projects of 10%. B-114 6.31 Using Incremental Cash Flows: Year 0 1 2 3 Cash Flows for Project Billion – Project Million –Io + 1,500 300 300 500 PV @ 12% of Cash Flow subsequent to Initial investment = 862.9 For Project Billion to be more attractive, 862.9/(–I o + 1,500) > 1 (Profitability Index should be greater than 1) Solving we get 637.1 < Io < 1500 6.32 a) Project A would have a higher IRR since initial investment for Project A is less than that of Project B, if the cash flows for the two projects are identical. b) False. c) Yes since both the cash flows as well as the initial investment are twice that of Project B. B-115 ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 10/07/2009 for the course CF CF taught by Professor Cf during the Spring '09 term at American Academy of Art.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online