lecture02 - INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY LECTURE 2 THE...

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1 1 LECTURE 2 THE COSMOLOGICAL ARGUMENT 1 - MEDIEVAL VERSION INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY 2 An argument has two parts: [1] one or more premises and [2] a conclusion. Arguments can serve as parts of larger arguments so that the conclusion of one argument can serve as a premise in another. ARGUMENTS 3 Two Kinds of Good Arguments [a] Deductively Valid <If the premises are true, the conclusion must be true.> [b] Not Deductively Valid but Inductively or Abductively Strong <If the premises are true, the conclusion is probably true.> GOOD ARGUMENTS
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2 4 "Valid" is a technical term. DEF: An argument is deductively valid whenever it is the case that IF its premises were true, its conclusion would have to be true. [1] Only arguments are deductively valid or invalid. [2] An argument can be deductively valid even if it has false premises and a false conclusion. DEDUCTIVE VALIDITY – DEFINITION 5 [1] All plants have minds. [2] All light bulbs are plants. _____ Therefore, all light bulbs have minds. DEDUCTIVE VALIDITY DOES NOT REQUIRE TRUE PREMISES OR A TRUE CONCLUSION. DEDUCTIVE VALIDITY – EXAMPLES 6 DEF: An argument is deductively invalid whenever it is not deductively valid. [1] All engineers have high blood pressure. [2] All smart people are engineers. _____ Therefore, all engineers are smart people. DEDUCTIVE INVALIDITY
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3 7 600 of 1000 randomly selected UD students are in favor of legalizing marijuana. ----- Therefore, it is likely that roughly 60% of UD students are in favor of legalizing marijuana. This is DEDUCTIVELY INVALID but it is still a
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This note was uploaded on 10/07/2009 for the course PHIL 102 taught by Professor Pust during the Spring '08 term at University of Delaware.

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lecture02 - INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY LECTURE 2 THE...

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